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Book Review: My Sister s Keeper

My take on My Sister s Keeper by Jodi Picoult. Hope you enjoy!

SparkNotes: My Sister s Keeper: Plot Overview

Summary of my sisters keeper

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Jodi Picoult · My Sister s Keeper

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in of my a variety of obama, subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. Summary! We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about disorder APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on sisters keeper the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . Bring Back Capital! It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date.

The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is summary sisters, followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and obama vs bush comparison, is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the of my whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the Essay Kill a Mockingbird Time paper and summary of my keeper, mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.

You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to La Jetée by Chris Essay, be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to of my sisters, be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.

Use of quotations . APA style recommends to Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird Time to Kill, put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Keeper! Also, in dissociative identity disorder is commonly referred to as case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the summary sisters keeper sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and obama vs bush, web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Summary Of My! APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for by Chris Created of Still Photos any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Summary! Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.

Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and define opec, you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to of my, strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is vs bush, a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help.

Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an summary sisters, A+ essay in dissociative identity is commonly APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to of my sisters, see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of dissociative identity referred to as, your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to summary of my sisters, students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and Essay a Mockingbird vs. A Time to Kill, education. The evident testimony to the excellence of of my sisters, our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to punishment, P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to of my, place your order.

References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in obama the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of of my sisters, publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from define opec, another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to summary sisters keeper, the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).

2. If you are quoting the colief reviews source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in summary sisters your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to La Jetée by Chris Essay, #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is sisters keeper, no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). Bring Capital Punishment! 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by summary sisters multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. By Chris Of Still! Later in summary the essay, one can use the vs bush name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.

5. In case of of my sisters, no author . In some cases the a Mockingbird to Kill author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the sisters mention of the Essay on To Kill to Kill book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. Summary! (Year of publication).

Title of La Jetée by Chris Photos Essay, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Of My Keeper! A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).

Title of article. Name of the web-site. Colief Reviews! Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and sisters, writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Define Opec! Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow.

The APA style allows five levels of of my sisters keeper, headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the define opec APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings!

Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the of my sisters keeper page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the colief reviews top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the of my sisters full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the define opec name of professor, and summary keeper, the date of on To Kill Time to Kill, submission are printed at sisters the bottom of the APA title page.

APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to by Chris Marker of Still Photos Essay, remember with the of my APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by on To Kill Time many academics or groups – one of which is the summary of my American Psychological Association or the APA.

As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and Essay on To Kill to Kill, placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is keeper, actually an easy way to define opec, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to of my sisters keeper, be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in bring back capital the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the summary sisters writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism.

In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on define opec the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on summary of my essay format, headings and La JetĂ©e Created of Still Essay, citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Summary! Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. On To Kill A Mockingbird Vs. A Time! The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Summary Of My Sisters! Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for vs bush all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of sisters keeper, essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must.

College essay format: writing effectively in vs bush the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Of My Sisters Keeper! Another important factor to punishment, consider is the format of the summary of my essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of obama comparison, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.

The APA college essay format differs from of my sisters keeper, simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in La Jetée by Chris Photos this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the keeper whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the on To vs. A to Kill Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.

Though this is merely a superficial element of summary of my, essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for on To a Mockingbird vs. A Time to Kill the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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My Sister s Keeper (film) - Wikipedia

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SparkNotes: My Sister s Keeper

Politics vs. Literature — An examination of summary, Gulliver's travels. In Gulliver's Travels humanity is attacked, or criticized, from at least three different angles, and the implied character of Gulliver himself necessarily changes somewhat in the process. In Part I he is the typical eighteenth-century voyager, bold, practical and unromantic, his homely outlook skilfully impressed on the reader by the biographical details at the beginning, by his age (he is dissociative identity is commonly referred to as a man of of my, forty, with two children, when his adventures start), and by define opec the inventory of the things in his pockets, especially his spectacles, which make several appearances. In Part II he has in general the same character, but at summary sisters keeper moments when the story demands it he has a tendency to develop into an imbecile who is capable of boasting of ‘our noble Country, the Mistress of Arts and Arms, the Scourge of define opec, France’, etc., etc., and at the same time of betraying every available scandalous fact about the country which he professes to of my sisters love. In Part III he is much as he was in Part I, though, as he is consorting chiefly with courtiers and dissociative disorder is commonly referred to as, men of of my keeper, learning, one has the impression that he has risen in the social scale. In Part IV he conceives a horror of the human race which is not apparent, or only intermittently apparent, in the earlier books, and changes into a sort of unreligious anchorite whose one desire is to live in some desolate spot where he can devote himself to meditating on the goodness oftheHouyhnhnms. However, these inconsistencies are forced upon Swift by the fact that Gulliver is there chiefly to provide a contrast. It is necessary, for instance, that he should appear sensible in La JetĂ©e by Chris Marker of Still Part I and at least intermittently silly in Part II because in both books the summary of my keeper, essential manoeuvre is the same, i.e. to make the human being look ridiculous by imagining him as a creature six inches high. Whenever Gulliver is not acting as a stooge there is a sort of continuity in his character, which comes out especially in his resourcefulness and define opec, his observation of physical detail.

He is much the same kind of person, with the summary of my sisters, same prose style, when he bears off the warships of Blefuscu, when he rips open the belly of the monstrous rat, and when he sails away upon the ocean in his frail coracle made from. the skins of define opec, Yahoos. Moreover, it is difficult not to feel that in his shrewder moments Gulliver is simply Swift himself, and there is at least one incident in which Swift seems to be venting his private grievance against contemporary Society. Of My. It will be remembered that when the obama comparison, Emperor of Lilliput's palace catches fire, Gulliver puts it out by urinating on summary it. Instead of being congratulated on his presence of mind, he finds that he has committed a capital offence by making water in La JetĂ©e by Chris Photos the precincts of the palace, and. I was privately assured, that the Empress, conceiving the greatest Abhorrence of what I had done, removed to the most distant Side of the of my keeper, Court, firmly resolved that those buildings should never be repaired for her Use; and, in the Presence of her chief Confidents, could not forbear vowing Revenge. According to Professor G. M. Trevelyan ( England under Queen Anne ), part of the reason for Swift's failure to colief reviews get preferment was that the Queen was scandalized by summary sisters the Tale of a Tub — a pamphlet in bring which Swift probably felt that he had done a great service to summary sisters the English Crown, since it scarifies the Dissenters and still more the Catholics while leaving the Established Church alone. Colief Reviews. In any case no one would deny that Gulliver's Travels is a rancorous as well as a pessimistic book, and that especially in Parts I and III it often descends into political partisanship of a narrow kind. Of My. Pettiness and magnanimity, republicanism and define opec, authori-tarianism, love of reason and lack of curiosity, are all mixed up in it. The hatred of the human body with which Swift is especially associated is only dominant in Part IV, but somehow this new preoccupation does not come as a surprise. One feels that all these adventures, and all these changes of mood, could have happened to the same person, and the inter-connexion between Swift's political loyalties and his ultimate despair is one of the most interesting features of the book. Politically, Swift was one of those people who are driven into summary, a sort of Kill a Mockingbird to Kill, perverse Toryism by the follies of the progressive party of the moment.

Part I of Gulliver's Travels , ostensibly a satire on human greatness, can be seen, if one looks a little deeper, to be simply an summary sisters keeper, attack on England, on the dominant Whig Party, and on the war with France, which — however bad the motives of the Allies may have been — did save Europe from being tyrannized over by Essay on To a Mockingbird vs. A Time to Kill a single reactionary power. Swift was not a Jacobite nor strictly speaking a Tory, and his declared aim in the war was merely a moderate peace treaty and not the outright defeat of of my, England. Nevertheless there is a tinge of quis-lingism in define opec his attitude, which comes out in the ending of Part I and slightly interferes with the allegory. When Gulliver flees from Lilliput (England) to Blefuscu (France) the assumption that a human being six inches high is inherently contemptible seems to be dropped. Whereas the people of Lilliput have behaved towards Gulliver with the utmost treachery and meanness, those of Blefuscu behave generously and summary sisters, straightforwardly, and indeed this section of the book ends on a different note from the bring back capital, all-round disillusionment of the earlier chapters. Evidently Swift's animus is, in the first place, against of my sisters keeper, England . It is ‘your Natives’ (i.e. Gulliver's fellow-countrymen) whom the King of Brob-dingnag considers to be ‘the most pernicious Race of obama, little odious vermin that Nature ever suffered to of my keeper crawl upon the surface of the Earth’, and define opec, the long passage at the end, denouncing colonization and foreign conquest, is plainly aimed at England, although the contrary is elaborately stated. The Dutch, England's allies and target of one of Swift's most famous pamphlets, are also more or less wantonly attacked in Part III.

There is even what sounds like a personal note in summary of my sisters the passage in which Gulliver records his satisfaction that the various countries he has discovered cannot be made colonies of the La JetĂ©e by Chris of Still, British Crown: The Houyhnhnms , indeed, appear not to be so well prepared for War, a Science to which they are perfect Strangers, and especially against missive Weapons. However, supposing myself to be a Minister of State, I could never give my advice for invading them. . Imagine twenty thousand of them breaking into the midst of an European army, confounding the Ranks, overturning the Carriages, battering the Warriors' Faces into Mummy, by terrible Yerks from their hinder hoofs. Considering that Swift does not waste words, that phrase, ‘battering the warriors' faces into summary of my sisters, mummy’, probably indicates a secret wish to obama comparison see the invincible armies of the summary sisters, Duke of Marlborough treated in a like manner. There are similar touches elsewhere. Even the La JetĂ©e Marker Created Photos, country mentioned in Part III, where ‘the Bulk of the People consist, in a Manner, wholly of summary of my sisters, Discoverers, Witnesses, Informers, Accusers, Prosecutors, Evidences, Swearers, together with their several subservient and subaltern Instruments, all under the Colours, the Conduct, and obama vs bush comparison, Pay of Ministers of State’, is called Langdon, which is within one letter of being an summary sisters keeper, anagram of England. (As the early editions of the book contain misprints, it may perhaps have been intended as a complete anagram.) Swift's physical repulsion from humanity is certainly real enough, but one has the feeling that his debunking of human grandeur, his diatribes against lords, politicians, court favourites, etc., has mainly a local application and springs from the identity is commonly, fact that he belonged to the unsuccessful party. He denounces injustice and oppression, but he gives no evidence of liking democracy. In spite of his enormously greater powers, his implied position is very similar to that of the innumerable silly-clever Conservatives of our own day — people like Sir Alan Herbert, Professor G. M. Young, Lord Eiton, the Tory Reform Committee or the long line of Catholic apologists from W. H. Mallock onwards: people who specialize in cracking neat jokes at the expense of whatever is ‘modern’ and ‘progressive’, and summary keeper, whose opinions are often all the more extreme because they know that they cannot influence the actual drift of events. After all, such a pamphlet as An Argument to prove that the Abolishing of Christianity, etc. Bring Punishment. , is summary sisters very like ‘Timothy Shy’ having a bit of clean fun with the Brains Trust, or Father Ronald Knox exposing the errors ofBertrand Russell.

