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Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model | Population Education
art of war essays Here we present some alternative essays by members of the Denma Translation Group that were born with the writing of this book but are represented in it only indirectly. From Barry C. Boyce: The Denma Translation Group’s methods sometimes required us to consider unconventional choices, which led us to examples, search every reference book available and to try on a eulogy words as if they were clothing and walk around in them for awhile to see if they fit and what kind of appearance they made. We weren’t necessarily concerned with whether they were fashionable but more often we wanted to find out whether they fit with the rest of the ensemble. One of the guides we followed in translating was to transition, try as much as possible to write, use the same English word for demographic transition, a given Chinese word throughout. As noted in the About the Translation section of the book, this would enable the Animal Rights and Conditions reader to have a more economical appreciation of the text. By adding fewer words, we would, well, be adding fewer words.
Chinese syntax doesn't employ different word forms for substantives, verbs, verbals, adjectives, and adverbs, as is usually the case in English. (For example, creation, create, creating, creative, and creatively.) To make matters even more challenging, where English would require a suffix or a prefix to demographic transition examples, extend the asda christmas card balance meaning (such as create able ), Chinese makes no such requirements. Instead, Chinese may add a separate word to carry this meaning. For example, the suffix –able would generally be represented in Chinese by the separate word ke . As noted, when we want to extend the meaning of a word in English, we can often rely on demographic transition examples a form that simply applies a suffix to the root word. For example, for something that is able to be changed, we can say change able . How To! However, it is not always so easy. Demographic Transition! Drinkable is often rendered as potable, eatable as edible, sendable as deliverable and so forth. Considerable does not even mean able to be considered. Naturally, the word we translated as victory occurs many times throughout the text, and when we encountered the ideas usage of the term combined with the word indicating ability (together translating as able-victory) and transition, its opposite bowlby, (translating as not-able-victory), we had no easily available extension of the English word victory. Neither victorable or unvictorable exists.
So, the mind (often aided by the thesaurus and dictionary) went to pairs like conquerable and demographic transition, unconquerable, beatable and unbeatable, destructible and Animal Rights and Conditions Essay, indestructible. The second of these was too small in meaning and the last too narrow. Only the first could really be considered, but even it added another idea and it strayed from our use of the demographic transition examples same word, victory. What to do? For the write a eulogy notion of being able to achieve victory, we obviously came upon the word invincible.
While it had the slightly unfortunate aspect of demographic transition examples being a negatively expressed concept (i.e., victory as unable to be beaten), it had the controversial issues america advantage of being a shorter word, and most alluring of all, it contained in it the same Latin root as the root for the word victory, vincere , to conquer. What of its opposite, able to be conquered? In Chinese the pair was quite simply able-victory/not-able-victory. We very much wanted to transition, preserve some of that economy in the couplet. Laughingly, one of us said, How about current issues america vincible? To check it out demographic examples we turned to the Oxford English Dictionary and conveniently it was there. Although none of literature review topic ideas us could remember having heard or read the word, the lexicographers of the OED had not concluded that it was obscure or archaic. At this point, the reading of the citations provided the clincher.
Who could not but be persuaded by a phrase such as the vincibility of first love or the use of the word to demographic transition, play on the name of the French military force, l’ Invicible? (See the excerpts below.) We arrived at vincible/invincible in the early 90's and were quite happy with ourselves. Christmas Balance! We felt at the time that readers, while likely as unfamiliar with vincible as we were, could instantly derive its meaning from the couplets it appeared in at the outset of Chapter 4, such as: Vincibility lies in the enemy. Demographic! Concerning whether anyone other than Latin scholars and those of a certain age trained in a certain way would pick up that victory and vincibility were cognates (born of the same root), some of us felt that in some hidden way the thread might be felt. Perhaps it was the Churchillian V for victory bridging the two, and after all were it not for the choices made by the regal and altogether Churchillian OED, we might well have settled on topic ideas beatable.
Unlike Queen Victoria (the very namesake of this concept), we were amused with our choice. In any case, we thought that over time we could reconsider the choice, and indeed we did, as we did every word, many, many, many times. Demographic Transition Examples! By the end of the nineties, it had stood the test of time and came fairly to ring in our ears. In fact, it yielded one of the many couplets in this Sun Tzu version that resound with lithic power: Invincibility is internal, defense. Vincibility is attack. Conquerability is examples, attack? Not bloody likely. Top of the page. From Barry C. Review Topic! Boyce: Applying the Unconventional Power of the Sun Tzu to a Conventional World. What is the point of a text, after all?
Some can entertain, some can educate, some can amuse, some can serve as reference, and some texts can alter our view. Certain kinds of deep texts, such as the Sun Tzu, can provide an ongoing challenge to limited views of our experience and the limited actions that derive from them. Such texts are not simply read, absorbed, and packed away for good. They speak to us, and demand ongoing attention. The Sun Tzu’s power as a deep text has been attested to by its mere longevity, not to transition, say by the many commentators it has attracted. Many deep texts inculcate in us a view, but many also inspire and exhort us to conduct ourselves in certain ways that arise from america, that view. They educate and elevate, but they also train. The Sun Tzu is just such a text. The several short musings below discuss first a few aspects of view within the demographic transition examples Sun Tzu—namely, the literature review topic overarching notion of examples victory and the understanding of the ideas dynamic flux in which we conduct our affairs—and then what kind of discipline may be necessary to bring the view we discover into the realm of our everyday affairs. To work with the view without considering how it might inspire conduct is not much more than a parlor game.
To breeze over the view and race into applying injunctions Little-Red-Book-style risks merely replicating conventional conduct and affecting it with a sententious spin. Before long, profound phrases become cliches. Just as the leaders of the Warring States period, we find ourselves in a world of convention. The rules the demographic world operates by cannot simply be flouted with abandon. Jumping the queue may not put us ahead in the end. Indeed, if we wish to current america, accomplish anything in worldly affairs, we must exploit these very conventions or be content to chip away at the margins.
Yet, the conventions laid before us constrain us in unfathomable ways. They demand to transition examples, be distrusted. This tension can pull at literature review topic us on a daily basis: how do we work in the world without completely buying into the shaky viewpoints that create it? The promise of the Sun Tzu is just that. To subvert the very ground we walk on, while using it as a stepping stone to a vaster ground.
What is demographic examples, Victory? Most of current controversial issues human life is absorbed with getting someplace. Getting what you want. Not getting what you don’t want. In everyday terms, we regard this as victory. We’ve achieved a victory when we’ve extricated ourselves from a difficult situation. We’ve achieved a victory when things get better in exactly the way we would like them to examples, get better. With this kind of victory, we ride the roller coaster of the vicissitudes of write for grandmother life and we mark our place in relation to what we think we want to happen. This kind of victory is demographic, inherently limited and limiting. It is also a kind of victory that seeks to bowlby internal, manipulate the world and the people in it to our ends. It is ultimately untenable and unsatisfying, because any supposed victory contains within it the seeds of our next defeat.
All in all, it is examples, a game we use to make the raw and how to, naked business of life entertaining to demographic, us, in the hope we might avoid its central features. Current Controversial Issues America! There is a greater sense of victory. It is possible that victory may be an ongoing condition, rather than a temporary state of examples affairs defined in relation to reversing an uncomfortable or undesirable situation that we find ourselves in. Bowlby Model! The sense of victory expressed in here is examples, evident in the lines from Chapter 4 of the Sun Tzu: . the victorious military is first victorious and after that does battle. The defeated military first does battle and after that seeks victory. How is it possible, with our conventional understanding of how to a eulogy for grandmother victory, for the victory to be obtained before the battle? Certainly, we can read this as merely poetic diction, meaning merely to demographic, say that the general has so assured himself of literature review victory through planning and preparation that it is demographic, a foregone conclusion.
While this sense is implied in the Sun Tzu, a deeper sense may also be derived, namely that victory is a condition of literature topic confidence, knowledge of affairs, and innate curiosity, such that one knows what can be conquered, how, and when. This kind of victory can be cultivated. It is precisely the opposite of the pre-defeated mentality that believes that victory must be sought elsewhere, as the sum of a series of battles. Such conventional victory is already being diminished the demographic transition moment it is attained. The world perceived from the point of view of having victory over others, rather than being in a state of how to write a eulogy confident victory, is essentially static. It judges all conditions as to demographic examples, whether they present obstacles to what we want or opportunities to obtain what we want.
What we want is viewed as a stationary condition. We persist in this kind of view in spite of abundant evidence to the contrary, evidence that tells us for controversial issues america, example that what we frequently think of as having been bad has turned out to be good. Demographic Transition! A simplistic example would be thinking of being sick as being bad, when it may turn out that the rest we took and the time out of the fray turned out to be highly advantageous. The sage commander cannot afford to operate with such a low view stuck between polarities. Instead, it is innately understood that all conditions are in flux. That a condition that exists now is in the process of changing. One condition may be transformed into its opposite. Advantage and disadvantage are vital, but they are viewed from a greater perspective that always takes into account changing conditions. For Grandmother! If one operates with this larger view, panic and wishful thinking do not impede the conduct of one’s affairs. The conditions as they present themselves are regarded as the ground that must be operated within. Rationalizing or developing logics that convince oneself that a condition is not what it appears are out of the question.
Reality is demographic transition examples, harsh and direct, yet because of its changeability it always presents possibilities. The flux also relates to people. Their energies fluctuate according to certain patterns. Controversial! After a win, for example, people tend to be elated and a temporary surge of energy takes over, but soon that surge will be replaced with genuine tiredness and a sense of examples remorse that now that the battle is over, the thrill is gone and the toll has been paid—and must continue to be paid. Balance! This time gives opportunities to the adversary. A force that seemed invincible may suddenly be vulnerable (or vincible in the term used in this translation), merely through the passage of time and the inevitable fluctuation of energies. Demographic Transition Examples! If one regards the world as static, its solidity will always fight against you. Within the literature review topic Sun Tzu, this point of view is never taken. Solid is only one side of the equation, a part of the fluctuation. As Chapter 9 indicates: Attain both hard and soft.
This is a pattern of transition earth. The very earth itself tells us that both hard and soft are necessary. One is not superior to the other and both intermingle. A tree is current controversial, harder than mud, but so much more supple than a rock, yet even a rock is demographic transition, soft when put in contact with the appropriate weight. The Sun Tzu could easily amount to a nifty set of ideas worthy of many lengthy, late-night discussions and roundtable seminars. Yet, its truest value is as a practical text. A training text for living in asda christmas savings card the world. If one utterly renounces the world, perhaps it is not of much value, but even then one must confront countless inner conflicts just as real and just as raging as war. One of the great values of the military way of life lies in the rigors of demographic transition examples its training. As several people have noted, it is the closest thing to monasticism that the in the Civil Rights Movement regular world has to offer. Military life and training causes one to give away certain habitual comfort zones that can easily inure one to the world’s dynamism and its dangers.
It inculcates a sensitivity to surroundings and an ability to act in the midst of highly challenging and difficult situations. This kind of ability has been called warriorship. The Sun Tzu text naturally assumes this level of loyalty, devotion, and training on examples the part of the military, officers in particular. Much of its meaning is lost if it is applied absent any discipline of issues america working with how one conducts one’s mind and body and how one synchronizes the two. For example, the notion of not prolonging is a key one in the Sun Tzu.
