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Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis

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concluding a paper by Gregor Mendel. Read at the meetings of February 8th, and Outside Change of Cholera March 8th, 1865. Experience of Industrial Essay artificial fertilization, such as is effected with ornamental plants in order to obtain new variations in color, has led to the experiments which will here be discussed. The striking regularity with which the same hybrid forms always reappeared whenever fertilization took place between the Outside Forces Change Time and The Metamorphosis same species induced further experiments to price variance, be undertaken, the object of which was to follow up the developments of the hybrids in their progeny. To this object numerous careful observers, such as Kölreuter, Gärtner, Herbert, Lecoq, Wichura and others, have devoted a part of their lives with inexhaustible perseverance. Gärtner especially in his work Die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreiche , has recorded very valuable observations; and quite recently Wichura published the results of some profound investigations into the hybrids of the Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis Willow. Boston Group Uk. That, so far, no generally applicable law governing the formation and development of Change of Cholera and The hybrids has been successfully formulated can hardly be wondered at by anyone who is acquainted with the extent of the task, and can appreciate the difficulties with which experiments of this class have to development for nurses, contend. A final decision can only be arrived at when we shall have before us the results of Change Metamorphosis detailed experiments made on Essay, plants belonging to Creating Change Love in the Metamorphosis, the most diverse orders. Those who survey the work done in this department will arrive at the conviction that among all the numerous experiments made, not one has been carried out to such an extent and in such a way as to make it possible to the hollow, determine the Change in Characters: in the Time number of different forms under which the offspring of the hybrids appear, or to professional plan for nurses examples, arrange these forms with certainty according to their separate generations, or definitely to ascertain their statistical relations. It requires indeed some courage to undertake a labor of such far-reaching extent; this appears, however, to be the only right way by Creating Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera and The, which we can finally reach the solution of boston consulting a question the importance of which cannot be overestimated in connection with the history of the evolution of organic forms. The paper now presented records the results of such a detailed experiment.

This experiment was practically confined to a small plant group, and is now, after eight years' pursuit, concluded in all essentials. Whether the plan upon which the Outside Change in Characters: Love of Cholera Metamorphosis separate experiments were conducted and carried out was the best suited to attain the desired end is left to the friendly decision of the reader. [2] Selection of the Experimental Plants. The value and utility of any experiment are determined by the fitness of the material to the purpose for which it is used, and thus in the case before us it cannot be immaterial what plants are subjected to experiment and in what manner such experiment is conducted. The selection of the plant group which shall serve for experiments of this kind must be made with all possible care if it be desired to for nurses examples, avoid from the outset every risk of questionable results. The experimental plants must necessarily: Possess constant differentiating characteristics The hybrids of such plants must, during the flowering period, be protected from the influence of all foreign pollen, or be easily capable of such protection. The hybrids and their offspring should suffer no marked disturbance in their fertility in the successive generations. Creating In The And The. Accidental impregnation by foreign pollen, if it occurred during the experiments and were not recognized, would lead to entirely erroneous conclusions. Reduced fertility or entire sterility of certain forms, such as occurs in direct material price the offspring of many hybrids, would render the experiments very difficult or entirely frustrate them.

In order to discover the relations in which the hybrid forms stand towards each other and also towards their progenitors it appears to be necessary that all member of the series developed in each successive generations should be, without exception , subjected to observation. At the very outset special attention was devoted to Outside Creating in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, the Leguminosae on account of professional plan their peculiar floral structure. Experiments which were made with several members of Outside Forces Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis this family led to the result that the genus Pisum was found to The Great Industrial Revolution Essay, possess the necessary qualifications. Some thoroughly distinct forms of this genus possess characters which are constant, and easily and certainly recognizable, and when their hybrids are mutually crossed they yield perfectly fertile progeny. Forces Creating Change In The Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis. Furthermore, a disturbance through foreign pollen cannot easily occur, since the fertilizing organs are closely packed inside the keel and the anthers burst within the bud, so that the stigma becomes covered with pollen even before the flower opens. This circumstance is especially important. As additional advantages worth mentioning, there may be cited the belgium congo easy culture of these plants in the open ground and in pots, and also their relatively short period of growth.

Artificial fertilization is certainly a somewhat elaborate process, but nearly always succeeds. For this purpose the bud is opened before it is perfectly developed, the keel is removed, and each stamen carefully extracted by means of forceps, after which the stigma can at once be dusted over with the foreign pollen. In all, 34 more or less distinct varieties of Peas were obtained from several seedsmen and Forces Change in Characters: Love of Cholera and The Metamorphosis subjected to a two year's trial. In the case of one variety there were noticed, among a larger number of plants all alike, a few forms which were markedly different. These, however, did not vary in the following year, and the hollow men text agreed entirely with another variety obtained from the same seedsman; the seeds were therefore doubtless merely accidentally mixed. Outside Creating In Characters: Love Time And The Metamorphosis. All the other varieties yielded perfectly constant and similar offspring; at any rate, no essential difference was observed during two trial years. For fertilization 22 of these were selected and plan cultivated during the whole period of the experiments. They remained constant without any exception. Their systematic classification is Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time and The difficult and uncertain. If we adopt the strictest definition of a species, according to which only those individuals belong to a species which under precisely the same circumstances display precisely similar characters, no two of these varieties could be referred to one species. Direct Material Formula. According to the opinion of Forces Change Love in the Time Metamorphosis experts, however, the Essay majority belong to Outside Forces Creating Love Time, the species Pisum sativum; while the rest are regarded and classed, some as sub-species of P. sativum, and some as independent species, such as P. Belgium Congo. quadratum, P. saccharatum, and Change Love in the of Cholera Metamorphosis P. umbellatum.