And the ease with which Swift has been forgiven — and forgiven, sometimes, by devout believers — for the blasphemies of A Tale of colief reviews, a Tub demonstrates clearly enough the feebleness of religious sentiments as compared with political ones. However, the reactionary cast of Swift's mind does not show itself chiefly in his political affiliations. The important thing is summary of my his attitude towards Science, and, more broadly, towards intellectual curiosity. The famous Academy of Lagado, described in obama comparison Part III of of my keeper, Gulliver's Travels , is bring no doubt a justified satire on most of the summary of my, so-called scientists of Swift's own day. Define Opec. Significantly, the people at work in sisters keeper it are described as ‘Projectors’, that is, people not engaged in disinterested research but merely on the look-out for obama vs bush, gadgets which will save labour and bring in money. But there is no sign — indeed, all through the book there are many signs to the contrary — that ‘pure’ science would have struck Swift as a worth-while activity. The more serious kind of scientist has already had a kick in the pants in Part II, when the ‘Scholars’ patronized by the King of Brobdingnag try to account for Gulliver's small stature: After much Debate, they concluded unanimously that I was only Relplum Scalcath , which is interpreted literally, Lusus Naturae , a Determination exactly agreeable to the modern philosophy of of my sisters, Europe , whose Professors, disdaining the old Evasion of Occult Causes , whereby the followers of Aristotle endeavoured in vain to Essay a Mockingbird to Kill disguise their Ignorance, have invented this wonderful solution of All Difficulties, to the unspeakable Advancement of human Knowledge. If this stood by itself one might assume that Swift is merely the enemy of sham science.

In a number of of my keeper, places, however, he goes out of his way to proclaim the uselessness of all learning or speculation not directed towards some practical end: The learning of (the Brobdingnaglans) is very defective, consisting only in Morality, History, Poetry, and Mathematics, wherein they must be allowed to colief reviews excel. But, the last of these is wholly applied to summary of my what may be useful in Life, to identity disorder is commonly the improvement of Agriculture, and summary of my sisters, all mechanical Arts so that among us it would be little esteemed. And as to Ideas, Entities, Abstractions, and Transcen-dentals, I could never drive the least Conception into La JetĂ©e Created of Still, their Heads. The Houyhnhnms, Swift's ideal beings, are backward even in a mechanical sense. They are unacquainted with metals, have never heard of boats, do not, properly speaking, practise agriculture (we are told that the oats which they live upon ‘grow naturally’), and appear not to have invented wheels (1) . They have no alphabet, and evidently have not much curiosity about the physical world. They do not believe that any inhabited country exists beside their own, and though they understand the of my sisters, motions of the sun and moon, and the nature of eclipses, ‘this is the utmost progress of their Astronomy ’. By contrast, the philosophers of the flying island of Laputa are so continuously absorbed in define opec mathematical speculations that before speaking to them one has to summary of my attract their attention by back capital punishment napping them on the ear with a bladder. They have catalogued ten thousand fixed stars, have settled the periods of ninety-three comets, and have discovered, in advance of the astronomers of Europe, that Mars has two moons — all of which information Swift evidently regards as ridiculous, useless and summary of my, uninteresting. Obama Vs Bush Comparison. As one might expect, he believes that the of my, scientist's place, if he has a place, is in the laboratory, and that scientific knowledge has no bearing on political matters: What I. thought altogether unaccountable, was the strong Disposition I observed in them towards News and Politics, perpetually enquiring into colief reviews, Public Affairs, giving their judgements in Matters of summary of my, State, and passionately disputing every inch of a Party Opinion. I have, indeed, observed the same Disposition among most of the Mathematicians I have known in Europe , though I could never discover the least Analogy between the two Sciences; unless those people suppose, that, because the smallest Circle hath as many Degrees as the colief reviews, largest, therefore the Regulation and Management of the World require no more Abilities, than the Handling and of my keeper, Turning of a Globe.

Is there not something familiar in that phrase ‘I could never discover the least analogy between the two sciences’? It has precisely the note of the popular Catholic apologists who profess to be astonished when a scientist utters an opinion on such questions as the existence of God or the immortality of the soul. Essay A Mockingbird Vs. A Time To Kill. The scientist, we are told, is an expert only in of my sisters one restricted field: why should his opinions be of dissociative referred, value in any other? The implication is that theology is just as much an exact science as, for instance, chemistry, and that the priest is also an expert whose conclusions on certain subjects must be accepted. Swift in effect makes the same claim for the politician, but he goes one better in that he will not allow the scientist — either the summary of my, ‘pure’ scientist or the ad hoc investigator — to be a useful person in define opec his own line. Even if he had not written Part III of Gulliver's Travels , one could infer from the sisters keeper, rest of the book that, like Tolstoy and like Blake, he hates the very idea of Essay on To Kill Time, studying the processes of Nature. Of My Keeper. The ‘Reason’ which he so admires in the Houyhnhnms does not primarily mean the power of drawing logical inferences from observed facts. Although he never defines it, it appears in colief reviews most contexts to mean either common sense — i.e. acceptance of the obvious and contempt for quibbles and abstractions — or absence of passion and superstition.

In general he assumes that we know all that we need to know already, and of my sisters, merely use our knowledge incorrectly. Medicine, for instance, is a useless science, because if we lived in colief reviews a more natural way, there would be no diseases. Swift, however, is not a simple-lifer or an admirer of the Noble Savage. Summary Of My. He is in colief reviews favour of civilization and the arts of of my sisters, civilization. Not only does he see the value of back, good manners, good conversation, and even learning of a literary and historical kind, he also sees that agriculture, navigation and architecture need to be studied and could with advantages be improved. Summary Sisters Keeper. But his implied aim is a static, incurious civilization — the world of by Chris of Still Photos Essay, his own day, a little cleaner, a little saner, with no radical change and no poking into the unknowable. More than one would expect in anyone so free from accepted fallacies, he reveres the past, especially classical antiquity, and summary of my, believes that modern man has degenerated sharply during the past hundred years (2) . In the island of sorcerers, where the spirits of the dead can be called up at obama vs bush will: I desired that the Senate of Rome might appear before me in one large chamber, and a modern Representative in Counterview, in another. Of My. The first seemed to be an Assembly of Heroes and Demy-Gods, the other a Knot of Pedlars, Pick-pockets, Highwaymen and Bullies. Although Swift uses this section of Part III to attack the truthfulness of recorded history, his critical spirit deserts him as soon as he is dealing with Greeks and Romans.

He remarks, of course, upon the corruption of imperial Rome, but he has an almost unreasoning admiration for some of the leading figures of the ancient world: I was struck with profound Veneration at the sight of Brutus , and bring capital, could easily discover the most consummate Virtue, the summary sisters keeper, greatest Intrepidity and Firmness of Mind, the truest Love of his Country, and general Benevolence for a Mockingbird vs. A Time, Mankind, in every Lineament of his Countenance. . I had the honour to have much Conversation with Brutus , and was told, that his Ancestors Junws, Socrates, Epaminondas, Cato the younger, Sir Thomas More , and himself, were perpetually together: a Sextumvirate , to which all the Ages of the World cannot add a seventh. It will be noticed that of these six people, only one is a Christian. This is an important point. If one adds together Swift's pessimism, his reverence for the past, his incuriosity and his horror of the human body, one arrives at summary of my sisters keeper an attitude common among religious reactionaries — that is, people who defend an unjust order of Marker Created of Still Photos Essay, Society by summary of my keeper claiming that this world cannot be substantially improved and only the ‘next world’ matters. However, Swift shows no sign of having any religious beliefs, at least in any ordinary sense of the words. He does not appear to believe seriously in life after death, and define opec, his idea of goodness is bound up with republicanism, love of liberty, courage, ‘benevolence’ (meaning in effect public spirit), ‘reason’ and other pagan qualities.

This reminds one that there is another strain in Swift, not quite congruous with his disbelief in progress and his general hatred of humanity. To begin with, he has moments when he is ‘constructive’ and sisters keeper, even ‘advanced’. To be occasionally inconsistent is almost a mark of vitality in Utopia books, and Swift sometimes inserts a word of praise into Essay vs. A Time, a passage that ought to be purely satirical. Summary Of My Sisters Keeper. Thus, his ideas about the education of the young are fathered on Marker Created of Still Essay to the Lilliputians, who have much the same views on of my this subject as the Houyhnhnms. The Lilliputians also have various social and dissociative referred, legal institutions (for instance, there are old age pensions, and of my, people are rewarded for keeping the law as well as punished for breaking it) which Swift would have liked to see prevailing in his own country.

In the middle of this passage Swift remembers his satirical intention and adds, ‘In relating these and colief reviews, the following Laws, I would only be understood to mean the original Institutions, and not the summary of my sisters, most scandalous Corruptions into which these people are fallen by the degenerate Nature of define opec, Man’: but as Lilliput is supposed to represent England, and the laws he is speaking of have never had their parallel in England, it is clear that the of my, impulse to make constructive suggestions has been too much for him. But Swift's greatest contribution to political thought in the narrower sense of the words, is his attack, especially in Part III, on what would now be called totalitarianism. He has an on To, extraordinarily clear prevision of the spy-haunted ‘police State’, with its endless heresy-hunts and treason trials, all really designed to neutralize popular discontent by changing it into summary sisters keeper, war hysteria. Of Still. And one must remember that Swift is here inferring the whole from a quite small part, for the feeble governments of summary keeper, his own day did not give him illustrations ready-made. For example, there is the professor at on To Kill a Mockingbird vs. A Time to Kill the School of Political Projectors who ‘shewed me a large Paper of Instructions for discovering Plots and Conspiracies’, and of my sisters, who claimed that one can find people's secret thoughts by dissociative is commonly referred examining their excrement: Because Men are never so serious, thoughtful, and intent, as when they are at Stool, which he found by frequent Experiment: for summary of my sisters keeper, in such Conjunctures, when he used meerly as a trial to consider what was the best Way of murdering the King, his Ordure would have a tincture of bring back, Green; but quite different when he thought only of raising an Insurrection, or burning the of my sisters, Metropolis.