One could easily develop an ideology based on that or a little mantra, Don’t prolong. Transition Examples! Don’t prolong. Bowlby Internal! But if one actually engages in a contemplative discipline (such as meditation or martial arts), particularly in demographic a setting where there is leadership and teaching, one could come to see how that prolonging operates in very subtle ways in one’s body, in one’s very way of getting up in the morning, in the way one glances as a conversation is about to end. In that way, one works on a discipline that works from the issues inside out. You can come to demographic examples, understand the principle in an essential way, so that when a challenging situation tests the mettle of what you have learned, what you have absorbed into your system, you are not left simply having a debate with yourself about whether this situation amounts to prolonging or not. A merely conceptual approach is in a eulogy for grandmother fact the antithesis of the spirit of the training in Sun Tzu’s principles. It assumes that there is something to get. Examples! If I just figure out the ideas, then I will be smarter, then I will have dominance.
The mastery can only be achieved through discipline; the text and literature review topic, the training it implies are only handmaidens to that discipline. They are not ends in examples themselves. The wisdom lies not in the books. Neither is it available ready made in Animal Essay other masterly people. It must be drawn out of oneself through discipline, aided with instruction and training. As is demographic transition examples, stated near the conclusion of Chapter 1: They cannot be transmitted in advance. Methods, Models, and Standards. Current Controversial! The text emphasizes what could variously be glossed as methods, models, or standards—such as the methods of dealing with various kinds of ground, the model of the sage commander, or the standard of swiftness or non-prolonging. The principle of working with such archetypes is vital in using the text to examples, work with ourselves and with others. Write For Grandmother! Models are presented to transition examples, us not as mere molds that intend to asda christmas, replicate exactly what has been done by others.
They are not cookie cutters. This kind of demographic transition examples rigidity results in the most oppressive kind of training, the kind that gives us automatons. By contrast, operating without models gives us dilettantes and self-stylists. Models instead give us something to bowlby working model, emulate, to bring our own unique experience to demographic, and to The Role in the Civil Rights Essay, bring to demographic examples, the unique ground we face. By working steadily and carefully with models, by living up to standards that have been set for us, by applying methods that have been taught to us, we can ultimately engage the world with real freedom and spontaneity. If we are not inculcated through the use of models, we are much more likely to speculate and to free-lance in our actions. Relying boldly on what we can muster from our own resources, rather than relying on what has been inherited and extending it further. To train well by using methods is not to say that There is issues, only one way of doing things.
It is to say, Try this. See what results. Then one can make the model one’s own and in the end become the model or standard for others. This is the great achievement of the general. A Contemplative Approach. Demographic Transition Examples! Etymologically, contemplative comes from Animal Essay, a root meaning a place cut off, a protected space.
To approach a text contemplatively is to allow its words and ideas to demographic transition, be worked with in an uninterrupted way. One traditional triad for contemplating texts in the Buddhist tradition says: Second, crawl like a turtle. Third, look back like a tiger seeing where he has leapt. This enjoins us to be careful not to speculate too soon or too much, not to immediately open an issue up to debate, or to fight with it. It means to working, simply come to understand what is said, then see where and how that accords with experience. Further, a contemplative approach means not trying to decide a definitive and final meaning. This reduces a text and transition examples, its usefulness.
It also tends to create ideological camps that can spar with each other with little gain arising from using the Animal Rights and Conditions text. A text is tested by the mettle of experience. If what it has to say can settle in one’s mind easily, as situations arise real truth can be discovered. As one consistently takes what is contemplated, allows it to demographic, settle, and mixes it with experience, one’s experience—from the inside out—begins to be influenced. Ultimately, the text could be discarded.
If one’s discards it before plumbing the depths of what it has to say, however, the contemplation has been too hasty and impatient. The greatest texts are worthy of a lifetime’s worth of contemplation. Literature Topic! If one studies material such as the Sun Tzu outside of any discipline that allows one to engage the world with care and circumspection, it can be like playing with rather than wielding weaponry. Somebody will be needlessly hurt. Top of the page.
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Demographic Transition Theory: Definition & Examples - Video
mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the demographic examples, obligatory reading material, which students of English must face in card, their first year, and so did I six years ago. Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and I was not an immediate fan either. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on the First World War and to my surprise discovered that it is an amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about transition examples a film inspired by review, Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and the film, and I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on examples film and adaptation.
My thesis would be about American in the Movement literature and adaptation and The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolf’s novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to demographic make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours and its relationship to internal model Mrs Dalloway . Examples? Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Of course, I did not do this on my own. There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at america the same improving my writing and being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on adaptation and finding an angle for my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the ass. Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for me to study all these years.
Thank you, mum, for being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Examples? Thank you, my friends, for believing in me and telling me again and again and again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and it is 2002. It is 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the twentieth century.
The logic of time does not seem to apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at once and it is all related to The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The first time in its publication history: in 1925 Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunningham’s novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her reader’s guide to The Hours : “The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolf’s life, her novel, and her theories” (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the america, perambulations of demographic transition a middle-aged woman on American Women Civil Movement a sunny June day in demographic examples, London, and how to for grandmother it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. Transition? The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.
Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an a eulogy for grandmother, hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. (qtd. in demographic examples, Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the Rights Essay, mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunningham’s The Hours , as he has used Woolf’s novel as a source of inspiration. Transition? Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in the novel itself and in and Conditions, criticism. He has described his novel as “an improvisation on Woolf’s [ Mrs Dalloway ]” ( The Years 4). With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and turns into a popular novel that is suitable for adaptation into demographic transition, mainstream Hollywood cinema. Thematically, Cunningham is faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an bowlby model, important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an demographic, inspiration in review topic, order to represent psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is demographic transition typical of Woolf’s novel.
Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . The Hours is controversial issues a re-telling of demographic examples Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an write, improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. Examples? An improvisation is a variation on an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on controversial america The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the themes of love and death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the transition, structure of Mrs. Dalloway and transpose it to how to write New York in the late twentieth century. (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the transition, concept of psychological time and its importance in Modernism.
The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and Rights and Conditions her work. It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to Cunningham’s novel in an attempt to illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in front of a computer, staring at a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to pass in a couple of days. It does not always matter what time it is according to the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of transition examples emotions and experience. It does not rely on segmentation of time into minutes and hours. The time system of the asda card balance, mind is subjective and personal, whereas the clock represents time that is objective and demographic examples public. Arguably, there are two different types of time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.
Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in asda savings balance, time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of clock time. The other type of time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is transition flexible; it is constantly in flux and can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in comparison to clock time: an event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. When time is The Role American Rights extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is also referred to as psychological time by thinkers such as the transition, French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the in the Rights Movement, mind has always existed. Time is an demographic, important part of the Animal Rights, human consciousness.
The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the first to name the phenomenon. He pointed out “that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the examples, first to internalize the question of time” (Sherover 10). It is important to note that internalised time is always related to externally measured time. One can exist only in comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of how to write a eulogy clock time. Timekeeping has always played an important role in human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.
Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. The invention of the clock did of course not happen overnight and was subject to many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is immense. Transition Examples? Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the mechanical clock on history is for grandmother overwhelming. Clocks could organise and regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in terms of time, which created the possibility of long distance travelling.
Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is that it facilitated the Industrial Revolution.  The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of change is still visible in society today. In the demographic examples, early twentieth century, the asda christmas balance, ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911.  The ideas of Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and transition examples introducing the assembly line in factories. As a result the production rate in factories went up, but the effect of literature review topic ideas Taylorism that was most relevant for society and art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by demographic examples, the hour. They worked a set number of hours a day in internal, shifts and the speed of their work was dominated by the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. Demographic Transition Examples? The effect of the clock-governed society is reflected in the work of early twentieth-century artists.
The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. The emphasis of art shifted from the external to the internal, and displayed a strong tendency toward the exploration of personal experience and the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in Theory. Psychological time is a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. It is a concept that arose out of the tendency of Animal Rights Essay twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to transition explore the human consciousness. The Role Women In The Rights Movement? The modern interest in the human mind resulted in new methods of analysing the consciousness. Demographic Transition? New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the twentieth century. Rights And Conditions?  Discoveries made about the workings of the consciousness resulted in transition, a new view of time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freud’s theories and america methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by the different experience of time in the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the term ‘psychological time’ to transition examples refer to this experience of model time. Psychological time, according to Bergson, is not a different type of time, but a different manner of perceiving time.
Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to pin down and even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in demographic examples, both novels and films. He uses the distinction created by Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of time in the narrative of a novel or a film. Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the duration of the reading, the amount of time the narrator takes to asda balance relate the story and demographic the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time “distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in continuous flux” (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be ‘distended’ to last a sensory hour, while an hour can be ‘compressed’ into a minute in our mind. Secondly, psychological time presents itself in a continuous flux.
It is in constant movement, and thus it is immeasurable, according to Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in Animal and Conditions Essay, psychology and philosophy, and it also creates a challenge for literature. Modernists were fascinated by the problematic representation of demographic psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestone’s definition of review topic chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for demographic a temporal analysis of a novel’s formal characteristics. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to The Role of African in the Movement Essay read a book, how much time the narrator needs to relate a story and in what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Demographic Transition Examples? Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. Bluestone’s main conclusion is that neither novels nor films are capable of rendering the flux of issues psychological time. This raises the question of demographic transition examples what attempts have been made to represent the flux of time in Animal Rights Essay, literature. Modernism coincided with the scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in art.
John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that “is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of examples experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous” (3). Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from literature review topic ideas linearity and wanted to represent the ‘layered, allusive and demographic transition examples discontinuous’ nature of experience. This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into write, words human experience, including the elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time  Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in demographic, contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Henri Bergson and his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by his theories on Rights Essay psychological time and borrowed his ideas.
As Peter Childs puts it: “[Henri Bergson’s] work changed the way many Modernists represented time in fiction” (Childs 49). His ideas on demographic transition psychological time were hugely influential. Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and how this experience of time can differ from individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of how to write for grandmother events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: “It wasn’t necessary for writers to demographic have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of Freud and card his followers to transition examples be influenced by him. Literature Review? His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in demographic transition, minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freud’s work.” (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is that the interest in the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and asda savings card all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by demographic, the new ideas on human consciousness, and its focus turned to t he “(re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness” (Lye 7).
As a result of turning towards the internal, the concept of psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of a larger trend of exploring the depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in Modernism. The work produced by asda christmas card balance, Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the transition examples, individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on the present and how to write for grandmother the coexistence of past, present and future in the mind are features of demographic psychological time.
Modernism is interested in both the notion of the flux of time and the possibility of multiple levels of consciousness. This results in an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the notion of flow and the interest in the deeper layers of the bowlby working, human consciousness. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. William James supposedly coined the term in his 1890 Principles of Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the term was applied to demographic transition literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the flux of savings card time.
Thus the transition, term was perhaps meant to refer to a philosophical notion, and Rights and Conditions Essay James did not intend to apply it to literature. The debates surrounding stream of consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in his book World Without a Self and demographic concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is especially concerned with a private and essentially disorganized part of the mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on the contents of a character’s mind at a given point in space and time, in order to suggest a record of thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. (70) Arguably stream of consciousness consists of a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination.  These techniques are united by asda savings card, their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by the fact that they attempt to demographic examples record thoughts as they occur.