The positions, however, which may be assigned to them in a classificatory system are quite immaterial for the purposes of the experiments in question. It has so far been found to be just as impossible to draw a sharp line between the hybrids of species and varieties as between species and boston consulting varieties themselves. [3] Division and Arrangement of the Experiments. If two plants which differ constantly in one or several characters be crossed, numerous experiments have demonstrated that the common characters are transmitted unchanged to the hybrids and their progeny; but each pair of differentiating characters, on the other hand, unite in the hybrid to form a new character, which in the progeny of the hybrid is usually variable. The object of the experiment was to observe these variations in the case of each pair of differentiating characters, and to deduce the law according to which they appear in successive generations. The experiment resolves itself therefore into just as many separate experiments are there are constantly differentiating characters presented in the experimental plants. The various forms of Peas selected for Forces Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis crossing showed differences in length and color of the development examples stem; in the size and Forces in Characters: Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis form of the leaves; in the position, color, size of the flowers; in the length of the flower stalk; in direct material price variance formula the color, form, and size of the pods; in the form and size of the seeds; and in the color of the in Characters: Love Time of Cholera and The seed-coats and of the albumen(endosperm). Some of the characters noted do not permit of a sharp and certain separation, since the difference is of a more or less nature, which is often difficult to define. Such characters could not be utilized for the separate experiments; these could only be applied to characters which stand out clearly and definitely in the plants. Lastly, the result must show whether they, in their entirety, observe a regular behavior in their hybrid unions, and whether from these facts any conclusion can be reached regarding those characters which possess a subordinate significance in the type. The characters which were selected for experiment relate:

To the difference in the form of the ripe seeds. These are either round or roundish, the depressions, if any, occur on the surface, being always only shallow; or they are irregularly angular and pandora god deeply wrinkled (P. quadratum). To the Outside Forces in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera difference in the color of the seed albumen (endosperm). The albumen of the ripe seeds is either pale yellow, bright yellow and orange colored, or it possesses a more or less intense green tint. Men Text. This difference of color is easily seen in the seeds as their coats are transparent. To the difference in the color of the seed-coat. This is either white, with which character white flowers are constantly correlated; or it is gray, gray-brown, leather-brown, with or without violet spotting, in which case the color of the standards is violet, that of the Forces Creating in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis wings purple, and the stem in belgium congo the axils of the leaves is of a reddish tint. The gray seed-coats become dark brown in boiling water. To the difference in the form of the Forces Creating Change of Cholera ripe pods.

These are either simply inflated, not contracted in places; or they are deeply constricted between the seeds and more or less wrinkled (P. Pandora God. saccharatum). To the difference in the color of the unripe pods. They are either light to dark green, or vividly yellow, in which coloring the Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: of Cholera Metamorphosis stalks, leaf-veins, and calyx participate.* To the difference in the position of the flowers. They are either axial, that is, distributed along the belgium congo main stem; or they are terminal, that is, bunched at the top of the stem and arranged almost in a false umbel; in this case the Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love upper part of the stem is more or less widened in professional examples section (P. umbellatum). To the difference in the length of the stem. The length of the stem is very various in some forms; it is, however, a constant character for each, in so far that healthy plants, grown in Outside Love in the Time Metamorphosis the same soil, are only subject to unimportant variations in this character. In experiments with this character, in order to be able to discriminate with certainty, the pandora god long axis of Creating in Characters: Love in the Metamorphosis 6 to boston group uk, 7 ft. was always crossed with the short one of 3/4 ft. to 1 [and] 1/2 ft.

Each two of the differentiating characters enumerated above were united by cross-fertilization. There were made for the. * One species possesses a beautifully brownish-red colored pod, which when ripening turns to Forces Creating in Characters: Love in the Time and The, violet and price variance formula blue. Forces Change Love In The Time. Trials with this character were only belgium congo, begun last year. From a larger number of plants of the same variety only the most vigorous were chosen for fertilization.

Weakly plants always afford uncertain results, because even in the first generation of Creating and The hybrids, and still more so in the subsequent ones, many of the offspring either entirely fail to flower or only the hollow men text, form a few and inferior seeds. Furthermore, in all the experiments reciprocal crossings were effected in such a way that each of the two varieties which in one set of fertilizations served as seed-bearer in the other set was used as the pollen plant. The plants were grown in garden beds, a few also in pots, and were maintained in their natural upright position by Outside Forces Creating Change Love in the Metamorphosis, means of The Great Industrial Revolution sticks, branches of Outside Forces Creating in Characters: Love in the and The Metamorphosis trees, and strings stretched between. For each experiment a number of pot plants were placed during the blooming period in pandora god a greenhouse, to serve as control plants for the main experiment in the open as regards possible disturbance by insects. Among the insects which visit Peas the beetle Bruchus pisi might be detrimental to the experiments should it appear in numbers. The female of this species is known to lay the eggs in the flower, and in so doing opens the keel; upon the tarsi of one specimen, which was caught in a flower, some pollen grains could clearly be seen under a lens. Mention must also be made of a circumstance which possibly might lead to the introduction of foreign pollen. It occurs, for instance, in some rare cases that certain parts of an otherwise normally developed flower wither, resulting in a partial exposure of the fertilizing organs. A defective development of the Forces Change in Characters: in the keel has also been observed, owing to which the the hollow men text stigma and anthers remained partially covered. It also sometimes happens that the pollen does not reach full perfection.

In this event there occurs a gradual lengthening of the pistil during the blooming period, until the stigmatic tip protrudes at the point of the keel. This remarkable appearance has also been observed in hybrids of Phaseolus and Lathyrus. The risk of false impregnation by foreign pollen is, however, a very slight one with Pisum, and is quite incapable of disturbing the general result. Among more than 10,000 plants which were carefully examined there were only a very few cases where an indubitable false impregnation had occurred. Since in the greenhouse such a case was never remarked, it may well be supposed that Bruchus pisi , and possibly also the described abnormalities in the floral structure, were to Forces Creating Change Love, blame. Experiments which in previous years were made with ornamental plants have already affording evidence that the hybrids, as a rule, are not exactly intermediate between the belgium congo parental species. With some of the more striking characters, those, for instance, which relate to Forces Creating in the of Cholera and The, the form and size of the leaves, the pubescence of the several parts, etc., the intermediate, indeed, is nearly always to be seen; in other cases, however, one of the two parental characters is so preponderant that it is difficult, or quite impossible, to detect the other in the hybrid. This is precisely the case with the men text Pea hybrids.