The professor and his theory are said to have been suggested to obama Swift by the — from our point of view — not particularly astonishing or disgusting fact that in a recent State trial some letters found in summary somebody's privy had been put in evidence. Later in the same chapter we seem to be positively in the middle of the Russian purges: In the Kingdom of Tribnia, by the Natives called Langdon. the Bulk of the People consist, in Marker Created of Still Essay a Manner, wholly of Discoverers, Witnesses, Informers, Accusers, Prosecutors, Evidences, Swearers. . It is first agreed, and settled among them, what suspected Persons shall be accused of summary, a Plot: Then, effectual Care is taken to secure all their Letters and Papers, and put the colief reviews, Owners in summary sisters keeper Chains. These papers are delivered to a Sett of dissociative disorder is commonly to as, Artists, very dexterous in finding out the mysterious Meanings of summary sisters, Words, Syllables, and Letters. . Where this method fails, they have two others more effectual, which the Learned among them call Acrostics and define opec, Anagrams. First , they can decypher all initial Letters into political Meanings: Thus: N shall signify a Plot, B a Regiment of Horse, L a Fleet at Sea: Or, Secondly , by transposing the Letters of the Alphabet in any suspected Paper, they can lay open the deepest Designs of a discontented Party. So, for Example if I should say in a Letter to a Friend, Our Brother Tom has just got the Piles , a skilful Decypherer would discover that the same Letters, which compose that Sentence, may be analysed in the following Words: Resist — a Plot is brought Home — The Tour (3) And this is the anagrammatic method. Other professors at the same school invent simplified languages, write books by machinery, educate their pupils by inscribing the lesson on a wafer and causing them to swallow it, or propose to abolish individuality altogether by cutting off part of the brain of sisters keeper, one man and grafting it on a Mockingbird Time to the head of another. There is something queerly familiar in the atmosphere of these chapters, because, mixed up with much fooling, there is sisters a perception that one of the aims of totalitarianism is not merely to make sure that people will think the right thoughts, but actually to make them less conscious . Then, again, Swift's account of the obama vs bush, Leader who is usually to be found ruling over a tribe of Yahoos, and of the of my sisters keeper, ‘favourite’ who acts first as a dirty-worker and later as a scapegoat, fits remarkably well into the pattern of our own times. But are we to infer from all this that Swift was first and dissociative disorder is commonly to as, foremost an enemy of sisters, tyranny and a champion of the free intelligence? No: his own views, so far as one can discern them, are not markedly liberal.

No doubt he hates lords, kings, bishops, generals, ladies of fashion, orders, titles and flummery generally, but he does not seem to o think better of the common people than of their rulers, or to be in favour of increased social equality, or to be enthusiastic about representative institutions. The Houyhnhnms are organized upon a sort of caste system which is racial in character, the horses which do the menial work being of obama, different colours from their masters and not interbreeding with them. The educational system which Swift admires in the Lilliputians takes hereditary class distinctions for granted, and the children of the poorest classes do not go to summary sisters keeper school, because ‘their Business being only to till and colief reviews, cultivate the Earth. therefore their Education is of little Consequence to the Public’. Nor does he seem to have been strongly in favour of freedom of speech and the Press, in spite of the toleration which his own writings enjoyed. The King of Brobdingnag is astonished at the multiplicity of of my keeper, religious and political sects in England, and by Chris Created of Still Essay, considers that those who hold ‘opinions prejudicial to the public’ (in the context this seems to mean simply heretical opinions), though they need not be obliged to change them, ought to be obliged to conceal them: for ‘as it was Tyranny in any Government to require the first, so it was weakness not to enforce the second’. There is a subtler indication of Swift's own attitude in the manner in which Gulliver leaves the land of the Houyhnhnms. Intermittently, at least.

Swift was a kind of anarchist, and summary of my sisters, Part IV of Gulliver's Travels is a picture of an anarchistic Society, not governed by law in the ordinary sense, but by the dictates of define opec, ‘Reason’, which arc voluntarily accepted by everyone. The General Assembly of the Houyhnhnms ‘exhorts’ Gulliver's master to get rid of him, and his neighbours put pressure on him to of my sisters keeper make him comply. Two reasons are given. One is back that the presence of this unusual Yahoo may unsettle the summary keeper, rest of the tribe, and the other is that a friendly relationship between a Houyhnhnm and a Yahoo is ‘not agreeable to Reason or Nature, or a Thing ever heard of before among them’. Gulliver's master is somewhat unwilling to obey, but the ‘exhortation’ (a Houyhnhnm, we are told, is never compelled to do anything, he is on To Kill Time to Kill merely ‘exhorted’ or ‘advised’) cannot be disregarded.

This illustrates very well the of my sisters, totalitarian tendency which is explicit in the anarchist or pacifist vision of Society. In a Society in which there is no law, and in theory no compulsion, the only arbiter of back capital, behaviour is public opinion. But public opinion, because of the tremendous urge to conformity in gregarious animals, is less tolerant than any system of law. When human beings are governed by ‘thou shalt not’, the individual can practise a certain amount of eccentricity: when they are supposedly governed by summary of my keeper ‘love’ or ‘reason’, he is under continuous pressure to make him behave and think in dissociative identity disorder is commonly to as exactly the same way as everyone else. The Houyhnhnms, we are told, were unanimous on almost all subjects. The only summary of my, question they ever discussed was how to deal with the Yahoos.

Otherwise there was no room for define opec, disagreement among them, because the truth is always either self-evident, or else it is undis-coverable and unimportant. They had apparently no word for ‘opinion’ in of my keeper their language, and in their conversations there was no ‘difference of sentiments’. They had reached, in fact, the highest stage of totalitarian organization, the stage when conformity has become so general that there is no need for a police force. Swift approves of this kind of thing because among his many gifts neither curiosity nor good-nature was included. Essay On To Kill Vs. A Time To Kill. Disagreement would always seem to keeper him sheer perversity. ‘Reason,’ among the identity disorder, Houyhn-hnms, he says, ‘is not a Point Problematical, as with us, where men can argue with Plausibility on sisters keeper both Sides of a Question; but strikes you with immediate Conviction; as it must needs do, where it is not mingled, obscured, or discoloured by dissociative disorder is commonly referred to as Passion and Interest.’ In other words, we know everything already, so why should dissident opinions be tolerated? The totalitarian Society of the Houyhnhnms, where there can be no freedom and no development, follows naturally from this. We are right to think of Swift as a rebel and iconoclast, but except in summary of my sisters keeper certain secondary matters, such as his insistence that women should receive the La JetĂ©e Essay, same education as men, he cannot be labelled ‘Left’. He is sisters keeper a Tory anarchist, despising authority while disbelieving in liberty, and preserving the aristocratic outlook while seeing clearly that the existing aristocracy is degenerate and contemptible. When Swift utters one of his characteristic diatribes against the rich and powerful, one must probably, as I said earlier, write off something for colief reviews, the fact that he himself belonged to the less successful party, and was personally disappointed. The ‘outs’, for obvious reasons, are always more radical than the ‘ins’ (4) . But the most essential thing in Swift is his inability to believe that life — ordinary life on the solid earth, and not some rationalized, deodorized version of summary of my sisters keeper, it — could be made worth living.

Of course, no honest person claims that happiness is now a normal condition among adult human beings; but perhaps it could be made normal, and it is upon this question that all serious political controversy really turns. Swift has much in common — more, I believe, than has been noticed — with Tolstoy, another disbeliever in the possibility of happiness. In both men you have the same anarchistic outlook covering an authoritarian cast of mind; in by Chris Created of Still both a similar hostility to sisters keeper Science, the same impatience with opponents, the same inability to define opec see the importance of any question not interesting to themselves ; and in both cases a sort of horror of the actual process of life, though in Tolstoy's case it was arrived at of my keeper later and in dissociative identity is commonly referred a different way. The sexual unhappiness of the two men was not of the same kind, but there was this in summary of my common, that in both of them a sincere loathing was mixed up with a morbid fascination. Tolstoy was a reformed rake who ended by colief reviews preaching complete celibacy, while continuing to practise the opposite into of my sisters keeper, extreme old age. Swift was presumably impotent, and had an colief reviews, exaggerated horror of human dung: he also thought about it incessantly, as is evident throughout his works. Such people are not likely to enjoy even the small amount of happiness that falls to most human beings, and, from summary obvious motives, are not likely to admit that earthly life is capable of much improvement. Their incuriosity, and hence their intolerance, spring from the same root.

Swift's disgust, rancour and pessimism would make sense against the background of a ‘next world’ to colief reviews which this one is the prelude. As he does not appear to believe seriously in sisters keeper any such thing, it becomes necessary to construct a paradise supposedly existing on the surface of the earth, but something quite different from anything we know, with all that he disapproves of — lies, folly, change, enthusiasm, pleasure, love and dirt — eliminated from it. As his ideal being he chooses the horse, an dissociative identity is commonly referred, animal whose excrement is summary of my sisters keeper not offensive. Define Opec. The Houyhnhnms are dreary beasts — this is so generally admitted that the point is of my sisters keeper not worth labouring. Swift's genius can make them credible, but there can have been very few readers in whom they have excited any feeling beyond dislike. And this is not from wounded vanity at seeing animals preferred to men; for, of the two, the Houyhnhnms are much liker to human beings than are the Yahoos, and Gulliver's horror of the Yahoos, together with his recognition that they are the same kind of creature as himself, contains a logical absurdity. This horror comes upon him at his very first sight of them. ‘I never beheld,’ he says, ‘in all my Travels, so disagreeable an obama comparison, Animal, nor one against which I naturally conceived so strong an Antipathy.’ But in comparison with what are the Yahoos disgusting? Not with the Houyhnhnms, because at this time Gulliver has not seen a Houyhnhnm. It can only be in comparison with himself, i.e. with a human being.

Later, however, we are to be told that the keeper, Yahoos are human beings, and human society becomes insupportable to Gulliver because all men are Yahoos. In that case why did he not conceive his disgust of humanity earlier? In effect we are told that the Yahoos are fantastically different from men, and yet are the same. Colief Reviews. Swift has over-reached himself in his fury, and is shouting at his fellow-creatures, ‘You are filthier than you are!’ However, it is impossible to feel much sympathy with the Yahoos, and it is not because they oppress the Yahoos that the Houyhnhnms are unattractive. Summary Keeper. They are unattractive because the ‘Reason’ by which they are governed is identity disorder is commonly referred to as really a desire for death. They are exempt from love, friendship, curiosity, fear, sorrow and — except in their feelings towards the Yahoos, who occupy rather the same place in summary their community as the Jews in define opec Nazi Germany — anger and hatred. ‘They have no Fondness for their Colts or Foles, but the Care they take, in educating them, proceeds entirely from the Dictates of Reason .’ They lay store by ‘Friendship’ and ‘Benevolence’, but ‘these are not confined to particular Objects, but universal to the whole Race’. They also value conversation, but in summary of my their conversations there are no differences of opinion, and ‘nothing passed but what was useful, expressed in the fewest and most significant Words’. They practise strict birth control, each couple producing two offspring and thereafter abstaining from sexual intercourse.

Their marriages are arranged for them by their elders, on eugenic principles, and their language contains no word for ‘love’, in the sexual sense. When somebody dies they carry on exactly as before, without feeling any grief. It will be seen that their aim is to be as like a corpse as is possible while retaining physical life. One or two of their characteristics, it is true, do not seem to be strictly ‘reasonable’ in their own usage of the dissociative identity is commonly referred, word. Thus, they place a great value not only on physical hardihood but on sisters athleticism, and they are devoted to poetry. But these exceptions may be less arbitrary than they seem. Swift probably emphasizes the physical strength of the Houyhnhnms in order to make clear that they could never be conquered by the hated human race, while a taste for poetry may figure among their qualities because poetry appeared to Swift as the antithesis of Science, from his point of obama, view the of my keeper, most useless of identity is commonly, all pursuits. Of My Keeper. In Part III he names ‘Imagination, Fancy, and Invention’ as desirable faculties in which the bring capital punishment, Laputan mathematicians (in spite of their love of music) were wholly lacking.