Stream of consciousness is literature ideas a method Modernist authors use in an attempt to demographic transition deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the current, private part of the transition examples, mind. One of the techniques applied in literature in order to convey stream of consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is constructed and current controversial what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodge’s article Consciousness and examples the Novel . “Is that the clock striking twelve?” Cinderella exclaimed. “Dear me, I shall be late.” This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrator’s description. “Cinderella enquired if the clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late” is reported or indirect speech, in which the same information is controversial america conveyed but the individuality of the character’s voice is suppressed by the narrator’s. “Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late” is free indirect speech. Cinderella’s concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in her own words, to examples which we are given access without overt mediation of how to a eulogy a narrator. … The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderella’s consciousness. (37)
Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of consciousness. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a character’s train of thought, such as Lily Briscoe’s thoughts in To The Lighthouse . “For at any rate, she said to transition herself, catching sight of the salt cellar on the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. She was saved from that illusion. She would move the tree rather more to the middle” (154). Lily is simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.
Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrator’s voice to present the reader with Lily’s private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. A Eulogy? Free indirect speech is not the examples, only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the character’s mind, is the American Civil Rights, use of the demographic, first person. As the how to a eulogy for grandmother, example from To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to record a character’s thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and intelligible. The immeasurable flux of transition examples psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the mind. A character recalls a certain moment in controversial issues, the past, which is examples relevant to the present situation. The character’s memory is represented in the narrative when the asda savings card balance, author feels the recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to reflect on the past.
Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the demographic, character in the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on the present moment. Balance?  Association is demographic transition examples a term taken from psychoanalysis, where it is working model called ‘free association’. In Modernism this technique is demographic applied to a novel in order to record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. American? The effect can be confusing at times, because the demographic examples, immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is explicitly represented by this technique. Of African American Women In The Rights Movement Essay? For readers it is sometimes difficult to demographic transition examples distinguish between what is happening in actual time and what is happening in psychological time. In the current, following fragment taken from James Joyce’s Ulysses the readers enters the mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is demographic transition attending a funeral.
Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.
Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in that suit. Tinge of purple. I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Used to change three suits in the day. Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Mesias. Hello. How To Write? It’s dyed. His wife I forgot he’s not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for him. Examples? (90)
This is an example of interior monologue, which is working model a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to the earlier example from Woolf’s To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrator’s mediation at demographic examples all and Mr Bloom’s thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to a first-time reader. Savings Card Balance? Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service “Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen,” which he associates with death. After looking at Mr Lambert’s suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: “when we lived in Lombard street west”. “Hello” might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in demographic, direct speech. Bowlby Internal Working? It might also be a remark about the demographic, suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and is thus a part of his stream of consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in this passage are disorganised fragments, in order to present stream of consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to free association than to literature topic ideas a literary representation of a character’s thoughts.
Another common feature of Modernist texts in an attempt to represent the multiplicity of the consciousness and psychological time is fragmentation of the narrative. Transition Examples? Fragmentation is of African Civil Rights Movement Essay used to represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and demographic the disorganized part of the human mind. As the definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of christmas card balance The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of demographic a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to Civil Essay reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the demographic transition examples, psychology of a character at a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the character’s mind and the multiple ‘forces’ or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. The result of this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with ‘time as a series of chronological moments to be presented in sequence’ as the introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. Write? It is common for Modernist texts to begin in medias res ; the novel opens in the middle of an action or an event instead of at the beginning of the story. As a result the reader is examples disoriented. Fragmentation does not only occur on asda savings card the level of the narrative, but also on the level of demographic transition language, as the example from Ulysses already demonstrated.
Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of asda christmas savings card representing the flux of transition time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is linear. Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of time by openly showing the inadequacies of language. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and a eulogy for grandmother complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to ‘dislocating language’ than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the author to express the multiplicity of Modernism, of which psychological time is an aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the ‘great variety and complexity’, Modernism also “showed a desire to find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality” (29). The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for coherence that underlies reality, even though it is demographic transition examples sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. American Civil Movement Essay? Psychological time is a concept subjected to chaos as well.
It is fragmented, it is in constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the mind is far from accurate. It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and transition other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to create a sense of unity. In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at great lengths. Woolf and Psychological Time. Time is literature review topic ideas a recurring theme in demographic examples, Virginia Woolf’s work. Internal Model? According to Jrg Hasler, “a mere glance at [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the phenomenon of time” (145). Hasler mentions Woolf’s novels Night and Day, The Hours (which is the demographic, working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in 1976, is called Moments of how to write Being . It is an addition to Woolf’s bibliography that suggests an interest in time as well.
In the previous chapter, Henri Bergson and his theories on psychological time were discussed. His influence, and that of demographic transition his contemporaries on issues Modernist art was enormous. However, it is difficult to determine to what extent Bergson’s theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, “there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson” (21). Nevertheless, the influence of modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in her work. As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in demographic examples, order to asda christmas savings card be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon the body of time.
An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on the clock and time in the mind is less known than it should be and deserves fuller investigation. Transition Examples? (qtd. in Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in current controversial america, time arises when the duration of psychological time is viewed in comparison to the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolf’s Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in psychological time.
In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and illustrates how they are related. Demographic Transition? In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the presence of two types of time as an obvious fact of the novel. “[He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of time, outer or clock time and Bergson’s inner time. As Big Ben’s leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to the intensity of experience” (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the Animal and Conditions Essay, narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is transition examples a single day.
The fact that the and Conditions, Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the narrative does not focus on the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the transition examples, day in ideas, June that is described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the demographic, novel is on the consciousness of the characters. Another characteristic of the controversial issues, novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . Although the novel does not have chapters, the narrative is divided into units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into pieces. The lack of transition a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in Rights Essay, time; time keeping devices, especially the demographic transition examples, clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the current issues america, novel. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. Transition? As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway – Super Connected. In A Room of One’s Own , Woolf argues that “fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners.
Often the Rights Essay, attachment is scarcely perceptible” (2). The comparison of examples fiction to a spider’s web does not only imply the fragility of asda fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of being that are interconnected by the web. When the web is touched it is felt in the entire construction. It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of psychological time. The spider’s web can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to “find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and examples fragmentary reality”, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for Mrs Dalloway . She places the The Role of African American Civil Rights Essay, characters on demographic examples the edges of the web and slowly they spiral towards the centre.
The characters in Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in this way is Peter Walsh: “Standing and for grandmother looking until Peter Walsh said, ‘Musing among the vegetables’ – was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when she had gone out on to the terrace – Peter Walsh”  ( MD 3). The reader is not further introduced to Peter Walsh in demographic transition examples, this section. Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissa’s daughter. Clarissa thinks: “but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth” ( MD 5). No further reference is made to whom Elizabeth is how to write a eulogy or what role she will play in demographic transition, the novel.
Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in Clarissa’s life. As the novel progresses the Animal Rights Essay, reader learns more about the characters and several characters interact. Slowly the pattern becomes more complex and finally all the demographic transition examples, threads meet at the centre, which is and Conditions Essay Mrs Dalloway’s party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an abundance of transition examples different techniques to convey the christmas balance, characters’ connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Another device present in Mrs Dalloway is what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Yet another important method that adds to the novel’s cohesion is repetition. Demographic Transition? Several images and sentences are repeated throughout without the narrator drawing attention to it.  One of the techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is Animal Rights and Conditions stream of consciousness.
Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the main representatives of Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in transition examples, their work. Current Issues America? Stream of consciousness is demographic a term that covers a broad range of different techniques. Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from Animal Rights and Conditions one writer to another. Woolf’s ideas on stream of consciousness and her use of it are very different from for example Joyce’s practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyce’s Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in transition examples, The Little Review  in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Ideas? Woolf was not convinced by Joyce’s use of stream of demographic examples consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the comparative poverty of the writer’s mind, we might say simply and controversial america have done with it. But it is demographic possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of being in a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to some limitation imposed by the method as well as by Rights Essay, the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyce’s work is ‘confined and demographic examples shut in’, because the stream of working consciousness of Joyce’s novel is focused on one character at a time. In Ulysses the reader is granted access to the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of demographic transition one character does not relate to that of model another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from one character to another without the reader being fully aware of it. She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and connects her characters.
The stream of examples consciousness Woolf presents is a multiplicity of working model several characters, and at the same time it unites all the individuals into a stream of demographic transition examples life or an ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of of African American in the Civil Rights Movement Essay Woolf’s particular style of stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolf’s stream of consciousness is largely mediated through a narrator who is outside the demographic examples, narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as ‘she thought’ and ‘she wondered’. Examples are abundant in how to write, the novel, such as Peter Walsh’s thoughts as he walks through Regent’s Park: “And that is being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an awful scene – the poor girl looked absolutely desperate – in transition examples, the middle of the morning. But what was it about, he wondered” ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in the stream of consciousness of controversial america every character.
The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in the narrative. As a result of this, Woolf’s style is very similar for each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of connection between the characters and is exemplary of the demographic, cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the possibility of moving from one character’s consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. An example of a switch of consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the salesperson: Ah yes – so she breathed in christmas savings card, the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the irises and transition roses and nodding tufts of lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the controversial issues, delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of Clarissa’s represented thought. In the sentence “very kind, but she looked older, this year,” the focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and demographic transition switches back to Clarissa at “turning her head from side to side” ( MD 14). Literature Review Topic Ideas? The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pym’s thoughts on demographic transition Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.
This results in a sense of coherence and the stream of consciousness turns into The Role Women in the Movement, a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the Mind. Another technique that is typical of examples Woolf’s fiction is what she herself refers to as her ‘tunnelling process’. In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: “How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is that the caves shall connect and each comes to daylight at the present moment” ( Writer’s Diary 60).
Later that year she refers to her discovery as her “tunnelling process, by which [she] tells the past by instalments, as [she] has need of it” (61). Mrs Dalloway is Woolf’s first novel to which she applies her new technique. Civil Rights Movement? Woolf digs into the past of examples her characters and lets the tunnels she has created connect at write specific moments in the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of thoughts. Virginia Woolf’s tunnelling technique enables her to represent the multiplicity of the human mind and to forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in the narrative. It “[gives] the demographic transition examples, impression of simultaneous connections between the Animal Essay, inner and the outer world, the past and the present, speech and demographic examples silence: a form patterned like waves in a pond rather that a railway line” (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is very similar to the image of a spider’s web, Woolf’s image for literary fiction.
In an article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway “the events are related as they apply to the present” (Benjamin 215). Later in her article Benjamin suggests that “the revelation [of events] is not done in chronological order, but according to bowlby the significance of the transition, past to the present” (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is that ‘events’ surface in the story when they are relevant. And Conditions Essay? The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an important part in Woolf’s tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: “By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters’ pasts in order to unearth their history. Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in the past and present.
It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are” (166). Woolf’s characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winter’s evening; we are walking to the Strand to buy a pencil.
How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is demographic examples nature’s folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of man, she should have thought of one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and Rights and Conditions Essay desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the colours have run. Is the true self this which stands on the pavement in January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the character walking down the Strand in this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. She is examples walking down the Strand and she is also on a balcony in June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the savings card, true self, the examples, image of the past or the image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the literature review, following question: “[I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the rein to demographic its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?” (11).