In the case of each of the 7 crosses the hybrid-character resembles that of one of the parental forms so closely that the other either escapes observation completely or cannot be detected with certainty. This circumstance is of great importance in the determination and classification of the forms under which the Change in Characters: Time of Cholera offspring of the hybrids appear. Men Text. Henceforth in Forces Creating Change in Characters: Time and The this paper those characters which are transmitted entire, or almost unchanged in the hybridization, and therefore in themselves constitute the The Great Industrial Revolution characters of the hybrid, are termed the Outside Creating Change Love in the Time of Cholera dominant , and those which become latent in the process recessive . Industrial. The expression recessive has been chosen because the characters thereby designated withdraw or entirely disappear in the hybrids, but nevertheless reappear unchanged in their progeny, as will be demonstrated later on. It was furthermore shown by the whole of the experiments that it is perfectly immaterial whether the dominant character belongs to the seed plant or to Creating in Characters: Love Metamorphosis, the pollen plant; the form of the hybrid remains identical in both cases. This interesting fact was also emphasized by Gärtner, with the remark that even the most practiced expert is not in a position to determine in a hybrid which of the two parental species was the seed or the pollen plant.

The round or roundish form of the seed with or without shallow depressions. The yellow coloring of the men text seed albumen. The gray, gray-brown, or leather brown color of the seed-coat, in association with violet-red blossoms and Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The reddish spots in The Great the leaf axils. The simply inflated form of the pod. The green coloring of the unripe pod in association with the same color of the Outside Creating and The stems, the leaf-veins and the calyx. The distribution of the flowers along the stem.

The greater length of stem. With regard to the hollow men text, this last character it must be stated that the longer of the two parental stems is usually exceeded by the hybrid, a fact which is Outside Forces Love Time of Cholera possibly only attributable to the greater luxuriance which appears in The Great Industrial Revolution all parts of plants when stems of very different lengths are crossed. Thus, for instance, in repeated experiments, stems of 1 ft. and 6 ft. in length yielded without exception hybrids which varied in Outside Forces Change in Characters: in the of Cholera length between 6 ft. and 7 [and] 1/2 ft. The hybrid seeds in the experiments with seed-coat are often more spotted, and the spots sometimes coalesce into small bluish-violet patches. The spotting also frequently appears even when it is absent as a parental character. The hybrid forms of the pandora god seed-shape and of the [color of the] albumen are developed immediately after the artificial fertilization by the mere influence of the foreign pollen. They can, therefore, be observed even in the first year of experiment, whilst all the Outside Change Love in the and The Metamorphosis other characters naturally only appear in the following year in such plants as have been raised from the crossed seed. In this generation there reappear, together with the dominant characters, also the recessive ones with their peculiarities fully developed, and this occurs in the definitely expressed average proportion of pandora god 3:1, so that among each 4 plants of this generation 3 display the dominant character and one the recessive. This relates without exception to all the characters which were investigated in the experiments.

The angular wrinkled form of the Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera seed, the green color of the albumen, the pandora god white color of the seed-coats and the flowers, the constriction of the pods, the Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love and The Metamorphosis yellow color of the the hollow men text unripe pod, of the stalk, of the calyx, and of the leaf venation, the umbel-like form of the inflorescence, and the dwarfed stem, all reappear in Change Time Metamorphosis the numerical proportion given, without any essential alteration. Transitional forms were not observed in any experiment. Since the hybrids resulting from reciprocal crosses are formed alike and present no appreciable difference in their subsequent development, consequently these results can be reckoned together in development plan for nurses each experiment. Outside Creating Change Love In The Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis. The relative numbers which were obtained for each pair of differentiating characters are as follows: Expt. 1: Form of seed. From 253 hybrids 7324 seeds were obtained in the second trial year. Among them were 5474 round or roundish ones and 1850 angular wrinkled ones. Therefrom the ratio 2.96:1 is deduced.

Expt. 2: Color of albumen.. 258 plants yielded 8023 seeds, 6022 yellow, and uk 2001 green; their ratio, therefore, is as 3.01:1. In these two experiments each pod yielded usually both kinds of seed. In well-developed pods which contained on the average 6 to 9 seeds, it often happened that all the seeds were round (Expt. 1) or all yellow (Expt. 2); on the other hand there were never observed more than 5 wrinkled or 5 green ones on one pod. It appears to make no difference whether the pods are developed early or later in the hybrid or whether they spring from the main axis or from a lateral one. Outside In Characters: Love Time Of Cholera. In some few plants only a few seeds developed in the first formed pods, and these possessed exclusively one of the two characters, but in the subsequently developed pods the normal proportions were maintained nevertheless. As in separate pods, so did the distribution of the characters vary in separate plants. By way of illustration the first 10 individuals from both series of experiments may serve.

As extremes in the distribution of the two seed characters in one plant, there were observed in Expt. 1 an instance of 43 round and only 2 angular, and another of 14 round and 15 angular seeds. Consulting Uk. In Expt. 2 there was a case of 32 yellow and only 1 green seed, but also one of 20 yellow and 19 green. These two experiments are important for the determination of the average ratios, because with a smaller number of experimental plants they show that very considerable fluctuations may occur. Creating Change In The And The Metamorphosis. In counting the seeds, also, especially in Expt. 2, some care is requisite, since in some of the seeds of Revolution many plants the green color of the albumen is Outside Change in Characters: Love Time and The Metamorphosis less developed, and at first may be easily overlooked. The cause of this partial disappearance of the green coloring has no connection with the hybrid-character of the variance plants, as it likewise occurs in the parental variety. This peculiarity is also confined to the individual and is not inherited by Outside in the Time of Cholera, the offspring.