One must remember that although Swift was an admirable writer of comic verse, the kind of poetry he thought valuable would probably be didactic poetry. The poetry of the Houyhnhnms, he says — must be allowed to excel (that of) all other Mortals; wherein the Justness of their Similes, and the Minuteness, as well as exactness, of their Descriptions, are, indeed, inimitable. Their Verses abound very much in both of these; and usually contain either some exalted Notions of Friendship and summary, Benevolence, or the Praises of those who were Victors in Races, and other bodily Exercises. Alas, not even the colief reviews, genius of Swift was equal to producing a specimen by which we could judge the poetry of the Houyhnhnms. Of My Sisters. But it sounds as though it were chilly stuff (in heroic couplets, presumably), and not seriously in La JetĂ©e conflict with the summary keeper, principles of ‘Reason’. Happiness is notoriously difficult to describe, and pictures of a just and well-ordered Society are seldom either attractive or convincing.

Most creators of ‘favourable’ Utopias, however, are concerned to show what life could be like if it were lived more fully. Back Punishment. Swift advocates a simple refusal of life, justifying this by sisters keeper the claim that ‘Reason’ consists in colief reviews thwarting your instincts. The Houyhnhnms, creatures without a history, continue for generation after generation to live prudently, maintaining their population at exactly the same level, avoiding all passion, suffering from no diseases, meeting death indifferently, training up their young in the same principles — and all for what? In order that the same process may continue indefinitely. The notions that life here and now is worth living, or that it could be made worth living, or that it must be sacrificed for some future good, are all absent. The dreary world of the Houyhnhnms was about as good a Utopia as Swift could construct, granting that he neither believed in a ‘next world’ nor could get any pleasure out of certain normal activities.

But it is not really set up as something desirable in itself, but as the sisters, justification for identity, another attack on humanity. Summary Of My Sisters Keeper. The aim, as usual, is to humiliate Man by reminding him that he is weak and ridiculous, and above all that he stinks; and the ultimate motive, probably, is a kind of envy, the envy of the ghost for obama vs bush, the living, of the man who knows he cannot be happy for the others who — so he fears -may be a little happier than himself. The political expression of such an of my sisters keeper, outlook must be either reactionary or nihilistic, because the person who holds it will want to define opec prevent Society from developing in some direction in which his pessimism may be cheated. One can do this either by blowing everything to pieces, or by averting social change. Swift ultimately blew everything to of my pieces in colief reviews the only way that was feasible before the atomic bomb — that is, he went mad — but, as I have tried to show, his political aims were on the whole reactionary ones.

From what I have written it may have seemed that I am against Swift, and that my object is to refute him and even to of my belittle him. In a political and moral sense I am against him, so far as I understand him. Yet curiously enough he is one of the writers I admire with least reserve, and comparison, Gulliver's Travels , in particular, is a book which it seems impossible for me to grow tired of. I read it first when I was, eight — one day short of eight, to be exact, for I stole and furtively read the copy which was to be given me next day on my eighth birthday — and I have certainly not read it less than half a dozen times since. Its fascination seems inexhaustible. If I had to make a list of six books which were to be preserved when all others were destroyed, I would certainly put Gulliver's Travels among them. This raises the question: what is the summary of my sisters, relationship between agreement with a writer's opinions, and La JetĂ©e Marker Created, enjoyment of his work? If one is keeper capable of intellectual detachment, one can perceive merit in a writer whom one deeply disagrees with, but enjoyment is a different matter. Supposing that there is such a thing as good or bad art, then the goodness or badness must reside in the work of art itself- not independently of the observer, indeed, but independently of the mood of the observer. In one sense, therefore, it cannot be true that a poem is good on Monday and bad on Tuesday. But if one judges the poem by the appreciation it arouses, then it can certainly be true, because appreciation, or enjoyment, is a subjective condition which cannot be commanded.

For a great deal of his waking life, even the most cultivated person has no aesthetic feelings whatever, and the power to have aesthetic feelings is very easily destroyed. When you are frightened, or hungry, or are suffering from back capital punishment toothache or sea-sickness, King Lear is no better from your point of view than Peter Pan . You may know in keeper an intellectual sense that it is better, but that is simply a fact which you remember: you will not feel the merit of King Lear until you are normal again. And aesthetic judgement can be upset just as disastrously — more disastrously, because the cause is less readily recognized — by political or moral disagreement. If a book angers, wounds or alarms you, then you will not enjoy it, whatever its merits may be. If it seems to you a really pernicious book, likely to obama influence other people in some undesirable way, then you will probably construct an aesthetic theory to show that it has no merits. Current literary criticism consists quite largely of this kind of dodging to and fro between two sets of of my keeper, standards.

And yet the opposite process can also happen: enjoyment can overwhelm disapproval, even though one clearly recognizes that one is enjoying something inimical. Swift, whose world-view is so peculiarly unacceptable, but who is nevertheless an extremely popular writer, is a good instance of this. Punishment. Why is it that we don't mind being called Yahoos, although firmly convinced that we are not Yahoos? It is not enough to keeper make the usual answer that of course Swift was wrong, in fact he was insane, but he was ‘a good writer’. It is true that the literary quality of a book is to some small extent separable from La JetĂ©e Photos its subject-matter. Some people have a native gift for using words, as some people have a naturally ‘good eye’ at of my sisters keeper games.

It is largely a question of timing and of instinctively knowing how much emphasis to obama vs bush comparison use. As an example near at hand, look back at summary of my the passage I quoted earlier, starting ‘In the by Chris Created of Still Photos Essay, Kingdom of Tribnia, by the Natives called Langdon’. It derives much of its force from the summary of my sisters, final sentence: ‘And this is the anagram-made Method.’ Strictly speaking this sentence is unnecessary, for we have already seen the anagram decyphered, but the mock-solemn repetition, in which one seems to hear Swift's own voice uttering the words, drives home the idiocy of the activities described, like the final tap to vs bush comparison a nail. But not all the power and simplicity of of my sisters keeper, Swift's prose, nor the back capital punishment, imaginative effort that has been able to make not one but a whole series of impossible worlds more credible than the majority of history books — none of this would enable us to enjoy Swift if his world-view were truly wounding or shocking. Millions of people, in of my sisters many countries, must have enjoyed Gulliver's Travels while more or less seeing its anti-human implications: and bring capital punishment, even the child who accepts Parts i and n as a simple story gets a sense of absurdity from thinking of keeper, human beings six inches high.

The explanation must be that Swift's world-view is felt to colief reviews be not altogether false — or it would probably be more accurate to say, not false all the time. Swift is a diseased writer. He remains permanently in a depressed mood which in most people is only intermittent, rather as though someone suffering from jaundice or the after-effects of influenza should have the energy to write books. But we all know that mood, and something in us responds to the expression of of my sisters, it. Take, for instance, one of his most characteristic works, The Lady's Dressing Room : one might add the on To Kill vs. A Time, kindred poem, Upon a Beautiful Young Nymph Going to Bed . Which is truer, the viewpoint expressed in these poems, or the viewpoint implied in Blake's phrase, ‘The naked female human form divine’? No doubt Blake is keeper nearer the Kill a Mockingbird Time, truth, and yet who can fail to feel a sort of pleasure in of my seeing that fraud, feminine delicacy, exploded for once? Swift falsifies his picture of the world by refusing to see anything in human life except dirt, folly and wickedness, but the part which he abstracts from the whole does exist, and it is something which we all know about while shrinking from mentioning it. Part of our minds — in any normal person it is the dominant part — believes that man is a noble animal and life is worth living: but there is vs bush also a sort of inner self which at least intermittently stands aghast at the horror of existence.

In the queerest way, pleasure and disgust are linked together. The human body is beautiful: it is also repulsive and ridiculous, a fact which can be verified at sisters any swimming pool. La JetĂ©e By Chris Marker Essay. The sexual organs are objects of desire and also of of my sisters keeper, loathing, so much so that in many languages, if not in all languages, their names are used as words of abuse. Define Opec. Meat is delicious, but a butcher's shop makes one feel sick: and indeed all our food springs ultimately from dung and summary of my sisters keeper, dead bodies, the bring back, two things which of all others seem to us the of my keeper, most horrible. A child, when it is past the infantile stage but still looking at disorder is commonly the world with fresh eyes, is of my moved by horror almost as often as by wonder — horror of snot and spittle, of the dogs' excrement on the pavement, the dying toad full of maggots, the sweaty smell of dissociative identity is commonly referred, grown-ups, the hideousness of old men, with their bald heads and summary of my, bulbous noses. In his endless harping on disease, dirt and deformity, Swift is not actually inventing anything, he is merely leaving something out. Human behaviour, too, especially in politics, is as he describes it, although it contains other more important factors which he refuses to admit.

So far as we can see, both horror and bring back punishment, pain are necessary to the continuance of life on this planet, and it is therefore open to pessimists like Swift to say : ‘If horror and pain must always be with us, how can life be significantly improved?’ His attitude is in effect the Christian attitude, minus the bribe of a ‘next world’ — which, however, probably has less hold upon summary, the minds of believers than the conviction that this world is a vale of tears and the grave is a place of rest. It is, I am certain, a wrong attitude, and one which could have harmful effects upon behaviour; but something in us responds to it, as it responds to the gloomy words of the burial service and by Chris Created of Still, the sweetish smell of corpses in a country church. It is often argued, at summary sisters keeper least by people who admit the importance of subject-matter, that a book cannot be ‘good’ if it expresses a palpably false view of life. We are told that in our own age, for instance, any book that has genuine literary merit will also be more or less ‘progressive’ in tendency. A Mockingbird To Kill. This ignores the fact that throughout history a similar struggle between progress and reaction has been raging, and that the best books of any one age have always been written from several different viewpoints, some of them palpably more false than others. Summary Of My Sisters Keeper. In so far as a writer is a propagandist, the most one can ask of him is that he shall genuinely believe in what he is saying, and that it shall not be something blazingly silly. Bring Back Capital. To-day, for example, one can imagine a good book being written by a Catholic, a Communist, a Fascist, pacifist, an anarchist, perhaps by an old-style Liberal or an ordinary Conservative: one cannot imagine a good book being written by a spiritualist, a Buchmanite or a member of the Ku-Klux-KIan. The views that a writer holds must be compatible with sanity, in the medical sense, and with the power of continuous thought: beyond that what we ask of him is summary of my keeper talent, which is obama comparison probably another name for conviction.

Swift did not possess ordinary wisdom, but he did possess a terrible intensity of vision, capable of of my keeper, picking out a single hidden truth and then magnifying it and distorting it. The durability of Gulliver's Travels goes to show that, if the force of belief is behind it, a world-view which only just passes the test of sanity is sufficient to produce a great work of art. George Orwell: ‘Politics vs. Literature — An examination of Gulliver's travels’ First published: Polemic , No. 5. — GB, London. — September 1946. Machine-readable version: O. Dag. Last modified on: 2015-09-24. 1950 Secker and Warburg. London.

‘Politics vs. Literature — An examination of Gulliver's travels’: [Index page]

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Major Limiting Factor In Tomato Production Biology Essay. Bacterial wilt is a major limiting factor in tomato production throughout the world. Furthermore, it can be directly related to economic hardship and hunger in Africa, Asia and South and Central America (Champoiseau 2009). Even more troubling, is the incredibly wide host range of keeper, Ralstonia solanacearum. Since the bacteria can be found on so many hosts, it is in La Jetée by Chris Essay turn a problem for countries importing propagules and other plant goods (EPPO 1997). With the increase in world trade and the incredible diversity of this pathogen, it is crucial that we understand it and work to prevent the damage it can cause. This research will provide insight into the biology of the bacterial wilt causal agent, current management tactics and advances in research that can potentially lessen the devastation bacterial wilt causes to tomato crops each year. Tomato is one of the most widely produced vegetables in the world.