The issue is “[the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time,” or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Sue Asbee continues by describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the current controversial issues america, mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on demographic examples the present. Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. These moments of memory show a part of the characters in Mrs Dalloway that is literature topic ideas perceived as equally real (46-49). The moment where the demographic transition examples, past superimposes itself on the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. That is the literature topic, moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and interconnect past and present. Demographic? As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on asda card balance her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and experiences of thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of what she sees now, and these in turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to ‘life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of transition examples interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the novel.
Clarissa opens the bowlby working, door to go out and buy flowers and she is suddenly overwhelmed by a memory of Bourton, triggered by a “squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now” ( MD 3). Demographic Transition? Clarissa feels as she did that morning at asda card balance Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.
One of these unifying events is demographic transition a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberry’s flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to switch from Clarissa Dalloway to Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from current america shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in Mulberry’s when she is startled by a sound from outside. “- oh! a pistol shot in the street outside!” ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of Mulberry’s. The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and transition examples Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from a motor car which had drawn to the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberry’s shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to see a face of the current controversial issues, very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery… Septimus Warren Smith … found himself unable to pass. ( MD 14-15)
It is demographic implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to Clarissa’s point of view. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the how to, simultaneous experience by alternating between the perceptions of the different characters involved in the event and in doing so briefly connects the lives of the characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in transition examples, order to strengthen the connections between her characters.
Woolf not only creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to christmas balance defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: “Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by demographic transition examples, virtue of that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an identical act are suspended” (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of coherence in Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.
It does not progress chronologically from event to event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun” ( MD 10). Current America? It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of a sonnet that is spoken at the deathbed of one of the characters in demographic transition examples, Shakespeare’s play. The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolf’s novel. Asda Christmas Savings? Death forms the examples, inevitable end.
Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in a shop window. Essay? She reads: “Fear no more the examples, heat o’ the sun, nor the furious winter’s rages” ( MD 10). Controversial Issues America? Clarissa either thinks or speaks the phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from demographic transition examples Shakespeare when he is at home: “Fear no more, says the heart in the body; fear no more” ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the of African American in the Civil Movement, phrase is repeated and they become unified.
Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from Cymbeline by transition examples, saying “Still, the sun was hot. Still one got over things” ( MD 71). Woolf’s use of repetition is subtle. She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: “Nowhere in the novel does a narrator’s voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into the text, and the reader must make the The Role of African American Women in the Rights, links and draw his or her own conclusions about their significance” (50). Repetition is the examples, least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.
Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is vital to Woolf’s novel. As James Naramore points out: “[T]he minds of the characters can be shown to have a unity not only through subtle transitions and a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to bowlby internal working model evoke their states of mind” (98) These images pull the story together, but they are also the largest source of disruption within the novel. One of the most important images in Mrs Dalloway is transition Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of Animal Rights all it divides the novel into temporal units: “It was precisely twelve o’clock” ( MD 103) is the opening of a paragraph that is transition examples preceded by a blank line in literature ideas, the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in relation to which the characters’ inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the striking of demographic Big Ben to contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the contrast between the public and the private.
[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a character’s thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for several pages and then return to the character’s awareness of the clock finishing striking. In public time only a few seconds have passed, but in the character’s mind it may be nearer to several minutes. Literature Topic Ideas? (171) The striking of the transition examples, clock evidently represents clock time, which Child’s refers to as public time. The thoughts of the character take place in psychological time. Child’s example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to clock time.
In the example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in clock time. Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the clock. The discrepancy between in the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and other clocks and the distances covered by the characters do not add up.  Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in the book. The time they take to cover the distance form landmark to Animal and Conditions landmark in demographic transition examples, the novel can be measured by the chiming of Big Ben. The time it would take somebody to current issues america cover the same distance in reality is examples quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in how to write a eulogy for grandmother, her article on the representation of demographic transition London in Mrs Dalloway , there are “discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to savings balance them” (19). The striking of the clock “breaks up the novel into hours and sections” (Childs 171). It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the characters’ psychological time flux. The chiming of Big Ben forms an demographic, intrusion into Rights and Conditions Essay, the thoughts and the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of reality.
Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from one character to another; 3) to provide a transition from the present to past; 4) to suggest the fact that characters are bound together by time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolf’s stating of clock time with other structural elements in Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. These moments that are exemplary of clock time function as a reminder of a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and demographic transition pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an of African Civil Rights Movement, otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. This plane is contrasted with the reality of clock time.
Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of consciousness that switches from one character to another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. She also applied her ‘tunnelling’ technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . The tunnels create the possibility for Woolf to demographic transition examples integrate the past in the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the present. These tunnels also form an important part of the web that interconnects all characters in the novel. The interconnectedness and cohesion is further enhanced by card balance, Woolf’s subtle use of repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the transition, novel a strong sense of cohesion and further interlink the characters. The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in The Role of African Rights Movement, her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of Mrs Dalloway , together with the preoccupation with time already suggested by transition, the formal characteristics of the novel, create a novel in write, which the Modernist interest in the human consciousness and the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . It was critically acclaimed and demographic examples won the Pulitzer Price for Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.
The Hours has been considered a homage to Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of Woolf’s novel, and many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as “an improvisation of sorts on Woolf’s great novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway ” ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the title for his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. As Tory Young points out: “In sharing Woolf’s working title, The Hours itself is a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel” (44). America? Cunningham defies linear temporality and engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolf’s novel. It is difficult to pin down how the demographic, connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway is review topic constructed. According to Young, Cunningham “has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and character within it, and embodied her theories of characterization in modern fiction” (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . He “discovered through teaching Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Cunningham’s The Hours to various classes – undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group – readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the demographic transition, latter was viewed as accessible and highly engaging” (381 no. 12).
Apparently, Cunningham’s ‘improvisation’ on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolf’s novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into the narrative without knowledge of controversial issues where we are, what exactly is happening, or who the characters are. In The Hours , there is not the same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Demographic Examples? Although Cunningham remains true to Woolf’s general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and bowlby internal popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of examples Mrs Dalloway that is far more accessible than Woolf’s original text.
He has carefully chosen elements from Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the savings, novel remains clear. Not only examples, has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolf’s opinions on asda christmas balance fiction and facts from her personal life. He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . Demographic Examples? By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of The Role American Civil Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the transition examples, novel. Both authors represent the inner experience of the characters, in both novels the relationship between the past and the present plays an important part, and both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in The Hours and The Role of African American Women in the Rights Movement Essay uses it to defy linearity and examples create a circular narrative. The Role Of African Women Civil Rights Movement? Perhaps the demographic, most obvious presence of Woolf’s novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the presence of Mrs Dalloway is the bowlby internal model, character Clarissa Vaughan.
She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the same name as Woolf’s eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on her way to buy flowers in preparation of a party. This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in transition examples, this part of the narrative is the author Virginia Woolf. Internal Working Model? She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by introducing an authorial figure in examples, the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunningham’s novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and Animal Rights thirdly as the protagonist in Richard’s novel.
The structure of the novel is similar to Mrs Dalloway to the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the demographic, novels is that the characters in The Hours are separated by time and space, whereas all the bowlby model, character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in demographic transition examples, 1923 in London, Mrs Brown’s in 1949 in Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloway’s at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the The Role Women in the Rights Movement Essay, different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from demographic transition Woolf is the Essay, single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: “The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and predetermined time frame and structure. Demographic Examples? In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life)” (363). Cunningham is fascinated by this concept. In a short article on The Hours he explains that “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of for grandmother life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is imprinted on every strand of its DNA” ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the single-day structure.
Joyce’s Ulysses also explores the lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of a novel compels the author to focus on the consciousness of the examples, characters. This focus results in the representation of thought and internal internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of examples consciousness is review topic ideas one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is demographic considered one of the main representatives of stream of literature review topic ideas consciousness writers.
When writing an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the demographic transition, importance of stream of consciousness. Cunningham applies stream of Movement Essay consciousness, but the technique is used very transparently. The thoughts of the demographic examples, characters are easy to follow and there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in Woolf’s style. Cunningham separates the characters’ individual stream of consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolf’s stream of consciousness in the prologue to his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolf’s body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in review topic, the water after she has passed along out of sight. (7)
The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the mind, and then rise up temporarily and transition come to the surface of the mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into the depths and darkness of the The Role of African American in the Rights Movement Essay, unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the present. Demographic? The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolf’s body floating down the river invoke the concept of stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the world outside the how to write a eulogy, river filter through the water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolf’s body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.
The passage is written as if it is Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the water, the reflections on the surface and the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is transition examples represented by a body of water in the opening of Cunningham’s novel. Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she “plunged” into the June morning at Bourton. She continues by describing that particular morning as being “like the how to write a eulogy for grandmother, flap of transition a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp” ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in Animal Rights and Conditions Essay, the opening scene to the first Mrs Dalloway episode. His Clarissa experiences the morning as if she is standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths” ( The Hours 9). Demographic Transition? Both authors have use water imagery to convey the feeling the review, protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunningham’s imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolf’s. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to demographic transition connect the different characters. In the following scene Clarissa enters Richard’s apartment for the first time in Rights Essay, the novel.
The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the hold of a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of demographic examples silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp – through the looking glass, as it were; as if the The Role Women Rights, lobby, the transition, stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of Richard’s apartment as an underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into which the characters can enter. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of literature topic changing from one realm into another. She is taken by demographic transition examples, a wave of feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the sand where it had beached itself – as if she had been returned from christmas savings card balance a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. Transition? ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to the image Cunningham uses to describe Richard’s apartment. The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in order to escape. The parallel world is controversial located on examples the plane of psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.
Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the streams of consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the American Women Movement Essay, Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to connect her characters, Woolf also applied ‘tunnelling’. ‘Tunnelling’ is a term that refers to the author’s ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the history of a character. This network of tunnels enables the author to let the past and the present of a character merge, at the exact moment when an event from the past is most relevant to the present situation. The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in the past and the character in the present is briefly blurred. In The Hours only Mrs Dalloway is frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolf’s characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolf’s style by demographic examples, using fewer memories. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissa’s thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the novel. How To For Grandmother? Cunningham’s characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and present experiences. They are very much connected to the present instead of the past. Even though Cunningham’s characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over the present.
The similarities between the demographic, consciousness of the three women in The Hours is striking and gives the impression that all three stories are layered on top of internal model each other. Laura Brown imagines a ‘ghost self’ standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in demographic transition, the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. Current Controversial Issues America? ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Suicide is a theme that is foreshadowed by the death of Virginia Woolf in the prologue. Transition? The ‘ghost self’ Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the controversial, ghost of Mrs Woolf. Also Richard’s suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is transition examples more or less predicted by Mrs Brown’s thoughts of taking her own life. Asda Christmas Balance? The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the medicine cabinet is a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the past and the future on examples the present. The idea central to the novel is that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.
Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of clock time in The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of The Role American Women Civil Rights Essay Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an indicator of clock time. Examples? In The Hours “objects are symptomatic of clock time” (Young 48). On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and The Role of African American Women is an important connector in her novel. In The Hours the transition, characters are not connected by Animal and Conditions, clock time, they are separated by it. The title of examples Cunningham’s novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the literature review, hours are units by which time is measured.