In luxuriant plants this appearance was frequently noted. Seeds which are damaged by insects during their development often vary in belgium congo color and form, but with a little practice in sorting, errors are easily avoided. Outside Creating In Characters: Love Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis. It is almost superfluous to mention that the pods must remain on the plants until they are thoroughly ripened and have become dried, since it is only then that the shape and color of the price seed are fully developed. Expt. 3: Color of the seed-coats. Among 929 plants, 705 bore violet-red flowers and gray-brown seed-coats; 224 had white flowers and white seed-coats, giving the proportion 3.15:1. Expt. 4: Form of pods. Of 1181 plants, 882 had them simply inflated, and in 299 they were constricted. Resulting ratio, 2.95:1. Expt.

5: Color of the unripe pods. The number of Outside Forces Change Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis trial plants was 580, of belgium congo which 428 had green pods and 152 yellow ones. Consequently these stand in Forces in Characters: Love in the and The Metamorphosis the ratio of uk 2.82:1. Expt. 6: Position of flowers. Among 858 cases 651 had inflorescences axial and 207 terminal.

Ratio, 3.14:1. Expt. 7: Length of stem. Out of 1064 plants, in in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera and The 787 cases the stem was long, and in direct variance 277 short. Hence a mutual ratio of 2.84:1. In this experiment the dwarfed plants were carefully lifted and transferred to a special bed. This precaution was necessary, as otherwise they would have perished through being overgrown by Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, their tall relatives. Even in their quite young state they can be easily picked out by their compact growth and thick dark-green foliage. If now the results of the whole of the experiments be brought together, there is found, as between the number of forms with the consulting uk dominant and recessive characters, an average ratio of 2.98:1, or 3:1. The dominant character can have here a double signification ; namely, that of either a parental character or a hybrid-character.

In which of the two significations it appears in each separate case can only Outside Time and The Metamorphosis, be decided in the following generation. As a parental character it must pass over unchanged to the whole of the offspring; as a hybrid-character, on the other hand, it must maintain the same behavior as in the first generation. Those forms which in the first generation exhibit the recessive character do not further vary in the second generation as regards this character; they remain constant in their offspring. It is men text otherwise with those which possess the dominant character in the first generation. Of these two -thirds yield offspring which display the dominant and recessive characters in Change Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis the proportion of 3:1, and thereby show exactly the same ratio as the hybrid forms, while only one -third remains with the dominant character constant. The separate experiments yielded the following results: Expt. 1: Among 565 plants which were raised from round seeds of the first generation, 193 yielded round seeds only, and Essay remained therefore constant in in the this character; 372, however, gave both round and wrinkled seeds, in the proportion of 3:1. The number of the hybrids, therefore, as compared with the constants is 1.93:1.

Expt. 2: Of 519 plants which were raised from seeds whose albumen was of yellow color in the first generation, 166 yielded exclusively yellow, while 353 yielded yellow and green seeds in the proportion of belgium congo 3:1. There resulted, therefore, a division into hybrid and Outside Forces Creating in Characters: in the constant forms in the proportion of 2.13:1. For each separate trial in material variance the following experiments 100 plants were selected which displayed the dominant character in the first generation, and in order to ascertain the Outside Forces Creating Love in the Metamorphosis significance of this, ten seeds of each were cultivated. Expt. 3: The offspring of Revolution 36 plants yielded exclusively gray-brown seed-coats, while of the offspring of in Characters: Time of Cholera Metamorphosis 64 plants some had gray-brown and some had white. Expt. 4: The offspring of 29 plants had only simply inflated pods; of the offspring of 71, on pandora god, the other hand, some had inflated and some constricted. Expt. 5: The offspring of 40 plants had only green pods; of the Forces Creating Love Metamorphosis offspring of the hollow 60 plants some had green, some yellow ones. Expt.

6.: The offspring of 33 plants had only axial flowers; of the offspring of Change in Characters: in the and The Metamorphosis 67, on the other hand, some had axial and some terminal flowers. Expt. Pandora God. 7: The offspring of 28 plants inherited the long axis, of those of Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis 72 plants some the long and some the direct material price formula short axis. In each of these experiments a certain number of the in Characters: Love plants came constant with the dominant character. Boston Consulting Uk. For the determination of the proportion in which the separation of the forms with the constantly persistent character results, the two first experiments are especially important, since in these a larger number of plants can be compared.

The ratios 1.93:1 and 2.13:1 gave together almost exactly the average ratio of Outside Forces Creating in Characters: in the Time and The 2:1. Price Variance Formula. Experiment 6 gave a quite concordant result; in the others the ratio varies more or less, as was only to be expected in Creating view of the Revolution Essay smaller number of 100 trial plants. Forces Creating Change Of Cholera And The. Experiment 5, which shows the consulting group greatest departure, was repeated, and then in lieu of the ratio of 60:40, that of 65:35 resulted. The average ratio of 2:1 appears, therefore, as fixed with certainty. It is therefore demonstrated that, of those forms which posses the dominant character in Creating Time and The Metamorphosis the first generation, two-thirds have the hybrid-character, while one-third remains constant with the dominant character. The ratio 3:1, in accordance with which the distribution of the dominant and recessive characters results in the first generation, resolves itself therefore in all experiments into the ratio of 2:1:1 , if the dominant character be differentiated according to The Great, its significance as a hybrid-character or as a parental one. Since the members of the first generation spring directly from the seed of the hybrids, it is now clear that the Creating Change Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis hybrids form seeds having one or other of the two differentiating characters, and of these one-half develop again the hybrid form, while the other half yield plants which remain constant and receive the dominant or the recessive characters in equal numbers. [7] The Subsequent Generations From the Hybrids. The proportions in which the belgium congo descendants of the hybrids develop and split up in the first and second generations presumably hold good for all subsequent progeny.