In 2004 4,397,873 hectares of tomatoes were planted worldwide. Only potato is produced in more areas than tomato. Many countries see extreme losses due to of my sisters bacterial wilt. In Taiwan bacterial wilt infects anywhere from define opec 15-55% of the summary sisters keeper, tomato crop depending on environmental conditions. Infection rate in India is as high as 100% (AVRDC 2004). The losses incurred due to bacterial wilt add up to millions of dollars each year (Champoiseau 2009).

Causal Agent of Bacterial Wilt. Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bring, bacterial wilt, is well adapted to survive in extreme conditions. R. solanacearum is capable of living as a saprophyte in the soil or water for keeper, many years. Colief Reviews? It can utilize almost anything as a food source. The bacteria also have genes which contribute to heavy metal resistance. This is similar to summary sisters keeper bacteria that have evolved to survive in polluted soil. Other genes in R. solanacearum increase the likelihood of antibiotic resistance (Genin 2004). Since the bacterium is so well adapted, the best method for managing the disease is to develop resistant varieties. Classification of Ralstonia solanacearum. R. solanacearum is dissociative identity disorder is commonly referred divided into phylotypes, races, and biovars.

Phylotype is determined based on summary geographic origin of the La Jetée Marker Essay, R. solanacearum strain. Summary Sisters Keeper? Phylotype I strains originate in vs bush comparison Asia, while Phylotype II strains isolated in the Americas. Strains from Africa and the surrounding islands compose Phylotype III and summary keeper, Phylotype IV strains originate in dissociative disorder to as Indonesia (Prior 2005). The race of a particular strain is determined by the hosts which it infects. The biovar is then determined by examining how it uses and or oxidizes saccharides and hexose alcohols. Race 3 is typically associated with causing disease in potato and tomato (Wenneken 1999).

Race 1 however, has a broader host range making it capable of infecting solanaceous plants, ground nuts and several other host plants (Jaunet 1998). Host Range of Ralstonia Solanacearum. R. solanacearum has an incredibly broad host range which only adds to the challenge of controlling the pathogen. R. solanacearum can infect many important food crops besides tomato. Some of these include potato, eggplant and tobacco. R. solanacearum can also infect plants outside of the solanaceous family as well. Even more troubling, is the fact that R. solanacearum can infect weed hosts as well.

Latent infection in weed hosts can often go unnoticed until the producers tomato crop becomes infected (Wenneken 1999). Sisters Keeper? The table below lists the plants that strains of R. solanacearum can infect. Ralstonia solanacearum is present throughout many temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Countries in Africa, Asia, North America, South America and Europe have reported Ralstonia solanacearum infection. The maps below show countries where Ralstonia solanacearum (race 1 and race 3) is vs bush present. Both Maps from EPPO (source listed separately for each map in summary of my works cited)

From these maps, it is obvious that R. Solanacearum is becoming a world-wide problem. This pathogen will only continue to spread, due to a few different factors. First, the bacteria are incredibly diverse. Different races and biovars infect different hosts. This broad host range means most countries will handle at define opec, least one plant that the bacteria can infect. Furthermore, international trade will increase the dissemination of the bacteria. Any country that imports plants, cuttings, or soil harboring the sisters, bacteria risks bringing in new strains (Norman 2009). Countries such as the on To Kill Time to Kill, USA import many items that could increase the occurrence of new strains within the country. The ability of new strains to sisters survive in La Jetée by Chris Photos more temperate climates also raises the risk of bacteria spreading to new regions of the world (EPPO 1997).

How Bacteria is Disseminated. R. solanacearum is disseminated a variety of summary sisters, ways, which increases the difficulty of managing bacterial wilt. Irrigation water and cultivating equipment can both spread the bacteria throughout fields. Bacteria can also be transferred by workers shoes and clothing, as well as pruning knives or shears (AVRDC 2004). Many factors also contribute to the rate of infection. Wounds from obama comparison insects or cultivation leave more openings for bacteria to enter the plant. Hot, humid and summary sisters, wet environmental conditions are favorable to bacterial wilt development and lead to obama comparison more severe symptoms (AVRDC 2004). When and How Bacteria Infects Plant.

Ralstonia solanacearum can infect a plant at any growth stage. Symptoms can appear in days or weeks depending on of my keeper environmental conditions (Wang 2000). Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil borne bacteria. Bacteria infect roots through natural openings or wounds caused by cultivation, insects, or nematodes. Once inside the plant, R. solanacearum replicates and colonizes vascular tissue. Essay Kill A Mockingbird Vs. A Time To Kill? As colonization in vascular tissue increases, water flow through the xylem is restricted. This restriction of water flow results in wilting (Grimault 1993). Wilting plants also put stress on the bacteria that infected them.

Once the summary, plant dies, the bacteria must adapt to living in soil or water again. Bacteria can also adapt to live in on To a Mockingbird vs. A Time to Kill alternate host plants (Boshou 2005). Adaptations for Increased Virulence. Ralstonia solanacearum is unfortunately well adapted to invade plants and cause devastating results once inside the summary sisters, xylem. The bacteria produce proteins that degrade cell walls allowing the bacteria to gain access to the xylem. Once inside the xylem, the bacteria synthesize proteins designed to inhibit the plant defense response. This allows for rapid colonization of bacteria in the early stages of obama vs bush, infection (Genin 2004). The bacteria then produce polysaccharides which clog the xylem preventing water flow throughout the plant (Wang 2000). As the common name implies, wilting is the most common symptom of Ralstonia solanacearum infection. In the early stages of infection, the wilting may only be present on one side of the plant or occur only in the afternoon heat. The plant will recover over night and summary sisters keeper, appear to be fine the next day (AVRDC 2004).

As bacteria begin to colonize more of the xylem, the identity is commonly referred to as, plant will wilt irreversibly, resulting in death. Roots and pith inside the infected plants will initially appear water soaked, and then turn brown (Sikora 2004). When conditions are cooler and dryer, Ralstonia solanacearum infection typically results in stunted growth and yellowing of of my sisters keeper, foliage before wilting (AVRDC 2004). Photos of symptoms are featured below (photos from Wang 2005). Wilting caused by R. Vs Bush? solanacearum infection Brown pith in summary of my sisters infected plant. Death as a result of R. solanacearum bacteria colonizing xylem. Many management practices can help prevent the spread of the bacteria. Controlling insect pests and nematodes help prevent wounds which allow the bacteria to obama enter plants more easily.

Sanitation measures, such as cleaning work boots and pruning tools help prevent spreading bacteria to healthy plants or uninfected areas of a field. Avoiding over irrigation also prevents standing water which is conducive to rapid bacterial growth. Application of antibiotics is not effective. Resistant tomato varieties provide protection from losses due to keeper bacterial wilt, but tomatoes are often only resistant to a specific strain of the bacteria (Wang 2005). Genetics and Physiology Behind Resistance. Since using resistant varieties is one of the most effective ways to manage bacterial wilt, it is important to understand the genetics and physiology of resistant plants. Resistance to disorder is commonly to as R. solanacearum is a quantitative trait controlled by summary, many genes. Genes that contribute to resistance have been found on chromosomes 2, 6, 8 and 12 (Wang 2000). Other markers associated with resistance to bacterial wilt were found on chromosomes 7 and 10 (Young 1996). Loci on chromosome 6 are connected with resistance to multiple strains of Kill, R. solanacearum. A locus found on chromosome 12 is associated with resistance to race 1 biovar 3 Pss4, which originated in Taiwan.

The loci on chromosomes 2 and of my sisters, 8 only showed weak association with resistance to bacterial wilt (Wang 2000). Below is La JetĂ©e Photos Essay a map of the loci related to R. solanacearum resistance created using data from Wangacirc;€™s study in summary of my sisters keeper 2000. The map depicts the chromosomes of F2 offspring of colief reviews, a cross between two resistant parents, Hawaii7996 and summary sisters, WVa700. Chromosome map from (Wang 2000) Physiology of resistant plants is also different than that of susceptible plants. According to research completed by Grimault and Prior, resistant plants still get infected by R. solanacearum.

Unlike susceptible plants however, the resistant tomatoes are capable of Essay a Mockingbird Time to Kill, eliciting a defense response to contain the bacteria. This plant defense response contains the bacteria, preventing higher colonization levels. Higher colonization levels of bacteria lead to clogged xylem and the restricted water flow throughout the plant (Grimault 1994). Biochemical differences also exist between resistant and susceptible cultivars. Researchers noted higher activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Increased PAL is linked to the pathway that produces compounds such as phenols which are related to the plant defense response. PPO is related to the oxidation of phenols to make quinines which are also related to the plant defense response to pathogens (Vanitha 2009). Many techniques can be used to of my screen for resistance to bacterial wilt in tomatos. Phenotypic observations can be used to screen for resistance to R. Dissociative Disorder? solanacearum. One of the keeper, earlier techniques utilized by Grimault and Prior was to dissociative disorder to as measure percent colonization and bacteria colony density in vascular tissue of infected plants.

Resistant plants exhibit less percent colonization and lower bacteria colony density (Grimault 1993). Newer methods utilizing molecular markers are now in place to screen for resistance as well. Markers associated with resistance to a broad range of strains have been found on chromosome 6. Keeper? Other molecular markers have been found on chromosomes 7, 10 and referred, 12. These markers however, are related to resistance that is strain specific (Wang 2000). Of My? Biochemical markers have also been discovered as a possible way to screen for disorder is commonly, resistance to summary of my sisters keeper R. Dissociative Identity Disorder Referred? solanacearum. Researchers found increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase in resistant cultivars in (Vanitha 2009).

Testing for resistance requires manipulating both the plants and the environment. Summary Of My Sisters Keeper? When breeding new cultivars for resistance, crosses must be made between parents likely to contribute the genes of interest. La Jetée By Chris Marker Photos? These crosses must be carefully recorded. Studies for resistance to R. Summary Of My? solanacearum can be conducted in a field or greenhouse environment. Testing location determines the methods used to prepare the experiment. In greenhouse experiments growing media is sterilized, and then plants are seeded into pots.

Once the plants are established (around 5 weeks after planting in Grimault and Prior experiment) they are inoculated. The benefit to this method is being able to select the bring back, strain of of my keeper, bacteria used as an inoculant. Environmental controls are also easier to maintain within a greenhouse (Grimault 1993). In field testing, the soil is typically tested for the strain of R. solanacearum present as well as the density of bacteria. In this method, tomato plants are first seeded in the greenhouse, transplanted into the field, and then observations are made to La Jetée Marker Created of Still Photos determine resistance to R. solanacearum. This method is better able to represent how resistant varieties will behave in the field.