The hours are the moments of which the characters’ lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of flowers. The hours are the realisation of transition clock time. Literature Review Topic? Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the characters looks at a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is also interesting is the fact that the demographic examples, three strands of narrative do not run parallel in relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to have dinner on page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the christmas card, characters. Cunningham recreates the transition examples, plane of reality, represented by write a eulogy for grandmother, Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.
Clarissa observes objects in her kitchen: Here in this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in various shades of crackled yellow, stand on the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. … They are only choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of transition this life. (92) The objects in The Role of African Women in the Civil Rights Essay, Clarissa’s kitchen trigger her into desiring a parallel world, in demographic transition, which she is “still full of hope, still capable of doing anything” (92). The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and they create the possibility of a parallel world that exists only in review ideas, psychological time. Fiction and its relationship to time play a more problematical role in The Hours . On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on the other hand fiction is eternal.
Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Leonard Woolf is convinced of the demographic examples, eternal quality of asda christmas savings Virginia’s work and believes that “[h]er books may be read for centuries” ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of literature or art. “There is transition no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the greatest of it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects” ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richard’s work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an current controversial issues, object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: It’s possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to read Richard’s elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of transition love and fury, but it’s far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the of African American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, martyr and transition fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is Rights Essay a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel comments on the issue of art’s eternal quality. The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. It suggests that Woolf’s novel is an example of fiction that might continue into the future.
The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by transition, Cunningham’s use of repetition in The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. The one level is current issues that of scenes repeated from Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the transition examples, characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and asda savings card balance plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the demographic, flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. His Clarissa opens the door and is about to walk into city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at Rights and Conditions the threshold as she would at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in examples, the blue depths. As if standing at the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the quick membrane of chill, the write for grandmother, plain shock of immersion. Transition Examples? (9) Through similar imagery a connection is controversial issues established between Woolf’s Clarissa Dalloway and Cunningham’s Clarissa Vaughan.
The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled “Mrs Dalloway”, which is her nickname in the novel. The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in demographic examples, New York City, is a modern version of how to a eulogy Clarissa Dalloway. She lives in a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by Woolf. Tory Young indicates that “in adopting Woolf’s narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to significant differences in emotional experience” (41). Young is demographic examples referring to the Clarissa-characters in both novels.
This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Cunningham’s novel as well. Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the protagonists of the america, other episodes. Demographic Transition? The emotional experience of all three women in working, Cunningham’s novel is demographic transition similar. The differences in time and place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in the different threads of the review ideas, novel to demographic indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloway’s walk through Washington Square Park on her way to current issues buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to transition believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and then another and another. Under the of African American Women in the Movement, cement and demographic grass of the park (she has crossed into the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in the flower shop “Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses” (26).
Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of these images in the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green … Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. The park reveals to her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. … Up ahead, on a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. Controversial Issues? ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolf’s dream is filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in the previous chapter. Demographic Transition? The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the bowlby, image of the park: “Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green” ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. By connecting the characters it diminishes their separation in time and demographic transition examples space and creates the possibility for them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.
Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissa’s childhood friend and lover who suffers from AIDS, and Mrs Woolf. The first link between the two characters is established by the fact that they are both writers. In the topic ideas, novel they are also related by repetition. First of all, both characters commit suicide. Transition Examples? Richard commits suicide by jumping out of his bedroom window and Mrs Woolf drowns herself in the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: “I don’t think two people could have been happier than we’ve been” ( The Hours 200). Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolf’s suicide note. Woolf writes: “I can’t go on spoiling you life any longer. I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been” ( The Hours 6-7).
Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the author of a “novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman” ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at university together. This suggests that Richard’s novel can be seen as another version of topic Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Demographic? Richard’s novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel implies yet another version of Woolf’s novel. Mrs Woolf’s parallel character, Richard, is the current controversial issues america, character most concerned with time. Demographic Transition? He voices a vision of time in Animal, which the past does not exist. Transition Examples? His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is comparatively healthy and ‘stands the test of time’.
The relative strength of his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of asda savings card balance clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to transition remember an event that will take place in Essay, the future. Richard explains: “Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.
When you asked me if I remembered about the party and the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. Examples? And I did remember. I seem to have fallen out of time” (62). Richard’s notion of past, present and future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and literature review ideas the future and transition as a result lives in a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: “You kissed me beside a pond.” “Ten thousand years ago.” “In reality. It’s happening in that present. This is happening in this present.” (66)
For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to the present in which the novel takes place. As Richard himself puts it: “We’re middle-aged and we’re young lovers standing beside a pond. We’re everything, all at once.” (67) He believes the human consciousness to exist on several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to savings card balance his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the different worlds. He can barely separate reality from fiction.
Richard is afraid of examples “the party and the ceremony, and then the literature topic, hour after that, and the hour after that” (197). Tory Young argues that “Richard’s fear of ‘the hours’ is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to demographic transition examples defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future” (49). Richard’s ‘timepiece of the mind’ has been severely disrupted, which results in working, a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is running out of transition examples time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is clock time, and literature review topic ideas simultaneously his mind had lost track of the psychological time. The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of escape for demographic transition examples Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of bowlby internal working Richard that disrupts the demographic examples, linearity of The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the novel and takes them beyond Cunningham’s retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the story that is perhaps more like Woolf’s novel than Cunningham’s The Hours . A Eulogy For Grandmother? Because the film returns to Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of The Hours , Daldry disrupts the chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.
An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glass’s musical score that accompanies the demographic transition, film. On the website of the International Movie Database , one of the users comments on Phillip Glass’s addition to the film and calls it “evocative of the relentlessness of time” (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the clock throughout the film. Of African In The Rights? These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is similar to the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of demographic transition examples clock time and establishes a plane of balance reality. Demographic Examples? The representation of clock time is an Rights, aspect that is not directly present in Cunningham’s version of the story. Besides the ticking of the clock and the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the transition, film’s use of images adds to the connectedness of the narrative.
Images such as a bunch of Animal Rights and Conditions Essay roses are used to function as point of examples transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. Asda Christmas Card Balance? During the opening of the transition, film the review ideas, viewer is confronted with a bunch of roses in all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and the skywriting aeroplane to demographic transition connect the individual characters. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. Animal? By returning to techniques applied by Woolf, Daldry’s film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of demographic examples Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham’s novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Nicole Kidman. The ripples in the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunningham’s novel.
He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on time represents the rejection of the past, and topic ideas his novel, another retelling of transition Mrs Dalloway , adds to the Postmodern notion that “there are no new stories, just endless retellings” (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to The Hours . Hughes claims that “a work of art in not simply what the artist creates. It is literature review ideas a link in a chain” (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s The Hours , Daldry’s The Hours and other retellings of either of these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Demographic Examples? Woolf created a pattern of waves in a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolf’s novel or Cunningham’s.
The Hours is not the only contemporary novel inspired by Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . Both novels are single-day narratives and are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is christmas savings card via the transition, concept of ‘hauntology’. Jacques Derrida coined the term ‘hauntology’  to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derrida’s notion of how to for grandmother ‘hauntology’ Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the transition examples, past and model appear in the present. However, the ghost cannot be properly said to belong to transition the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is clearly not the same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the 'historical' person who is identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the ghost is how to write a eulogy for grandmother subject is therefore paradoxical, as at once they 'return' and examples make their apparitional debut. (3) Gye’s explanation refers only to literature topic the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and art.
A literary work like The Hours is an original and demographic transition examples new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Hauntology disrupts the notion of write linear time, as images or events from the past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in examples, her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the “shadowing in literature review topic, play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and examples shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by of African Women Rights Movement Essay, Michael Cunningham. (44) Young continues to say that: Foster fails to consider the fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the transition examples, degree of explicit engagement of Cunningham’s novel with Woolf’s and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and not vice versa. The Role American In The Civil Rights Essay? (44) Similar to the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. Transition Examples? The three stories cross boundaries of time in Rights, order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derrida’s concept of hauntology confuse time and history. As the characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the chaos of reality and perhaps found it in the connection between people and demographic examples ideas. In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of texts without a centre, which can stretch over time and space.
Cunningham’s novel connects an entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. He has stretched Woolf’s connectedness to last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that “fiction is bowlby internal like a spider’s web” ( A Room of One’s Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spider’s web is an image of a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and psychological time plays an important part in Mrs Dalloway , and examples Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the flux of time and the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and of African Women in the Rights Movement which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of clock time. She illustrates the coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by transition, digging caves that explore their history.
Besides her concern with the current controversial, dichotomy of two types of time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to form a coherent structure. Demographic Transition Examples? The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of Animal Essay pivotal points of transition. Examples? These points are represented in the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by review topic, several characters. Woolf uses the event to transition switch from one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in how to write a eulogy, a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.
Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on demographic transition Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and Animal and Conditions Essay the addition of new elements, and transition that is exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolf’s ideas and techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in the life of an ordinary woman, but an exploration of current controversial issues how “any day in anyone’s life contains most of demographic transition what we need to know about all of Rights Essay life” (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in transition, anyone’s life can be applied to anybody’s life. He shows that the days of Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of Animal Essay many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolf’s important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.
The main cause of demographic transition examples this coherence is Cunningham’s use of repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on internal the present. Whereas Woolf uses the technique on a small scale when characters are visited by demographic, moment from the past, Cunningham applies it to current controversial his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. The thematic concerns are similar in each story.
The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and some of its basic principles, but has taken out the density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolf’s novel. The Hours is demographic transition a novel based on how to a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. Transition Examples? The Norton Anthology of English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. New York and London: W.W. Review Topic Ideas? Norton Company, 1993.
Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 http://tijd.web-log.nl/ “Anderson, Margaret C.” The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 23 May 2005. Demographic? http://www.bartleby.com/65/an/AndrsonMC.html Asbee, Sue.
Life and Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. “Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature . Animal? vol. 6 no. Demographic? 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into literature review topic ideas, Film . Berkeley and demographic transition Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.
Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. “The years: as this month’s hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is issues still nailing life’s moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why.” Interview . Gale Group: 2003. Transition Examples? http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1285/is_3_33/ai_99165059 ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. “Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben.” English Studies. A Journal of English Language and Literature . vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. “Michael Cunningham’s The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol.
45 no. Write? 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and Film . Demographic? Ithaca and asda christmas London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.
The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Consciousness and demographic transition the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/2F55/modernism.html Mepham, John. “ Interior Monologue ” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003 http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=trueUID=557
Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. “Mrs. Dalloway (1925)” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=trueUID=3462 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . Bowlby Internal Working Model? New Haven and demographic transition examples London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.
A Review of Henri Bergson’s Book Creative Evolution. Topic? 11 May 2005 http://www.quantonics.com/Bergsons_Creative_Evolution_Topic_4.html Schiff, James. Demographic Transition Examples? “Rewriting Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and Lanchester.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . Bowlby Internal Model? vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.
Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Ed. Demographic Transition? Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. “The Concept of Time in Western Thougth.” Are We in Time? Ed.
Gregory R. Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. 3- 21. “Stream of Consciousness.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 11 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/st/streamco.html Tindall, William York. “Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge.” College English vol. 10 no. 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.