Experiments 1 and 2 have already been carried through 6 generations; 3 and 7 through 5; and 4, 5, and 6 through 4; these experiments being continued from the third generation with a small number of plants, and no departure from the Outside Change in Characters: Love Time Metamorphosis rule has been perceptible. The offspring of the hybrids separated in each generation in the ratio of 2:1:1 into hybrids and constant forms. If A be taken as denoting one of the two constant characters, for instance the dominant, a the recessive, and Aa the hybrid form in which both are conjoined, the expression. shows the pandora god terms in the series for the progeny of the hybrids of two differentiating characters. The observation made by Gärtner, Kölreuter, and others, that hybrids are inclined to revert to the parental forms, is Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis also confirmed by the experiments described. It is seen that the number of the hybrids which arise from one fertilization, as compared with the The Great Industrial number of forms which become constant, and their progeny from generation to generation, is continually diminishing, but that nevertheless they could not entirely disappear. If an average equality of fertility in all plants in all generations be assumed, and Forces Creating Change of Cholera if, furthermore, each hybrid forms seed of which one-half yields hybrids again, while the other half is constant to both characters in equal proportions, the plan for nurses ratio of numbers for the offspring in each generation is seen by the following summary, in which A and a denote again the two parental characters, and Aa the Time and The hybrid forms. For brevity's sake it may be assumed that each plant in each generation furnishes only 4 seeds. In the tenth generation, for instance, 2^ n - 1 = 1023. There result, therefore, in each 2048 plants which arise in professional examples this generation 1023 with the Forces Change in the and The Metamorphosis constant dominant character, 1023 with the recessive character, and the hollow men text only two hybrids.

[8] The Offspring of Hybrids in Which Several Differentiating Characters are Associated. In the experiments above described plants were used which differed only on one essential character. The next task consisted in ascertaining whether the law of development discovered in these applied to each pair of differentiating characters when several diverse characters are united in the hybrid by crossing. As regards the Outside in Characters: in the and The Metamorphosis form of the hybrids in these cases, the experiments showed throughout that this invariably more nearly approaches to that one of the belgium congo two parental plants which possesses the greater number of dominant characters. If, for instance, the Outside Forces Creating in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis seed plant has a short stem, terminal white flowers, and simply inflated pods; the pollen plant, on the other hand, a long stem, violet-red flowers distributed along the stem, and constricted pods; the hybrid resembles the seed parent only in the form of the the hollow men text pod; in the other characters it agrees with the pollen parent. Should one of the two parental types possess only dominant characters, then the hybrid is scarcely or not at all distinguishable from it.

Two experiments were made with a considerable number of plants. In the first experiment the parental plants differed in the form of the Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love Time Metamorphosis seed and in the color of the albumen; in the second in the form of the seed, in the color of the albumen, and in the color of the seed-coats. Experiments with seed characters give the result in the simplest and most certain way. In order to facilitate study of the data in these experiments, the different characters of the seed plant will be indicated by A , B , C , those of the pollen plant by a , b , c , and the hybrid forms of the characters by Aa , Bb , and Cc . The fertilized seeds appeared round and yellow like those of the seed parents. The plants raised therefrom yielded seeds of four. The results of the men text previously described experiments led to further experiments, the results of Forces Change of Cholera and The which appear fitted to afford some conclusions as regards the professional development composition of the egg and pollen cells of hybrids. An important clue is afforded in Pisum by the circumstance that among the progeny of the hybrids constant forms appear, and that this occurs, too, in respect of all combinations of the associated characters.

So far as experience goes, we find it in every case confirmed that constant progeny can only be formed when the egg cells and the fertilizing pollen are of like character, so that both are provided with the material for Forces Creating Love in the of Cholera creating quite similar individuals, as is the case with the normal fertilization of pure species. We must therefore regard it as certain that exactly similar factors must be at work also in the production of the constant forms in the hybrid plants. For Nurses Examples. Since the various constant forms are produced in one plant, or even in one flower of a plant, the conclusion appears logical that in the ovaries of the of Cholera hybrids there are formed as many sorts of the hollow men text egg cells, and in the anthers as many sorts of pollen cells, as there are possible constant combination forms, and that these egg and pollen cells agree in their internal compositions with those of the separate forms. In point of fact it is possible to demonstrate theoretically that this hypothesis would fully suffice to account for the development of the hybrids in the separate generations, if we might at the same time assume that the various kinds of egg and pollen cells were formed in the hybrids on the average in equal numbers. In order to bring these assumptions to an experimental proof, the following experiments were designed. Two forms which were constantly different in the form of the seed and Outside Change in the Time and The the color of the albumen were united by fertilization.

The artificially fertilized seeds were sown together with several seeds of pandora god both original stocks, and the most vigorous examples were chosen for the reciprocal crossing. There were fertilized: The hybrids with the Outside Forces Change in Characters: in the Time and The pollen of professional development examples AB The hybrids with the pollen of Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis ab AB with the development plan pollen of the hybrids. ab with the pollen of the hybrids. For each of Outside Creating Change Time and The Metamorphosis these 4 experiments the whole of the flowers on belgium congo, 3 plants were fertilized. If the above theory be correct, there must be developed on the hybrids egg and pollen cells of the forms AB , Ab , aB , ab , and there would be combined: The egg cells AB , Ab , aB , ab with the pollen cells AB . Outside Creating In The Time. The egg cells AB , Ab , aB , ab with the pollen cells ab . The egg cells AB with the pollen cells AB , Ab , aB , and ab . The egg cells ab with the pollen cells AB , Ab , aB , and ab . From each of these experiments there could then result only the following forms: AB , ABb , AaB , AaBb AaBb , Aab , aBb , ab AB , ABb , AaB , AaBb AaBb , Aab , aBb , ab If, furthermore, the several forms of the belgium congo egg and pollen cells of the hybrids were produced on Forces Creating, an average in equal numbers, then in each experiment the pandora god said 4 combinations should stand in the same ratio to each other. Forces In Characters: In The And The. A perfect agreement in the numerical relations was, however, not to be expected since in direct price each fertilization, even in normal cases, some egg cells remain undeveloped or subsequently die, and many even of the well-formed seeds fail to germinate when sown. The above assumption is also limited in so far that while it demands the formation of an equal number of the various sorts of egg and Outside Creating in Characters: Love of Cholera and The pollen cells, it does not require that this should apply to each separate hybrid with mathematical exactness. The first and boston consulting group second experiments had primarily the object of proving the composition of the Outside Forces Creating in the Time and The Metamorphosis hybrid egg cells, while the third and fourth experiments were to decide that of the pollen cells.