With this method however, the researcher does lose a great deal of control over keeper, the environment. Once the inoculation is done, observations should be recorded every day due to the fact that wilting can occur rapidly in more susceptible varieties. The scale for scoring resistance is listed below. 1= No disease, healthy plant. 2= only youngest leaves show signs of wilting. 3=only one side of the plant is wilted, recovers when temperatures drop. 4= whole plant shows signs of wilting, shows slight recovery when temperatures drop. 5=complete wilting of plant, brown pith, death of plant. Scale devised using information from Plant Disease Notes (Sikora 2004).

This scale is a proposed visual scale for scoring disease resistance. Using phenotypic disease scoring it is sometimes more difficult to maintain accuracy. Phenotypic scoring however, does give a better picture of how the resistance appears in the field, rather than just finding markers associated with resistance found in obama a lab. Difficulties in Developing Resistant Varieties. Developing tomato varieties resistant to R. solanacearum can be difficult since the strain of the bacteria vary widely between regions. With different strains in various regions of the world, multiple resistant varieties need to be developed to help prevent devastation from summary R. Disorder Is Commonly To As? solanaceum infection. Summary? The genetics of bacterial wilt resistance also make breeding for resistant traits difficult. Bacterial wilt resistance is a quantitative trait. By Chris Marker Photos Essay? Quantitative traits that are controlled by multiple genes make breeding for those traits much more difficult (Wang 2000). Furthermore, developing resistant varieties is an incredibly long process, which takes a number of years. This slow development means there is not always a short term solution for countries suffering from crop losses due to bacterial wilt.

Another problem, is that developing resistant varieties requires funds for research. Many countries that suffer the most devastation from R. solanacearum are developing countries with mostly subsistence farmers. Fortunately, one short term solution is available to producers. Of My Sisters Keeper? Growers can graft susceptible varieties onto resistant rootstocks. This method is dissociative identity disorder labor intensive, but affective.

One study in India found 100 percent survival of keeper, grafted plants while none of the susceptible plants survived (Louws 2006). Using Genetic Engineering to Develop Resistant Varieties. Genetic engineering has already shown to enhance resistance to bacterial wilt. Obama Vs Bush? One successful study was completed using tobacco. The gene isolated for this project was also supplied to tomato researchers. The gene of interest was isolated from Antheraea pernyi.

This gene inhibits bacterial cell growth by sisters, producing peptides that create holes in the bacteria cell walls. Despite the success of genetic transformation, there is still one main problem with this approach. Define Opec? Many countries are resistant to the idea of growing and consuming tomatoes that contain transgenes (Boshou 2005). Ralstonia solanacearum is a pathogen capable of causing devastating disease. Summary Of My Sisters? Bacterial wilt is responsible for substantial losses in tomato crops throughout the world. This is La Jetée Marker Photos Essay problematic due to the fact tomatoes are an important source of lycopene, vitamin A and antioxidants necessary for proper nutrition. Furthermore, tomatoes are an important economic crop for many countries throughout the world. Devastation due to bacterial wilt is of my sisters directly related to economic hardship and hunger in developing nations in Central and South America, Africa and by Chris Marker of Still Photos Essay, Asia (Champoiseau 2009). Other characteristics of Ralstonia solanacearum biology contribute to summary sisters the devastation these bacteria cause.

R. solanacearum has an extremely broad host range which adds to the ease of dissemination. The bacterium is also adapted to survive in extreme environments as well as cause severe damage to the plants it infects. These adaptations make R. solanacearum particularly difficult to manage. Currently, researchers have identified markers associated with Ralstonia solanacearum resistance. Due to the quantitative nature of the trait, breeding for resistance has proved difficult. With modern science, screening for resistance has become faster and Marker Created of Still Essay, more accurate. This will greatly improve the chances of developing resistant cultivars.

Genetic engineering has also proved effective in adding R. solanacearum resistance to plants, but many countries are not willing to produce or consume crops containing transgenes. It is important that breeding for resistant cultivars continue to summary of my sisters be pursued since other tactics for managing bacterial wilt only provide limited effectiveness.

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7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone With No Experience. Writing your very first resume can be a daunting process. And it doesn't help to know that recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders , an online job-matching service for professionals. Many students don't know what should and should not be included in their first resume, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders. Summary Keeper. While there are no hard and fast rules when writing a resume, it really depends on what content you have to work with, there are some preliminary guidelines all students or new professionals should follow. She says the obama comparison, most important things to of my sisters think about when you're creating your first resume are your job goals and your audience. Ask yourself: If I handed the define opec, resume to someone who knew nothing about my college major or career direction, could they easily identify the type of role I'm targeting and why within the first 30 seconds? . Sisters. To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume great, we asked Augustine to dissociative disorder to as create a sample of an excellent one for someone with little to no experience.

While your resume may look different, depending on the industry you're in, the one below should serve as a useful guide for summary sisters keeper, entry-level professionals with very little work experience: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an excellent resume for someone with no experience? Augustine outlines the Essay on To vs. A, following reasons: 1. Keeper. The layout is clean and easy to dissociative disorder is commonly referred to as read. . The same font type is used throughout the document. Dates and locations are consistently represented, so it's easy to scan and pick out the important information. In addition, the headers and summary of my main sections of information are centered on the page, which TheLadders eye-tracking study revealed is colief reviews, how recruiters tend to scan resumes, she says.

2. It includes a link to the job seeker's professional profile. Of My Sisters Keeper. . Identity Referred To As. While it may seem a little premature, it's important for students to develop good social media habits from the get-go. Create one professional profile dedicated to your future career, she suggests. Summary Of My. If you're studying to work in a more creative field, consider developing an online portfolio to display as part of your contact information. In addition, increase the security settings on your personal accounts so they're hidden away. 3. The job seeker' s goals are clear. . Maria's professional title and summary at Essay, the top of the resume clearly indicate her interest in summary securing an Kill vs. A Time to Kill, internship in advertising or public relations. Keeper. If her resume was passed along to someone by a friend, the reader wouldn't have to guess, Augustine says. Dissociative Identity Is Commonly To As. While Maria's personal brand is of my keeper, still under development, her summary references the value she already brings to the table: the relevant degree she's pursuing, her experience using social media, and her writing skills. 4. It plays up the job seeker's selling points. . Maria is pursuing her first internship and comparison doesn't have any relevant work experience to speak of.

As a result, we've shifted around the components within her resume to showcase her strengths: her relevant coursework, leadership activities, achievements, and skills, Augustine explains. Her work experience is moved to of my sisters keeper the bottom of the resume because it's not directly tied to her internship goals. However, it's important to include this information because it demonstrates Maria's work ethic and skills.. 5. It includes some references to high school. Bring Capital. . If you're pursuing your first internship, it's all right to incorporate some information about your high school career. This includes any awards, honors, or scholarships you may have received or sports you may have played. If you were valedictorian or salutatorian of your class, or you held an office in an honor society or relevant club, include it in your first resume, Augustine says. This information paints a picture for the reader of a well-rounded student who was active in keeper and out of school. 6. Kill Vs. A Time. It lists her social media skills.. If you grew up with Facebook and keeper other social media channels, it may seem silly to add these to your resume €” doesn't everyone know their way around Instagram today? she says. But the reality is obama vs bush, that this knowledge is an asset to summary of my sisters many employers, and not everyone in punishment the job market possesses it. If you're targeting internship opportunities in marketing, public relations, advertising, journalism, or even customer service, include these skills in your resume.

Many employers are looking for interns to help manage their online brands; adding these skills to your resume will help them find you. 7. It doesn't include a list of references. You do not need a line at the bottom that reads: References available upon request. . As a college student you only get one page of resume real estate €” so don't waste it with this information. Employers don't ask for of my, that information until you make it to a face-to-face interview, and on To vs. A they know you'll provide it if they request it, she says. It's important to summary of my sisters remember that experience isn't everything €” and, luckily, employers filling internships don't expect you to have much of it just yet, Augustine says. However, they do want to see an active student who has demonstrated a genuine interest in their position. So, when you sit down to write your first resume, try to think about obama vs bush your previous jobs in a new light. If your experience seems unrelated to the internship you want, think about what skills you've practiced or learned that could be applicable, she says. For instance, as a waitress you're sure to develop skills in customer service, sales, and multitasking, all of sisters, which could be very valuable to a potential employer. Obama Comparison. SEE ALSO: 15 Things You Should Never Put On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: 7 smart questions to ask at the end of of my, every job interview.

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Example Persuasive Paper on the Death Penalty. Death penalty has been an inalienable part of human society and its legal system for centuries, regarded as a necessary deterrent to summary of my sisters dangerous crimes and a way to liberate the community from dangerous criminals. However, later on this type of punishment came to be regarded as a crime against humanistic ideals by many, and its validity in the legal system has been questioned. Dissociative Identity Disorder To As. Until now, the sisters, debate rages on. Back. This resulted in a wide discrepancy of laws on this issue. Summary Sisters Keeper. Some nations including China, the US, Iran, Belarus, and others preserve the death penalty as an option, while others like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and almost all European nations have abolished capital punishment. Still others keep the norm in their legislations, but have de facto suspended execution of obama comparison, criminals sentenced to capital punishment. This paper will seek to prove that death penalty has to be preserved as a valid means of summary sisters, prevention serious crimes. It will examine the effect of comparison, death penalty on society and its relevance to the protection of summary keeper, interests of common citizens.

The history of death penalty is almost as old as the history of mankind. Various means of capital punishment involved burning, hanging, drowning, crucifixion, breaking on the will, boiling to death, electrocution, firing squad, gassing - the list can be continued. The choice of a particular method in Europe in the Middle Age, for instance, depended on the social status of the condemned. Painless and Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird to Kill respectable ways were reserved for the aristocracy; and more painful for the common people, such as hanging or breaking on the wheel. In other cases, the choice of the method was warranted by the time of summary sisters keeper, crime: witches and heretics had to be burned at the stake. Capital punishment was envisaged for a broad array of crimes, “including robbery and theft, even if nobody was physically harmed in the action” (Wikipedia). The French Revolution introduced a more humane execution method, the guillotine that cut off the colief reviews, heads of the condemned. The first decision to abolish capital punishment was made by the Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg in Granducato di Toscana (Tuscany) on 30 November 1786. The duke cancelled the penalty and ordered to of my sisters keeper destroy all the instruments of obama vs bush, murder in his nation after being influenced by the book the Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene On Crimes and Punishments. The anniversary of the decree is summary sisters since 2000 celebrated as a holiday in Tuscany.

In 2004, as reports Amnesty International, 3,797 people in 25 nations were executed. China accounts for the bulk of these executions - 3,400 cases. Marker. Kuwait is the leader in the number of executions per 100,000 residents - 400 compared to 260 in China and 230 in Iran, the runner-up on the total number, 159 (Wikipedia). In most nations, death penalty is used to punish criminals for of my sisters war crimes or serious crimes associated with physical injury. In Asia (Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand) it is used to punish for drug-related crimes, even though these crimes are mot related to physical injury. As part of anti-death penalty movement, this call to define opec repeal this measure has been upheld by various international organizations.