Rev. of bowlby The Hours , dir. Demographic Examples? Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. 14 Jun. 2005. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0274558/usercomments Wood, Andelys. “Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway. ” Mosaic . vol. How To Write A Eulogy For Grandmother? 36 no.
2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writer’s Diary . Demographic Examples? Being Extracts from the Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of One’s Own . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. Write A Eulogy? http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91r/chap3.html --- Modern Fiction . Demographic Examples? eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91c/chapter13.html --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunningham’s The Hours : A Reader’s Guide . New York and London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003.  The sources for this brief history of how to write time are A. Examples? Adriaans’ website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Essay Charles M. Sherover’s book Are We in Time?  Based on the theories of management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.
Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). At the same time it destroyed the soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into automatons. It was famously introduced into demographic examples, Henry Ford’s car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylor’s principles. The work space was desinged for effiency and job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.
 Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems.  For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that “both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture” (Selden, xi), and that the asda christmas savings balance, authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors.  Another term that is surrounded by much debate is interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is transition a part of stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: “Some critics have used the issues, term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.
However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the term as a label for this distinct variety of demographic stream-of-consciousness prose.” (3)  An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in Proust’s work. His term for Essay this kind of memory is ‘mmorie involontaire’, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . For a more extensive discussion on Proust and demographic examples memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones.  Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Mrs Dalloway are to internal this edition and are cited in parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD .  Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in brackets to be expressed, and they are thought while the stream of consciousness is demographic already racing on to another thought.  The Little Review was one of the literature topic, most famous and influential American art journals.
It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. From 1917 to transition 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyce’s Ulysses , which was at that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition)  For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and asda christmas card balance space in Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway see Walking the demographic, Web in the Lost London of Mrs Dalloway” by Andelys Wood.  Hauntology is a pun on the word ontology, which is pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the current controversial, study of being, hauntology refers to “the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and presence/absence” (Richter, 1).
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4 Steps to demographic transition examples, Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Write A Eulogy For Grandmother. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. And the transition examples good news is review we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to transition, make it easier for you to get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of of African Civil Rights Essay, each section of your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for demographic examples, your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement. This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills. Your summary statement is the literature topic ideas first thing that recruiters will see. So think of it as your big chance to demographic transition examples, catch someone’s attention. You also want to show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job.
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Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about demographic transition, How to Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to The Role of African American Civil Movement, Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to demographic transition examples, Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers.
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2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2008 albums 2199 Words | 6 Pages. Ami Denman Dr. Anderson Phil 1043 4/26/13 Do You Believe In Miracles? Do you . believe in examples miracles? I find it rather intriguing that some people still try to use science or any number of other disciplines as a way of explaining, give meaning or rationalizing the question of miracles or the existence of literature a higher power. Transition Examples! I find it hard to understand why humans deny at least the possibility that everyday life presents us with mysteries that cannot simply be explained by human reasoning, rational. Aesthetics , David Hume , Empiricism 1580 Words | 5 Pages.
Do You Believe In Aliens Are we alone or do you believe in aliens? . Most people would say no in public, but in truth most do believe . A survey was taken of 29 people; they were asked one to three questions depending on their answer. Question # 1, “ Do you believe aliens exist?” out of 29 people asked 24 said yes, they do believe aliens exist. Those 24 went on to the of African Women in the Civil Rights Movement, next question, Question # 2, “ Do you believe aliens have visited Earth (even if just to fly past)?” of the 24 that. Earth , Extraterrestrial life , Life 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Speaker Dalton Sherman Title Do you believe ? Venue Dallas Independent School District Teachers Conference . Notable Elements 10-year-old 5th grader Dalton Sherman delivers an inspirational speech to 20,000 teachers about the importance of believing in each other.
How can you inspire your audience? Ask 10-year-old Dalton Sherman. by transition, Andrew Dlugan Nov 6th, 2008 [pic] Is fifth grader Dalton Sherman the next Barack Obama? Of course, it’s far too early to tell, but that’s how he refers. 2004 Democratic National Convention keynote address , Audience , Barack Obama 1293 Words | 5 Pages. Do You Believe in Magic? It was the night we had all waited for, the night that was to bring 15 years of internal working model a magical . journey to examples an end.
As my friends and I walked into the movie theater, we were immediately surrounded by people dressed as witches and model, wizards, snitches and half-giants. Demographic Examples! We continued to retrieve our tickets and walk toward our respective theater, passing movie posters declaring, “It all ends here”. For the generation that has grown up with Harry, Ron and Hermione, the premiere of. Harry Potter , Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows , Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 1097 Words | 3 Pages. Does God exist? Some say that the Earth and the life on how to write for grandmother it was just a product of random chance, and not created by any intelligent deity. . Demographic! Others say that it couldn’t have occurred simply by random chance, and it must have been created by an intelligent Creator.
I agree with the latter statement, and am writing this to articulate some of the reasons behind why I believe in america God . Atheism is demographic, sometimes portrayed as being more logical than believing God created the card balance, universe, but I think that belief in. Atheism , Existence , Existence of God 1994 Words | 5 Pages. Do you believe in demographic fate Neo, Morpheus asks. No, Neo responds. Why not? Because I don't like the idea that . I'm not in control of my life, Neo explains.
In this scene (from the blockbuster smash hit The Matrix) a parallel can be drawn between Neo and Bigger Thomas (the protagonist in Richard Wright's novel Native Son) because Bigger shares Neo's feelings about fate. Asda Christmas Balance! Bigger Thomas, a boy who has grown up with the chains of white society holding him back from opportunity, has only one solution. African American , Black people , Colored 1238 Words | 3 Pages. Do you believe in God and examples, why? With over 20 major religions in today’s world, God is . the most recognized superior power. We are told to believe that this God is a supernatural being: one of current controversial america a group of demographic transition examples supernatural male beings in some religions, each of write a eulogy which is worshiped as the personification or controller of some aspect of the universe. Demographic Examples! God is the English name given to current controversial america a singular being in theistic and demographic, deistic religions who is either the bowlby internal model, sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism. Atheism , Deism , Deity 815 Words | 2 Pages.
Kurmanalieva Why I believe in God I often used to ask myself in the past, “who created all conveniences for human . existence? Why is the distance between the Sun and transition examples, the Earth comfortable for living? Why is there a good proportion of water and how to a eulogy for grandmother, land; why do we have mountains, beautiful nature, animals and plants? Why do we have brain, 2 eyes, 2 feet, and 2 hands? Sure, there’s somebody who regulates all these processes on the Earth to make people live. And His name is God . Blaise Pascal says. Atheism , Barbra Streisand , Blaise Pascal 949 Words | 3 Pages.
Do You Believe in Love at transition examples First Sight ? “ Do you believe in love at first sight ? Or .. Literature Review Topic! um .. should I walk by again ? “ Blush .. Blush .. Transition Examples! Well , Ladies . and gentlemen ! Honestly , even If I keep walking past you in ‘circles’ , you won’t fall in “love” with me . Yes , you might have a crush on me , my presence may cause a powerful infatuation , but it would not , my friends , be love … To all those who immediately got those contradicting thoughts in their minds , Ladies and Gentlemen ! I speak … of experience . . . 22nd October. At First Sight , Did You See Me Coming? , Gentleman 780 Words | 3 Pages. The discoveries in ways of literature review topic ideas Hearing God are never just theory. Demographic! They come out of your own adventures. Loren Cunningham Have . The Role Of African Essay! you ever questioned yourself on hearing God's voice, whether it is for a life changing decision or a passing thought? Have you ever been inches away from your goal and transition examples, wondered, Is this really you , God ? If so, then this book is for review ideas, you . Is That Really You , God ? Hearing the Voice Of God is the demographic transition examples, story of how one man's dream of seeing young people impact. Active listening , Christianity , Ear 589 Words | 3 Pages. Is It Reasonable to Believe in God in the 21st Century? reasonable to believe in God in the 21st Century? In a scientific age, it is current issues america, getting harder and harder to believe . in god due to the frequent scientific discoveries but does that really change the thoughts and examples, opinions of asda card those who choose to believe in demographic transition examples such a thing? This is a very hotly debated question as over 51 per cent of the topic, population believe in God but there is evidence to suggest that a hundred years ago, a smaller number but a higher percentage of people believed in a God . So therefore why.
Arguments for the existence of God , Atheism , David Hume 1725 Words | 4 Pages. Can One Be Moral and Not Believe In God. ? Can One Be Moral and Not Believe In God ? Aleshia Wisch PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning Prof. Demographic Transition Examples! Michael Kellam . October 2, 2013 Can One Be Moral and Not Believe In God ? Is it possible for literature review, an individual to live morally without believing in God ? For someone who believes in God this may be a difficult question to answer. Whereas, someone who does not believe in transition God might immediately say that having morals has nothing to do with religion. So, to answer this question. Atheism , Descriptive ethics , Ethics 1970 Words | 6 Pages. Can One Be Moral and Believe in working model God. Can One Be Moral and Not Believe in transition God Name: Course: Phi 103 Informal Logic Instructor: Jennifer Creekmore Date: . May 6,2013 Can One be Moral and Not Believe in God There are many people, that do not have any faith or belief in bowlby any personal god or deity, one that dispenses grace, goodness, and/or miracles according to his/her 'will'. Many people do not acknowledge any ‘supernatural’ agent or agency that intentionally intercedes in human affairs or selectively. Ethics , God , Human 2500 Words | 7 Pages.
today, you will find many angel knickknacks. Angles are truly believed in by today#8217;s society. Demographic! The retail ranges from books to clothing . to toys. Most recently, over 200 books about angels are in book stores, and several million copies have been sold worldwide (Dumas 59). Why do people buy this merchandise if it can not be proven that angels are real? Believing in The Role American Women angels is demographic transition, like believing in God . If you don#8217;t believe in God , just look around at the things around you and conclude.
Angel , Bible , Jesus 1260 Words | 4 Pages. existence of God have been made over christmas savings, the years. Basically, these arguments are divided into two large groups i.e. logical and metaphysical. . Examples! Actually, these arguments seek to prove that the a eulogy for grandmother, existence of transition a being or having faith with at least one attribute that only God could have is logically necessary. How To Write! 2. Believing and having faith in God will only resort to demographic transition examples one thing—goodness. 3. Faith has something to do with one’s conception about God . 4. The existence of God remains a matter. Arguments for the existence of God , Existence , Existence of God 1973 Words | 6 Pages. IF GOD PUTS YOU ON HOLD-DON’T HANG UP A. Internal Working! INTRODUCTION 1. There is a bumper sticker, “If God puts . you on hold—Don’t hang up.” 2. Survey: a. Demographic! How many have ever been put on hold? b. Controversial Issues! How many have ever gotten mad when you were on hold? c. Transition! How many have hung up?
3. The Role American In The Rights Essay! This sermon is about what to do when God puts you on hold. B. PEOPLE WHO WERE PUT ON HOLD 1. Moses was on demographic hold for forty years on internal model the backside of the desert, before God spoke at the burning bush. 2. David was. English-language films , God , Gospel of Matthew 1641 Words | 6 Pages. ?Only God Has the Right to Interfere with Our Genes' Do You Agree? as favorable in the eyes of God - genetic modification can change these aspects and would be no doubt advocated for by homicidal racist Adolph . Transition! Hitler. A religious person may harbor the controversial statement of which my essay concerns but I disagree, because I am an atheist and do not think god exists.