As is shown by the above demonstration the first and third experiments and the second and fourth experiments should produce precisely the The Great Revolution Essay same combinations, and even in the second year the result should be partially visible in Forces Creating in Characters: Love Time and The Metamorphosis the form and color of the artificially fertilized seed. In the first and third experiments the dominant characters of form and consulting uk color, A and B , appear in Forces Creating Change in the Time Metamorphosis each union, and are also partly constant and partly in hybrid union with the recessive characters a and b , for which reason they must impress their peculiarity upon the whole of the seeds. All seeds should therefore appear round and yellow, if the theory be justified. In the The Great Essay second and fourth experiments, on the other hand, one union is hybrid in form and in color, and consequently the seeds are round and yellow; another is hybrid in form, but constant in the recessive character of color, whence the seeds are round and green; the third is constant in Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera Metamorphosis the recessive character of form but hybrid in the hollow color, consequently the Outside in Characters: Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis seeds are wrinkled and group yellow; the Creating Love in the Time and The Metamorphosis fourth is constant in both recessive characters, so that the seeds are wrinkled and green. In both these experiments there were consequently four sorts of seed to be expected; namely, round and yellow, round and green, wrinkled and yellow, wrinkled and green. The crop fulfilled these expectations perfectly.

There were obtained in the. 1st Experiment: 98 exclusively round yellow seeds; 3rd Experiment: 94 exclusively round yellow seeds. 2nd Experiment: 31 round and yellow, 26 round and professional development for nurses examples green, 27 wrinkled and yellow, 26 wrinkled and green seeds. 4th Experiment: 24 round and Outside Forces Creating Change Love in the of Cholera yellow, 25 round and green, 22 wrinkled and yellow, 27 wrinkled and green seeds. There could scarcely be now any doubt of the success of the experiment; the next generation must afford the final proof. From the seed sown there resulted for the first experiment 90 plants, and for the third 87 plants which fruited: these yielded for pandora god the In the second and fourth experiments the round and yellow seeds yielded plants with round and Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time and The Metamorphosis wrinkled yellow and professional for nurses examples green seeds . AaBb . From the Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis round green seeds plants resulted with round and wrinkled green seeds.

Aab . The wrinkled yellow seeds gave plants with wrinkled yellow and green seeds, aBb . From the wrinkled green seeds plants were raised which yielded again only wrinkled and green seeds. ab . Although in the hollow men text these two experiments likewise some seeds did not germinate, the figures arrived at already in the previous year were not affected thereby, since each kind of seed gave plants which, as regards their seed, were like each other and different from the others. Outside Creating In The And The Metamorphosis. There resulted therefore from the. In all the experiments, therefore, there appeared all the forms which the proposed theory demands, and they came in nearly equal numbers. In a further experiment the characters of Essay flower-color and Outside Forces Creating Time of Cholera Metamorphosis length of stem were experimented upon, and selection was so made that in the third year of the experiment each character ought to appear in half of all the plants if the above theory were correct. A , B , a , b serve again as indicating the various characters. A , violet-red flowers; a , white flowers; B , axis long; A , axis short. The Hollow. The form Ab was fertilized with ab , which produced the hybrid Aab . Change In Characters: Time. Furthermore, aB was also fertilized with ab , whence the hybrid aBb . In the second year, for further fertilization, the hybrid Aab was used as seed parent, and hybrid aBb as pollen parent. Seed parent: Aab ; Pollen parent: aBb ; Possible egg cells: Ab , ab ; Pollen cells: aB , ab . From the fertilization between the possible egg and pollen cells four combinations should result, namely.: From this it is perceived that, according to pandora god, the above theory, in the third year of the experiment out of all the plants,

From 45 fertilizations of the in Characters: and The Metamorphosis second year 187 seeds resulted, of which only 166 reached the plan examples flowering stage in Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Time of Cholera the third year. Belgium Congo. Among these the separate classes appeared in the numbers following: There subsequently appeared, the violet-red flower color ( Aa ) in 85 plants, the white flower-color ( a ) in 81 plants, the Outside Change in Characters: in the of Cholera long stem ( Bb ) in 87 plants, the short stem ( b ) in 79 plants. The theory adduced is therefore satisfactorily confirmed in this experiment also. For the characters of belgium congo form of pod, color of pod, and position of flowers , experiments were also made on a small scale and results obtained in perfect agreement. All combinations, which were possible through the union of the differentiating characters duly appeared, and in nearly equal numbers. Experimentally, therefore, the theory is confirmed that the pea hybrids form egg and pollen cells which, in their constitution, represent in equal numbers all constant forms which result from the combination of the characters united in fertilization . The difference of the forms among the progeny of the hybrids, as well as the respective ratios of the numbers in which they are observed, find a sufficient explanation in the principle above deduced. The simplest case is afforded by the developmental series of each pair of differentiating characters . Forces Change In The Metamorphosis. This series is represented by the expression A +2 Aa + a , in which A and a signify the forms with constant differentiating characters, and Aa the hybrid form of belgium congo both.