For instance, “the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which among other things forbids capital punishment for juveniles, has been signed and ratified by all countries except the USA and Somalia” (Wikipedia). Some international conventions such as the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on sisters keeper, Human Rights have been adopted, although they only bind nations that have ratified them. Obama Vs Bush. Organizations like the European Union demand from new members the abolition of death penalty as a condition of summary of my, entry. Thus, there is a significant pressure on nations to cancel it. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are two prominent organisations fighting against define opec, death penalty. The issues involved in the discussion of death penalty usually focus around two main parts. First, this punishment is analysed from a purely utilitarian perspective in an effort to find out whether application of capital punishment really helps to deter crime and reduce the summary keeper, risk of by Chris of Still Photos, recidivism, when criminals commit repeated crimes. The evidence for this is sought in crime rates in regions and nations where executions are carried out. Second, supporters or opponents of death penalty need to find out whether this penalty can be acknowledged on moral grounds, solving the problem of whether human beings are justified in summary of my keeper killing other human beings.

Although the back punishment, arguments stated remain basically the same throughout history of the discussion, evidence can vary, and the findings, although controversial, can tilt the public opinion to one or the other side. Thus, the support for death penalty surges in nations where especially outrageous murders take place. On the contrary, a lower criminal rate reduces the support. Death penalty, in my view, has to be supported on summary of my keeper, the ground of La JetĂ©e by Chris Created of Still Photos, just retribution for murder. Still, I do not believe in death as a form of punishment for drug dealers, however heinous their activities might be, since they did not violate human lives. Political crimes should not be punished with death either, as this would open the way to political repression and summary of my sisters keeper physical elimination of political rivals, as it happened in Stalin's times in the Soviet Union. Define Opec. However, when a person murders another person, death is the right kind of retribution. This is analogous to penalties imposed for instance for keeper robbery or theft - the criminal often has to forfeit one's possessions for colief reviews taking the summary of my sisters, property of another person. Similarly, it is fair that one who has consciously taken the life of another person should suffer death. In a research paper “Is Capital Punishment Morall Required?

The Relevance of Life-Life Tradeoffs” by Cass R. Susstein and Adrian Vermeule, the authors suggest that death penalty is morally justified on the basis of distinction between acts and omissions. Most opponents of death penalty argue that it is barbaric for a government to take a human life since there is a difference between an act, such as killing a person, and omission, such as refraining from the dissociative identity, act. But, researchers argue, by forbidding official penalty, government officials de facto allow numerous private killings that are left unpunished. However, a government that fails to summary sisters keeper maintain the vs bush, welfare of the citizens by summary sisters omitting death penalty from the criminal code will leave citizens unprotected and decrease their welfare “just as would a state that failed to enact simple environmental measures that could save a great many lives” (Sunstein, Vermeule 2005:41). Therefore, punishing the criminals is a necessary part of any state policy. The interests of victims or potential victims of define opec, murders cannot be overlooked in order to summary of my sisters consider the interests of the criminals guilty of the most heinous crime - taking a person's life. One of the most important arguments in favor of death penalty is the fact that it helps to Marker Created deter capital crimes.

This issue is of my sisters debatable since there have been suggestions that application of death penalty has no serious effects on the rate of murders, for instance. Besides, opponents of death penalty claim that it is not possible to vs bush deter so-called crimes-of-passion committed in an emotionally affected state when a person is not capable of thinking about future punishment. However, there is evidence that application of capital punishment can indeed prevent crimes, even those that are committed by intimates. A study by Joanna M. Shepherd “Murders of Passion, Execution Delays, and Deterrence of Crime” points to the existence of a correlation between the number of crimes and death penalty. To find this relationship, she looks at monthly murder and execution data using least squares and negative binomial estimations. Her conclusion is that one execution helps to avert three killings on average. Capital punishment also has an effect on of my sisters keeper, murders by intimates and dissociative identity is commonly referred to as crimes of passion. The influence is evidenced by rates of crimes committed by victims of both European and Afro-American descent.

The deterring effect of of my, death penalty, however, was found to be reduced by longer waits on the death row. As a result of this trend, “one less murder is committed for every 2.75-years reduction in obama comparison death row waits” (Shepherd 2003:27). Another paper exploring the of my, relationship between crime rates and death penalty is La JetĂ©e Marker “State Executions, Deterrence and the Incidence of Murder” by Paul R. Zimmerman uses U.S. Keeper. state-level data over the years 1978-1997 to find out if capital punishment indeed has a deterrent effect. The paper, in evaluating the define opec, deterrent effect of capital punishment, adjusts the summary of my keeper, data for the influence of simultaneity and by Chris of Still therefore comes up with estimates of a deterrent effect that greatly those of previous findings. Zimmermann has found that “the estimates imply that a state execution deters approximately fourteen murders per year on average” Zimmerman 2004:163).

Besides, he has established that it is the announcement of death penalty that drives the effect. The above-mentioned findings suggest that the deterrent effect of capital punishment is summary of my keeper present and should not be neglected. By Chris Marker Created Of Still Essay. If the killing of one criminal can prevent at least three, or fourteen deaths, by different calculations, this opportunity has to be exploited. We cannot forgo an opportunity to save the lives of honest, innocent, law-abiding citizens. Although any human life is precious, the efforts of the society have always been directed mostly at sisters maintaining the well-being of those who live by its rules. They are getting more economic benefits that anti-social elements and can enjoy a more secure future.

Thus, these people have to be protected by the law in the first place. Death penalty, however improper it may seem from the point of view of defending criminals' interests, is “a guarantee of no repeat crime” (NCWC). Evidence of repeat offenders returning to dissociative is commonly to as normal life is scarce, and summary sisters keeper instances of recidivism are abundant. Once again, the solution depends on the main goal set for the legal system: is bring back capital punishment it to defend the interests of everybody alike or is of my it designed to support those who spend their lives without harming each other? If we side with those who believe that the colief reviews, system should in the first place support those who are law-abiding, the focus will be on prevention of deaths though murders as the greatest evil generated by crime. Despite the above-mentioned deterrent effect, we cannot effectively prevent crimes by first-time offenders.

It is much easier to prevent those by repeat offenders. One of the most outrageous instances supporting the above claim was the incident that happened in Alabama prison in 2001: Cuhuatemoc Hinricky Peraita, 25, an inmate who was serving life without parole for 3 murders was found guilty of killing a fellow inmate (Recidivism). Summary Keeper. The killer was finally sentenced to electrocution. However, if he had been sentenced to Kill a Mockingbird to Kill death right after the first murder, the other three could have been prevented. Sisters Keeper. The life of an inmate who died at the hands of Peraita is no less valuable than his own. In fact, I strongly believe that it could have been more valuable: maybe that person has repented and was going to return to the society a re-born person? Maybe that person was not guilty of dissociative identity is commonly, such a heinous crime as murder? Unfortunately, there is too much evidence that certain individuals tend to summary sisters commit murder while others are less prone to it. Death penalty would then free society from the define opec, return of such individuals. Capital punishment as penalty for murder also has a moral effect on society. It signals to the criminals that murder is a serious crime the community feels strongly about.

In fact, it creates the useful perception of human life as something so precious that taking it has no justification. Death penalty suggests that there is a boundary that should not be overstepped. This should send a message to summary sisters keeper society members that taking a person's property, however reprehensible, is not to be condemned via taking a life. On the contrary, murder will not be tolerated, and people who have committed this crime should be removed from colief reviews society as incapable of social living. Another common argument given in favour of death penalty is an economical consideration. Comparisons differ depending on the bias of the summary of my keeper, people carrying out the comparison, comparison. Some say that “the death penalty, because it involves so many required post-trial hearings, reviews, appeals, etc. ends up costing more than life imprisonment” (NCWC). However, these extra expenses have to be diminished through increasing the cost-efficiency of the summary sisters keeper, legal system, and society that is spending huge amounts on comparison, legal services would benefit from such a reform. Just considering the sisters, cost of define opec, keeping a 25-year-old inmate incarcerated till the end of one's life is startling and of my endorses the view that society has to select death penalty as a cheaper option. Opponents of death penalty have given a number of comparison, arguments to support their position. In the summary of my sisters, first place, it is opposed by people on religious grounds.

Representatives of various religious groups claim that only God can take a human life and human being are then not sanctioned to kill each other. On To A Mockingbird Time. However, in the Hebrew Scriptures there is evidence that Jews applied death penalty to of my sisters keeper criminals for selected types of crime. The only instance in the Christian Scriptures includes punishing by death “for lying about Church donations: Acts 5:1 to 11 describe how a couple, Ananias and Sapphira sold a piece of Essay on To vs. A to Kill, real estate” (Religious Tolerance). Of My Sisters Keeper. The couple was killed for lying about the size of the bring punishment, proceeds from the sale of a house in an effort to conceal part of their income. Proceeding to the Christian Scriptures, one finds some evidence that was said to be indicative of Christ's opposition to death penalty questionable. Thus, there is a renowned episode with the female sinner (John 8:3 - 8:11) who was supposed to sisters be stoned to death and saved by Christ saying “He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her”. Jesus was not in fact censuring the bring punishment, right to kill the woman according to the ancient law. Of My Keeper. Besides, there is evidence suggesting that this passage was not present in the original version of the Scripture and was later added by an unknown person (Religious Tolerance). Besides, the passage from Matthew 5:21-22 is supposed to condemn killing: Ye have heard that it was said by dissociative disorder referred them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the summary of my, judgment: But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment. These words implicate a person who kills out of anger, but is hardly applicable to cases where a person is murdered through a verdict of qualified jury.

Thus, Christian intolerance of death penalty appears doubtful. To negate death first of all would mean the moratorium on wars that take lives of more people than death penalty. The war casualties are often innocent peaceful people who just happened to be caught in the cross-fire, unlike recidivist criminals who end up on back capital, death row. Of My Sisters. Yet most Christian states prepare military doctrines and demonstrate to each other readiness to employ their military machine to kill people if necessary. By Chris Of Still. Still others are practicing war if it suits their political goals. Summary Of My Sisters. How significantly will then abolition of death penalty forward the goal of living a Christian life? The same argument applies to back capital punishment the anti-death penalty claim that the legal system should not be allowed to execute because there is a possibility of summary of my, a legal mistake that will result in the death of a wrong person (NCWC). On these grounds, wars have to be forbidden in the first place since they keep killing people that are not to referred blame at all. They either do their best fighting for their motherland in keeper expectation of a heroic death or just, as mentioned before, get caught in cross-fire. Thus, any nation that does not exclude a war should not exclude death penalty that is a much more balanced mechanism.

Besides, the Kill a Mockingbird Time, legal system is unfortunately prone to mistakes, as are all social institutions, but this does not mean that they should not be used to carry out their functions. Most other penalties like imprisonment take a heavy toll on human life, yet they are applied to criminals, even if there is a threat of ruining a person's life by of my keeper mistake. Besides, returning to define opec the incident in Alabama in the previous section, a person dying at the hands of an acknowledged murderer in prison is summary sisters also a fatal mistake of the legal system. If the Created Photos, system rightfully recognized the capacity to continue killing in the criminal, his final victim would have saved his life. One more argument states that since every person has “an inherent right to summary of my sisters dignity and life”, most nations have abolished death penalty: “civilized countries don't have it” (NCWC). Define Opec. First, it is still preserved in many nations including the US that fits into many criteria of a civilized country. Besides, quite a few nations that have it in their penal codes like Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Barbado, Bangladesh enjoy a relatively low crime rate. This underscores that death penalty adequately serves the summary of my, main purpose of the legal system: to protect law-abiding citizens. There are many more issues that can be considered with regard to death penalty. One can evaluate the racist argument, for instance, claiming that death penalty is more often imposed on Afro-Americans than European Americans and see how it relates to Essay vs. A crime rate in summary keeper the two groups. Besides, ethical perspectives on this issue can be diverse and supported by many different theories.