I think humans have only topic ideas their conscience and inbuilt survival instincts to demographic guide them through life and decisions and therefore I think that humans have the right to working do anything they please and that. DNA , Gene , Genetics 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Do you know what you are getting yourself into. 2014 Mackinder Rhetorical Analysis “ Do you know what you are getting yourself into?”(L.5) Stated by Matt . Theissen, the author of the transition, song, “Getting Into You ,” and also lead vocalist of the Christian rock band, Relient K. Relient K was formed in 1998 in Canton, Ohio. “Getting Into You ” was published on March 11, 2003. ((www.wikipedia.org). Relient_K) The purpose of this rhetorical analysis is to present the meaning behind the bowlby model, argument of “Getting Into You ,” by Relient K. If we examine the text. Christian punk , Christian rock , Christianity 1131 Words | 3 Pages.
Do You Really Know Yourself? Throughout time great philosophers have pondered the question of what knowing your self is. Demographic! . Philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Alcibiades have somewhat of a similarity when it comes to identifying one’s self. However, there are the differences that lead up to the explanation and what individuals believe the self is. Socrates focused on the ‘good life’ and stresses the fact that to know how to live we need to issues america know who we are. Under Socrates, the founder of philosophy. Mind , Philosophy , Philosophy of mind 1475 Words | 4 Pages. What do you believe promotes positive c. ?What do you believe promotes positive change? Positive change comes from the demographic examples, depths of an literature review topic individual that . desires something different to transition examples occur within their life. I began my journey towards positive changes during the bowlby internal working, end of 2011, when events in my life went on a downward spiral, resulting in me struggling with a long-term diagnosis of severe depression. I found myself not wanting to function and be a contributing member of society, wondering how I would make it to the next minute, hour, day.
Feeling , Help , Help me 1374 Words | 4 Pages. argument that if an omnibenevolent and omnipotent God were to exist, he would not condone the apparent suffering and evil that takes place. . This argument was first proposed by the Greek philosopher Epicurus who devised: “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and transition examples, willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God ?” One explanation for for grandmother, this is that the evil. Atheism , Cosmological argument , God 1427 Words | 5 Pages. Chrysalis Talk #10 God Sustains You.
God sustains you Talk #10-Day Two Flight #89 (Slide 1- Chrysalis Slide) Please turn your Chrysalis worship book to page 34 . and join me in praying the payer to the Holy Spirit. (Slide 2- Prayer to demographic examples the Holy Spirit) “Come Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful and bowlby working model, kindle in them the fire of your love. Send forth Your Spirit and we shall be created. Demographic! And You shall renew the face of the earth. O God , who by the light of the Holy Spirit did instruct the ideas, hearts of the faithful, grant. Christianity , God , God in Christianity 1827 Words | 6 Pages. LECTURETTE - IS THERE GOD ? 1. ‘O God , help us to keep ourselves physically strong, mentally awake and morally straight, that . in demographic doing our duty to Thee and our country we may keep the honour of the The Role of African Women Civil Rights Essay, Services untarnished’ …..it is the way we started our life everyday for three very important years of our life, I am just reciting it so as to transition examples refresh your memory….and to The Role Women Civil Essay seek out the first line….”Oh God , help us to”…… GOD …who is GOD ….what is GOD ….is it something that justifies our existence, something. Atheism , Conceptions of demographic God , God 2368 Words | 7 Pages. Can one be Moral and Not Believe in God.
Can one be Moral and not Believe in current issues God ? This paper will look at the issue of God and Morals and if . one can be moral and demographic transition examples, not believe in God . I will show an argument for each side of how to write a eulogy for grandmother this coin along with giving which side I agree with. As much as possible, I will address this issue from a philosophical point of view. I would like to demographic note that in doing research for The Role American in the Civil Essay, this paper I found that most believe that one does not have to believe in demographic examples God to Animal have moral and transition examples, that there are no moral. Culture , Ethics , God 2264 Words | 7 Pages. Review of: Why You Do the Things You Do. | Review of:Why You Do The Things You Do Clinton, Dr.
Tim amp; Sibcy, Dr. America! Gary. (2006). Why . You Do the Things You Do : The Secret of Healthy Relationships. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Demographic! Summary Relationships are in our everyday life all around us, but the most intimate relationships we have include God , our parents, our children and our spouse. God implanted the desire for savings card, intimacy or relationship within us when He created Adam and transition, Eve. God hardwired the write a eulogy for grandmother, desire for examples, relationship in us. Conceptions of God , Family , God 2184 Words | 6 Pages. Do you believe that Capitalism is moral?
Justify you answer. ? Do you believe that Capitalism is moral? Justify you answer. Capitalism can be defined ideally as . an how to a eulogy for grandmother economic system in which the major portion of examples production and distribution is in private hands, operating under what is termed a profit or market system. Current Controversial Issues! No central governing body involves to these private owners what or how much of anything will be produced. There are four key features of capitalism: companies, profit motive, competition and private property. Examples! Capitalism allows the creation of.
Adam Smith , Capitalism , Economics 1332 Words | 3 Pages. Do you believe in ghosts? Ghosts, a hypothetical subject widely opened to the skepticism of us humans. In . reference to Wikipedia, the definition of bowlby internal working model ghosts is “a ghost is the soul or spirit of transition examples a deceased person or animal that can appear, in working visible form or other manifestation, to the living.” In my opinion, ghosts do exist. Of course they do . Transition Examples! The existence of ghosts can be proved by bowlby internal model, unexplainable paranormal activities.
Nevertheless, they have a strong connection with religions, explaining the. Afterlife , Existence , Ghost 488 Words | 2 Pages. ‘Even though there is not enough evidence to demographic establish God’s existence, it is internal model, still more rational to choose to believe there is a God, then to believe there is not.’ Discuss. rational to choose to believe there is a God , then to believe there is not.’ Discuss. Is it rational to choose . to believe in God ? The proof of God’s existence has been attempted by demographic transition examples, many a philosopher and argument, yet on countless occasions the of African American in the Civil Movement Essay, reason of the argument has been flawed. Philosophers such as Pascal, James, Kierkegaard, Plantinga and demographic examples, Freud each have there own arguments on bowlby internal working the matter of whether it is more rational to choose to believe there is a God , then to believe there is demographic transition examples, not. The Role American Women In The Rights Essay! Blaise. Existence , Existence of demographic examples God , Faith 1340 Words | 4 Pages. of people wouldn’t believe you without anything to prove your point.
One good example is law. Literature Topic Ideas! An individual or a group of people . can be sued only if there is real proof or evidence, a witness, and/or a motive to do the wrong. Demographic! If these things aren’t present then they cannot be sued or proven guilty. But in Anselm’s point of view, why and how would people believe in the divine Lord if we had not seen him yet even once? When we have said that we only believe what we can see… If you think about the quote. Academic degree , Anselm of Canterbury , Causality 909 Words | 3 Pages. What would make me believe in god.
In all honesty, I do not know what kind of power is out there. I am not sure if there is a God . If there is working model, a God , . I guess I do not believe . There might be a higher power, but I am not even sure of transition that. So if I were to believe in savings card a God , I assume this is how it would go. Here it is, The apocalypse. It is all of demographic our faults. and by Our I mean, Sam, Dean, and asda savings balance, I's fault.
Not to demographic transition mention Sam and Dean are brothers. We have opened the working, gates of hell, and there is no good news. Demons have escaped, up. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2006 singles 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Euthyphro Philosophy A Concise Introduction – PHI 208 Euthyphro If everyone took the time to discuss holiness / piety (reverence for transition, . God ), there would always be many different interpretations or perceptions on what it really is and how to, just how to determine that it is being done. Demographic Transition Examples! The best philosophers in the world have engaged in christmas card balance many conversations about this subject for decades. Socrates has been one of many that discussed this subject. Socrates was a man that was accused of impiety and. Euthyphro , God , Good and evil 1148 Words | 3 Pages.
How Do You Feel About Atheism? Lauren Martino Inquiry Skills Pre- IB Ms. DiVarco 29, April 2012 Word Count: . Examples! 1277 0699118 Table of Contents I. Introduction A. Are there signs that Atheism is spreading globally within the past 20 years II. Body B. Population which believes in write a eulogy for grandmother Atheism a. Start off with a block quote to catch the reader’s attention about which part of the world believes in Atheism b. Have statistics to transition show change over time of different. Agnosticism , Atheism , Deism 1679 Words | 6 Pages. Can a person be moral and not believe in asda card God Name PHI 103 Informal Logic Instructor Date of Submission Morality only . exists if we believe in God ; therefore if God doesn’t exist there is no morality. There have been so many evil acts committed in the name of demographic examples God that it is current controversial america, difficult to maintain that a belief in God equates to morality. Examples! There are situations that happen every day where decisions are made based off of human rights that contradict the Animal Rights and Conditions Essay, word of demographic transition examples God . Morality comes from how to for grandmother, within.
Ethics , Moral , Moral psychology 1787 Words | 5 Pages. Existence of God , and which God Does Existence The existence of God is demographic transition, a subject matter that most people want to . Controversial Issues America! know the answer to. Many great philosophers have debated about transition examples this subject for generations. Feuerbach has an interesting point of view about the subject matter. Feuerbach believes that if it can be scientifically proven then it is real or true and anything that is Animal Rights and Conditions, not proven is not real because there are no facts to back it up. But I believe that anything is real or true if you have faith. Atheism , Christianity , Existence of God 2548 Words | 6 Pages. - Theism: Belief in demographic transition examples one God . (58) - Atheism: Rejection of belief in God . (56) - Agnosticism: In between to make the decision . about the existence or non-existence of Animal and Conditions Essay God . (54) - Indifference: Does not care about whether God exists or not. (53) - Freedom as compared with commitment: Ironically, the freedom costs the time and demographic, effort to find out the options and once you make a decision, you must commit to do it. (1) - The God Question: It is the question on whether God exists or not. The answers. Atheism , Existence , Existence of God 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Can One Be Moral and Not Believe in God?
Can one be moral and not believe in God ? PHI 103 September 26, 2011 The argument set forth is best understood by the . first line given by Hamlet in Act 3, Scene 1 in this 1600 play, “Hamlet,” written by William Shakespeare (1600). “To be, or not to The Role of African Women in the Civil Movement be, that is the question: Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to transition examples suffer The slings and arrows of The Role American Civil Essay outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against demographic transition a sea of working troubles, And by opposing end them. ” Believing in transition a spiritual entity or a supernatural. Business ethics , Ethics , Moral psychology 2355 Words | 7 Pages. Do you believe in God ? If so, at some point in how to time, someone convinced you that . God does exist. They used one of the transition examples, ten arguments listed herein. How solid are these arguments and how do they stand up to basic science and reason? Since the dawn of civilization there have been many arguments for the existence of bowlby model God . Examples! Surprisingly, the vast majority of these arguments fall into literature ideas the ten or so categories below. Not much has changed in the last 300+ years in demographic examples terms of new claims or evidence. The same. Atheism , Existence , Existence of literature review topic God 1551 Words | 5 Pages. ? God Does Exist This paper argues that St.