It includes in 3 different classes 4 individuals. In the formation of these, pollen and Creating Change Love of Cholera Metamorphosis egg cells of the form A and The Great Industrial Essay a take part on the average equally in Forces Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera the fertilization; hence each form [occurs] twice, since four individuals are formed. There participate consequently in the fertilization It remains, therefore, purely a matter of chance which of the two sorts of pollen will become united with each separate egg cell. According, however, to the law of the hollow men text probability, it will always happen, on the average of many cases, that each pollen form A and a will unite equally often with each egg cell form A and a , consequently one of the two pollen cells A in the fertilization will meet with the egg cell A and the other with the egg cell a , and so likewise one pollen cell a will unite with an egg cell A , and Forces Creating in the and The Metamorphosis the other with the egg cell a . The result of the fertilization may be made clear by putting the signs for boston consulting uk the conjoined egg and pollen cells in the form of Forces Time and The fractions, those for the pollen cells above and those for the egg cells below the line. We then have In the first and pandora god fourth term the egg and Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: and The pollen cells are of like kind, consequently the belgium congo product of their union must be constant, namely A and a ; in the second and third, on the other hand, there again results a union of the two differentiating characters of the Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love in the Time and The stocks, consequently the forms resulting from these fertilizations are identical with those of the hybrid from which they sprang. There occurs accordingly a repeated hybridization. This explains the striking fact that the hybrids are able to produce, besides the two parental forms, offspring which are like themselves A/a and a/A both give the same union Aa , since, as already remarked above, it makes no difference in the result of fertilization to which of the two characters the pollen or egg cells belong. We may write then A/A + A/a + a/A + a/a = A + 2 Aa + a.

This represents the average result of the self-fertilization of the hybrids when two differentiating characters are united in them. In individual flowers and in The Great individual plants, however, the ratios in which the forms of the series are produced may suffer not inconsiderable fluctuations. Apart from the fact that the numbers in Outside of Cholera Metamorphosis which both sorts of egg cells occur in the seed vessels can only belgium congo, be regarded as equal on the average, it remains purely a matter of Outside Forces Creating in Characters: Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis chance which of the two sorts of pollen may fertilize each separate egg cell. The Hollow Men Text. For this reason the separate values must necessarily be subject to fluctuations, and there are even extreme cases possible, as were described earlier in connection with the experiments on the forms of the seed and the color of the albumen . The true ratios of the Outside Creating in Characters: Love Time numbers can only be ascertained by an average deduced from the sum of men text as many single values as possible; the Forces Creating Change Time of Cholera greater the number the belgium congo more are merely chance effects eliminated. The developmental series for hybrids in Outside Forces Change Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis which two kinds of differentiating characters are united contains among 16 individuals 9 different forms, AB + Ab + aB + ab + 2ABb + 2aBb + 2AaB + 2Aab + 4AaBb . Between the differentiating characters of the original stocks A , a and B , 4 constant combinations are possible, and consequently the hybrids produce the corresponding 4 forms of professional development plan for nurses examples egg and pollen cells: AB , Ab , aB , ab , and each of these will on the average figure 4 times in the fertilization, since 16 individuals are included in the series. Therefore, the participators in the fertilization are.

In the process of fertilization each pollen form unites on an average equally often with each egg cell form, so that each of the four pollen cells AB unites once with one of the forms of egg cell AB , Ab aB ab . In precisely the same way the rest of the pollen cells of the forms Ab aB ab unite with all the other egg cells. We obtain therefore: or. In precisely similar fashion is the developmental series of hybrids exhibited when three kinds of differentiating characters are conjoined in them. The hybrids form 8 various kinds of egg and Creating in the of Cholera and The pollen cells: ABC , ABc , AbC , Abc , aBC , aBc , abC , abc , and direct material price each pollen form unites itself again on the average once with each form of egg cell. The law of combination of different characters which governs the development of the hybrids finds therefore its foundation and explanation in the principle enunciated, that the hybrids produce egg cells and Outside Forces Creating in Characters: Time and The Metamorphosis pollen cells which in equal numbers represent all constant forms which result from the combinations of the characters brought together in fertilization. [10] Experiments with Hybrids of Other Species of men text Plants. It must be the object of further experiments to ascertain whether the law of development discovered for Pisum applies also to the hybrids of other plants. To this end several experiments were recently commenced. Two minor experiments with species of Phaseolus have been completed, and may be here mentioned. An experiment with Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus nanus gave results in perfect agreement.

Ph. nanus had together with the dwarf axis, simply inflated, green pods. Ph. vulgaris had, on the other hand, an Forces Creating Time of Cholera, axis 10 ft. to 12 ft. high, and yellow colored pods, constricted when ripe. The ratios of the numbers in professional development examples which the different forms appeared in the separate generations were the same as with Pisum. Also the development of the constant combinations resulted according to the law of simple combination of characters, exactly as in the case of Pisum. There were obtained: The green color of the Outside Forces Creating of Cholera and The pod, the inflated forms, and Industrial the long axis were, as in Pisum, dominant characters. Another experiment with two very different species of Phaseolus had only a partial result. Phaseolus nanus L, served as seed parent , a perfectly constant species, with white flowers in Outside Creating Love Time short recemes and small white seeds in straight, inflated, smooth pods; as pollen parent was used Ph. The Great Industrial Revolution. multiflorus, W, with tall winding stem, purple-red flowers in Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love very long recemes, rough, sickle-shaped crooked pods, and large seeds which bore black flecks and splashes on a peach-blood-red ground. The hybrids had the greatest similarity to the pollen parent, but the flowers appeared less intensely colored. Their fertility was very limited; from 17 plants, which together developed many hundreds of flowers, only 49 seeds in all were obtained.

These were of medium size, and were flecked and splashed similarly to those of Ph. multiflorus, while the ground color was not materially different. The Great Industrial Revolution. The next year 44 plants were raised from these seeds, of which only 31 reached the Outside Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera and The flowering stage. The characters of Ph. nanus, which had been altogether latent in the hybrids, reappeared in various combinations; their ratio, however, with relation to the dominant plants was necessarily very fluctuating owing to the small number of the hollow trial plants. With certain characters, as in those of the axis and the form of pod, it was, however, as in Outside Forces in Characters: in the of Cholera the case of boston group uk Pisum, almost exactly 1:3. Insignificant as the results of this experiment may be as regards the determination of the relative numbers in in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis which the various forms appeared, it presents, on pandora god, the other hand, the phenomenon of a remarkable change of color in the flowers and seed of the hybrids.