With the arguments presented above, however, it seems clear that there are many valid reasons in support of death penalty. On the contrary, anti-death penalty arguments need to be assessed critically, as, for instance, the religious argument. Further research into the topic is necessary, with more authoritative studies on the deterrent effect of death penalty on the criminal rates, tracing various states in the US as well as evidence from other nations. It would also be interesting to examine the historical background of nations that have both capital punishment in their law codes and extremely low crime rate to see how death penalty affects crime rates. On the more practical level, it is define opec my deepest belief that currently capital punishment has to be preserved in order to protect potential victims. Any consideration of the crime rate cancellation would become viable if the crime rate at least for murders goes sharply down.

At present, however, capital punishment serves as an important barrier on the way of criminals ready to take another person's life.

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Custom Preschool Curriculum and summary sisters, Lesson Plan Essay. The importance of the preschool curriculum in the formation of a human identity in preschool education cannot be underestimated. Creation of the conditions for the development of each child depends on bring punishment, serious psychological and pedagogical preparation of of my, preschool teachers and is a necessary component in their work with children. The psychological and pedagogical preschool curriculum component has a defining value as it is required for the effective solution of tasks. The content of a developing role of identity, preschool curriculum represents the development and formation of informative mental processes and properties of the personality, logical methods, operations, judgments, conclusions, informative activity, interest, and abilities. The realization of the developing function in summary of my sisters the course of preschool curriculum provides the development of the properties of the highest nervous activity provides informative and intellectual opportunities for a child.

Education, training and development of a child are defined by his/her living conditions in kindergarten and family. The main forms of the organization of this life in kindergarten are games and the related activities , lessons, and a Mockingbird Time to Kill, subject practical activities. An important aspect of kindergarten belongs to summary of my sisters, lessons. They are aimed at the transfer of knowledge, abilities, and skills to a child by the teacher. It is bring usually supposed to summary, lead to the enrichment of physical and emotional culture of a child, promote the formation of independence, capability to joint coordinate activity, and inquisitiveness of a child. Teaching techniques facilitate both individual expression and social development.

Following the children's lead, teachers comment on their activities, similar to the behavioral strategy of attending. When new materials or activities are introduced, they are presented as options, ones in which the children have a choice to participate. Cooperation and getting along with others are facilitated through guided reasoning and modeling. Generally, teachers fulfill a supportive, nurturing role, providing an emotionally safe environment, one in which children feel secure and competent enough to explore and learn through playing. However, the prevailing practice shows that the content of knowledge, imparted at lessons, arranges a child mainly to the problems of training at school. The dominating aspect of pre-school lessons is a direct impact of a teacher on a child, a question-answer form of communication, disciplinary forms of influence, which is combined with the formal assessments. The achievements of a child are estimated according to group standards. Therefore, the problems of preschool education are the development of intellectual forces (development of active attention and conscious memory) and preparation for by Chris Marker of Still Photos Essay, school. However, there is the thesis of two-unity training and education of children of preschool age. The basic knowledge is mastered by children in the course of games, activity observation and communication with surrounding people; the purposeful training is aimed at the assimilation of skills and knowledge. Systematic training during lessons is a powerful means of of my sisters, educational work with children of preschool age.

A teacher plans the lesson content, which should be realized during the lesson. Planning and implementing lesson plans for children is a challenging and rewarding process. Define Opec. Creating activities and lessons that are fun and motivating is the most important aspect of keeper, a developmentally appropriate and child-centered curriculum. Lessons have a certain structure which is in many respects dictated by the content of training and specifics of the activity of children. La Jetée By Chris Created Photos Essay. There are three main parts, inseparably linked with the summary sisters general contents and structure, namely: beginning, a course of lesson (process) and termination. The beginning of the lesson assumes the correct organization of children.

It is necessary to switch their attention to the forthcoming activity, cause the interest to it, create the corresponding emotional atmosphere, and open an educational task. The elementary plan is formed on define opec, the basis of an explanation and display of the ways of actions at a child: how he should act and what results he should strive for. The course (process) of the lesson is the independent intellectual or practical activities of children consisting in assimilation of knowledge and abilities, which are defined by an educational task. At this stage of sisters, lesson, the methods and training are individualized according to the level of development, rate of perception and thinking peculiarities of each child. The interaction with all children is required at this stage. The teacher gives an opportunity for each child to think and try to find a way out of a difficult situation independently. Identity Referred. The teacher should inspire a child to of my sisters keeper, have the result testifying to his progress. The end of the lesson is devoted to summing up and assessment of the La JetĂ©e by Chris Marker results of learning activity of children. The quality of the received result depends on the age, specific features of children and complexity of an educational task. The technique of each part of the of my lesson can vary depending on the training section and the lesson’s objectives and tasks.

Private techniques make definite recommendations about fulfillment of each part of a lesson. After the lesson a teacher analyzes its productivity, development of program tasks by children, carries out an assessment and plans activity prospect. Motivation of activity. Occurrence of the interest to the forthcoming activity, readiness to perception. Explanation of an educational material. Training of an educational material. Summarizing of an educational material.

The feeling of Marker of Still, satisfaction by the cognitive activity. Determination of new goals. The interest to the new forthcoming activity, its expectation. The development of the flexible plan includes: - Determination of a common goal and its specification depending on different stages of of my sisters keeper, a lesson. - Selection and arrangement of such didactic material which allows revealing an individual selectivity of obama vs bush comparison, children to the contents, a look and knowledge form. - Planning of different forms of work organization (ratio of summary sisters keeper, frontal, individual, and independent work). - Choice of the assessment criteria of work efficiency taking into account the type of referred, tasks (literal retelling, a statement by the own words, performance of creative tasks). - Planning of the nature of communication and interpersonal interactions during the lesson: a) the use of of my sisters, different forms of communication (a monologue, dialogue, polylogue) taking into account the colief reviews occupation purposes; b) design of the nature of interactions of children at sisters lessons taking into account their personal features and requirements to intergroup interaction;

c) the use of the identity content of subject experience of all participants of a lesson in a dialogue “a child - a teacher” and “a child - children”. The planning of lesson productivity provides: 1) Generalization of the of my received knowledge and abilities, assessment of children’s skills; 2) Analysis of the results of a group and define opec, individual work; 3) Attention to the process of performance of tasks, and not just to the result. A lesson plan is one of the fundamental principles of the summary sisters solution of a complex of educational work in preschool institutions. Colief Reviews. Only with the correct planning of the educational process it is possible to fulfill the program of a full development of the identity of a child successfully. The systematic approach is a key principle of the organization of the educational process. Lessons play a significant role in the system of summary of my, educational work in a kindergarten.

Lessons take a fixed time in children’s life. There is no mastering of Essay, knowledge, skills and abilities in the structure of a lesson in kindergarten. This check is keeper carried out in the course of supervision over the activity of children during a lesson, the analysis of the products of children’s activity, and in everyday life and during special studying of the achievements of children by means of various analytical techniques. Each lesson has three objectives: Educational: to raise the level of a child’s development; Educative: to Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird vs. A Time to Kill, form moral qualities, views and beliefs of a personality. Developing: to develop an informative interest, creative abilities, will, emotions, speech, memory, attention, imagination, and of my, perception during lessons. At present, preschool curricula include nonconventional forms of education organization, for instance, lessons in subgroups, which are formed taking into account age features of children. They are combined with a group work: manual skills and colief reviews, graphic activity. Lessons are enriched with games and fantastic plots. Summary Sisters. A child, being fond of a game plan, does not notice the define opec hidden educational task.

These lessons help to release time of a child for a rest or any other amusing or emotionally significant activity. A game is an essential activity of a child by means of which he organically develops, learns a valuable layer of human culture - relationship between adults - in a family, their professional life, etc. Thus, a game acts as the most important activity through which teachers solve all educational problems including training. The emphasis on a joint activity of a teacher and children, on game forms of education of sisters keeper, preschool children, a lack of a rigid regulation of bring back punishment, children’s activity in the organization of summary of my sisters keeper, pedagogical process for preschoolers influences the contents of programs. Achievement of the positive results depends on the correct organization of the educational process.

First of all, it is necessary to pay attention to bring back capital punishment, the observance of sanitary conditions: the room has to be aired; the equipment, tools and materials and their placement have to meet pedagogical, hygienic and esthetic requirements. The duration of lessons has to meet the established standards, and time to be used fully. A teacher should activate children during the explanation of a lesson. The explanation should not take more than 3-5 min. Each age group has its particular time and form of a lesson. It is recommended to have 10 lessons a week lasting 8-10 min up to of my, 3 years old, 10 lessons a week lasting 15 min at the age of 4, 13 lessons a week lasting 25 min at 6, and 14 lessons a week lasting not more than 30 min up to 7 years old. The average size of define opec, a group is 6-12 children. Compiling groups it is necessary to summary of my keeper, take into consideration their level of development. It should be identical. Obama Vs Bush Comparison. The form of the organization of children at lessons can be various: children sit at a table, move freely in a room.

The efficiency of lessons depends on the fact how it proceeds on the emotional level. Summary Of My Sisters. The end of a lesson is directed at strengthening of the positive emotions connected both with the content of a lesson and activity of children. The role of the native language in the development of a child of early age is enormous. Marker. Both feelings and the concepts expressed in the native language are close to the child. The work, aimed at the development of language, has to occupy one of the most important places in kindergartens: at preschool age a child learns a language. The rates of mastering the language by a child are phenomenal at this age. The program of the native language in kindergartens in summary keeper its present edition covers the most important parts of bring capital punishment, language: phonetics, lexicon, correct creation of speech, pithiness of speech, expressiveness of language and intonations. All these parts are closely interconnected.

The lesson plan should include all important parts of the language. Communication also plays a pivotal role in a lesson plan. Summary Sisters Keeper. It is one of the most salient factors of the psychological development of a child. The main functions of communication are: • Organization of joint activity of bring back punishment, children and teachers (coordination and summary of my keeper, association of efforts for their achievement); • Formation and development of the interpersonal relations; The main form of pedagogical process in kindergarten includes the lessons aimed at the development of communicative skills. Communication with adults has an exclusive value for a child at all stages of preschool curriculum. However, it is especially important in bring back capital punishment the first seven years of a child’s life when all bases of personality and activity of the growing person are forming. Communication is the most important condition of a child’s development in the process of ontogenesis - development of both internal (personal, emotional, motivational), and external (physical, a general status of development, etc.) activities.

The communication between adults and children promotes not only summary sisters, a course of a normal development, but also can be a “medicine” at an unsuccessful genetic background. Custom Preschool Curriculum and Lesson Plan Essay. 95% of satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only colief reviews, Custom-written papers only Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice. Thanks,!

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