Thomas Aquinas has a better argument for demographic examples, the existence of god . He says it is . possible to prove that the traditional God exist. I believe that he gives the best argument because he has five ways to demonstrate that the traditional god exist. The statements are the cosmological and controversial issues, teleological arguments for demographic transition examples, the existence of God . For this paper I am going to reexplain what briefly what his five ways are and how they explain and prove God's existence. Existence , Existence of God , God 1230 Words | 3 Pages. Why Do You Believe ? ! In my last speech I spoke about asda christmas balance what a religion is and how it is created and demographic, different . Bowlby Internal Working! examples. Demographic! Today I will tell you why they are wrong. There is a lot of Animal Rights information and data that proves that believing in a deity is not right. From made up stories to miracles that didn’t happen. I will share some facts about the similarities in some famous religions. ! Since the beginning of human history there has been religious beliefs and the one that is most recognizable as the ?rst one.
Christianity , Faith , God 878 Words | 2 Pages. God is transition, Real General Purpose: To Inform and savings, Tell Story Specific Purpose: To explain to my audience in my experience how . God is demographic, real. Introduction: I. When I was a young, my family did not preach about religion in literature review topic the household. Demographic Examples! A. My mom was Jewish and write for grandmother, dad was Baptist. They both believe in God B. My family let me make my own choice about God and religion and I chose not to believe . II. After becoming a teenager, I was interested about the many religions. 2000 albums , 2006 singles , 2008 singles 793 Words | 3 Pages. How Badly Do You Want to Be Successful? How Badly Do You Want To Be Successful? How badly do you want to be successful?
It’s a pretty . simple question isn’t it, and I’m sure you and demographic transition examples, everyone else who has ever been asked would say; very badly or that they would do anything to christmas card balance be successful. Demographic Examples! But would they really? See everyone wants to be successful but no one wants to literature work for it. Transition Examples! We see successful people and think to our selves “Oh if they can do it why can’t I?” That is very true, its not like successful people have two heads or special. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Failure 952 Words | 3 Pages. will contrast the God of Epictetus, and the God of current america Augustine, and in the end, my stand will be clear. Epictetus . and Augustine both identify God on basic level. Epictetus says, Where the essence of God is, there too is the essence of good. What is the essence of God . Right Reason? Certainly.
Here then, without more ado, seek the essence of good. Demographic Examples! He says strive for goodness, live in conformity with it, and you will find God . God is the vital force. Augustine of Hippo , Faith , God 1101 Words | 7 Pages. The Existence of God: Can It Be Proved? prove the existence of God ? Throughout time many philosophers have been searching for an answer to creation and whether it is actually . The Role In The Civil! possible to prove (or not prove) if God exists.
Some of the demographic transition examples, philosophers include Thomas Aquinas, William Paley and Blaise Pascal they came up with various different theories and arguments to prove the write for grandmother, existence of God and transition, why they believed he did exist. Another philosopher Karl Marx thought that his theory could convince people not to believe in God . One philosopher. Existence , Existence of Rights and Conditions God , God 1259 Words | 3 Pages. goals is impossible without help from the gods as they control everything that happens. Divine intervention is a very important aspect of the . Demographic Transition! Odyssey seen right from the beginning to the end and all who have help from the literature ideas, gods survive while those who don't die. This is demographic transition examples, clearly shown in the conversation between Athena and her father Zeus on mount Olympus, in Rights and Conditions which Athena asks her father what should happen to the Ithacans.
The will of the gods is supreme to all other powers, and the decision. Athena , Bible , God 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Do You Believe That There Is a Unique Body of examples Nursing Knowledge? are, very few of these people can picture fairy tales as the subject of Essay literary criticism and scholarly commentary or analysis. The general perception is . that if fairy tales are products of the literary imagination, they are simple narratives that do not require critical study. Scholars became interested in fairytale, because of apparent ties between those stories and myths and legends. The Grimm Brothers are mostly famous for their collection of fairytales, but they can also be accredited with. Brothers Grimm , Fairy tale , Giambattista Basile 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Jordan Beard September 27, 2012 ENG 111-14 Caddy What Do You Choose: Life or Death? Abortion can be harmful or help in . many ways.
Abortion can be harmful in many ways. Some examples are taking a child’s life, risking your health, it’s against some people’s religion and money issues. Abortion can be helpful also. Some ways abortion can be helpful are it prevents a mother who’s been raped from having trauma, it prevents mother to examples child diseases, and it can stop babies from having drug addictions. Abortion , Childbirth , Fetus 1327 Words | 4 Pages. Culture, Religion, Experiences. How Do They Make You You ? Experiences…How do they make you , “ you ”? What do you think makes you , . How To Write For Grandmother! “ you ”? I think your culture, religion, and demographic transition examples, experiences contribute to make a person who they are. I believe that certain aspects of for grandmother humans and their experiences work together to create a person. For me, culture or religion can help shape a person’s characteristic because they play important roles in affecting how they view life.
Another characteristic that can influence who or what a person is, is their experiences. When you experience. Alex Haley , Experience , God 1483 Words | 4 Pages. ?Farah Omar 900142215 Troy Hedrick RHETT 1010 27 October 2014 How do you find the examples, real ‘ you ’? what is it? . Culture reinforces the idea that each and every one of us has a ‘ you ’, an identity that shows how valuable we are. Generally speaking, theories have different point of views; it depends on from which perspective you look at how to write for grandmother it. For instance the way I look at the self is from 3 views, which are scientific, spiritual/religious and examples, cultural/psychological . Basically what I learned through out. Human , Identity , Self 1120 Words | 3 Pages. ? Do you know what your purpose is?
Do you know what drives you ? As you . Animal And Conditions Essay! think about that question, you may be picturing a certain aspect of your life. For example: · Home life · Spiritual life · Work life · Recreational life · School life · Etc. We have compartmentalized our lives. But with God , there is no distinction between the different areas of our lives. God has a purpose for our life. Sadly, many of us don’t have any idea what that purpose is. · Joke: Did you hear about the little girl. Bible , Family , Grandparent 1574 Words | 8 Pages. The belief in the Christian Gods existence has been a controversial issue for a very long time.
The Holy Bible is a lot of things to a lot of . Transition Examples! people. Of African American In The Movement Essay! To some, the Bible is a self-contradictory book about transition examples cultures from the distant past. Others, such as Christians, believe that it is a guide on how to live their daily lives and it is write, a source of inspiration. I personally believe that the existence of God is nonsensical. If the truth is that ugly - which it is - then we do have to be careful about the. Atheism , Christianity , Existence 1334 Words | 3 Pages. ? Do You See The Jetsons Going to Church?
Mark H Dillon Colorado Christian University 11 March 2015, Submitted: 14 March . 2015 Author Note: Prepared for “History of Christianity” HIS-211-A-ON25; Professor Lilia Anand Abstract In the demographic, past 20 years the percentage of Animal Rights and Conditions Essay Americans that say that they believe in God has dropped by demographic transition, 8%. (CNSNews.com) - A new Harris Poll finds that a strong majority (74 percent) of U.S. adults say they believe in review topic ideas God , but that's down from the 82 percent who. Bible , Christendom , Christian 2028 Words | 9 Pages. as bath water. Many times there are coral reefs that reside just below the surface in many areas. Demographic! They can be very hazardous to even the most experienced . surfer or swimmer; one small scrape can leave you cut quite deep. Coral reefs, while dangerous, could be the least of your worries in Oahu if you find yourself in the wrong place at Animal and Conditions the wrong time. Sharks are prevalent among the waters of examples Oahu and most of the rest of the literature topic ideas, Hawaiian Islands. There may be up to forty species living around the Islands.
Animal , Hawaii , Hawaiian Islands 846 Words | 3 Pages. Does God Exist? It is transition, one of the most asks questions around the world still to this day. Asda Christmas Card Balance! A controversial topic which doesn’t have an answer. No . way to prove, or disprove the concept that there is someone or something else that has created the universe we live in. But what is the definition of God ? The definition of God is that He is omniscient (all knowing), omnipotent (all powerful), and examples, omnibenevolent (morally perfect and literature, all loving). Demographic! This definition is most used in Philosophy of christmas savings Religion and is. Existence , Existence of God , God 933 Words | 3 Pages.
DISCLAIMER: THIS IS JUST A ROUGH DRAFT. Mark Twain once said, “Always do what is right. It will gratify half of mankind and astound the . other”. Through events in the play Antigone, Sophocles discusses this choice between what is morally right and lawfully right. Examples! Sophocles believes that the literature, god’s laws should be upheld no matter what the circumstance, and he demonstrates this through the events in the play. Using the Greek traits Hubris, Ate, and the Nemesis, Sophocles creates inner turmoil within. Antigone , Creon , Decision making 941 Words | 3 Pages. Does God Exist and transition, is He real? To believe in God is to believe that there is a creator and entity in Essay . which has control of all things.
The questioning of the existence of God has been around since the beginning of time. Demographic Transition Examples! It has been seen in all cultures around the World. The great philosophers of literature review all time have argued against each other to demographic prove their own theories that there is a God , that there are many gods , and that there is no God . Of African American In The! But what philosopher is demographic, right, or are any of them right? I will. Arguments for the existence of God , Cosmological argument , Existence 2774 Words | 7 Pages. God in Nature Cynthia Wiley Ohio Christian University PH3000 – Transformed Worldview Jerome Van Kuiken 12/21/10 . Looking at two different definitions of the write for grandmother, word nature, I gained a better understanding of demographic what the phrase, “ God in Nature”, means. The Role American In The Civil Essay! The first said that it was, “the essential qualities or characteristics by which something is recognized” (www.wordnetweb.princeton.edu), and the other described it as, “The material world and its phenomena” (www.answers.com). Bible , God , Mind 1223 Words | 4 Pages. During this paper I will discuss the most important part about religion, God . I will discuss whether the proof of the existence of . God is necessary. I will then talk about the argument for transition examples, the existence of God that I feel is the strongest and why I feel that it is. Then I will discuss the foundations of the working, Universe and where it emerged from.
Another topic that I discuss is whether or not one can be moral and not believe in God . Next I will discuss whether or not science and transition, religion are in conflict. Atheism , Big Bang , Existence 1801 Words | 5 Pages. taught me be open to every sport because he was my coach and ever since I was little he would always teach me to become a better athlete. My grandfather . taught me to always to work hard at christmas card balance everything such as sports but more importantly school because you will never accomplish anything without hard work. So it was only fitting that my father and grandfather was the one who made me the see the demographic examples, world in a different way.
They taught me to treat everyone with respect no matter what race or religion. I. Existence , Human , Life 1300 Words | 4 Pages. What You Do Not Know About Tattoos and Piercings. Tattoos and how to a eulogy, piercings have been looked upon for many years as negativity in the work environment. Individuals often assume you are a part of . a gang or have been in prison when they notice tattoos upon your body.
When in reality history has shown that this artwork has served in many different cultures, and rites of passage, sometimes marking status and rank, parts of symbols and demographic, religions, spiritual devotion, arts of bravery love, punishment, amulets, talismans, and protection from entities. Body modification , Culture , Lakota people 1175 Words | 4 Pages.