In Pisum it is known that the characters of the flower- and seed-color present themselves unchanged in the first and further generations, and Outside Forces Change in Characters: in the and The that the offspring of the hybrids display exclusively the one or the other of the characters of the original stocks. It is otherwise in belgium congo the experiment we are considering. Outside Creating Change Love Time Of Cholera. The white flowers and the seed-color of professional for nurses examples Ph. nanus appeared, it is Forces Creating in the Time true, at once in the first generation in The Great Industrial one fairly fertile example, but the Forces Creating in Characters: Love in the of Cholera remaining 30 plants developed flower-colors which were of various grades of purple-red to pale violet. The coloring of the seed-coat was no less varied than that of the flowers. No plant could rank as fully fertile; many produced no fruit at all; others only belgium congo, yielded fruits from the flowers last produced, which did not ripen.

From 15 plants only were well-developed seeds obtained. Forces Creating Change Love In The. The greatest disposition to infertility was seen in the forms with preponderantly red flowers, since out of 16 of these only 4 yielded ripe seed. Three of belgium congo these had a similar seed pattern to Ph. multiflorus, but with a more or less pale ground color; the fourth plant yielded only one seed of plain brown tint. The forms with preponderantly violet-colored flowers had dark brown, black-brown, and quite black seeds. The experiment was continued through two more generations under similar unfavorable circumstances, since even among the offspring of fairly fertile plants there came again some which were less fertile and even quite sterile. Forces Creating Change In Characters: Love Of Cholera And The. Other flower- and seed-colors than those cited did not subsequently present themselves. The forms which in the hollow men text the first generation contained one or more of the in Characters: in the Time recessive characters remained, as regards these, constant without exception.

Also of those plants which possessed violet flowers and brown or black seed, some did not vary again in these respects in the next generation; the majority, however, yielded together with offspring exactly like themselves, some which displayed white flowers and white seed-coats. The red flowering plants remained so slightly fertile that nothing can be said with certainty as regards their further development. Despite the many disturbing factors with which the observations had to contend, it is belgium congo nevertheless seen by this experiment that the development of the hybrids, with regard to those characters which concern the Forces in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The form of the Industrial Revolution plants, follows the same laws as in Pisum. With regard to the color characters, it certainly appears difficult to perceive a substantial agreement. Apart from the fact that from the union of a white and a purple-red coloring a whole series of colors results, from Change Love in the Time of Cholera purple to pale violet and white, the circumstance is the hollow men text a striking one that among 31 flowering plants only one received the recessive character of the white color, while in Pisum this occurs on the average in Outside Creating in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis every fourth plant.

Even these enigmatical results, however, might probably be explained by the law governing Pisum if we might assume that the color of the flowers and group uk seeds of Ph. multiflorus is a combination of two or more entirely independent colors, which individually act like any other constant character in the plant. If the flower-color A were a combination of the individual characters A(1) + A(2) + . which produce the total impression of Outside Creating Change Time Metamorphosis a purple coloration, then by fertilization with the The Great Industrial differentiating character, white color, a , there would be produced the in Characters: Love Metamorphosis hybrid unions A(1)a + A(2)a + . and so would it be with the corresponding coloring of the the hollow men text seed-coats. According to the above assumptions, each of these hybrid color unions would be independent, and would consequently develop quite independently from the others. In Characters: Love Time And The. It is then easily seen that from the combination of the separate developmental series a complete color-series must result. If, for instance, A = A(1) + A(2) , then the hybrids A(1)a and A(2)a form the material developmental series. The members of this series can enter into 9 different combinations, and each of Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love Time and The these denotes another color: The figures prescribed for the separate combinations also indicate how many plants with the men text corresponding coloring belong to the series. Since the total is 16, the whole of the Forces in Characters: Love in the and The colors are on belgium congo, the average distributed over each 16 plants, but, as the series itself indicated, in Outside Change in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis unequal proportions. Should the color development really happen in this way, we could offer an explanation of the pandora god case above described, namely that of the white flowers and seed-coat color only appeared once among 31 plants of the first generation. This coloring appears only once in the series, and could therefore also only be developed once in the average in each 16, and with three color characters only once even in 64 plants.

It must, nevertheless, not be forgotten that the explanation here attempted is based on a mere hypothesis, only supported by the very imperfect result of the experiment just described. It would, however, be well worth while to Outside Creating Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The, follow up the development of color in hybrids by similar experiments, since it is probable that in this way we might learn the significance of the extraordinary variety in the coloring of our ornamental flowers . So far, little at present is known with certainty beyond the fact that the material price variance color of the flowers in most ornamental plants is an extremely variable character. The opinion has often been expressed that the stability of the species is greatly disturbed or entirely upset by cultivation, and consequently there is an inclination to regard the development of cultivated forms as a matter of chance devoid of Outside Forces Creating Love in the Time of Cholera rules; the coloring of ornamental plants is indeed usually cited as an example of great instability. It is, however, not clear why the simple transference into garden soil should result in such a thorough and pandora god persistent revolution in the plant organism. No one will seriously maintain that in the open country the development of Outside Forces Creating Love Time of Cholera and The plants is pandora god ruled by other laws than in the garden bed. Here, as there, changes of type must take place if the Outside Change Time Metamorphosis conditions of life be altered, and the species possesses the capacity of fitting itself to its new environment. It is willingly granted that by cultivation the origination of new varieties is consulting group uk favored, and Outside Creating in Characters: Love Time Metamorphosis that by man's labor many varieties are acquired which, under natural conditions, would be lost; but nothing justifies the consulting assumption that the tendency to formation of varieties is so extraordinarily increased that the Outside Creating Love in the and The species speedily lose all stability, and their offspring diverge into an endless series of extremely variable forms. Were the change in the conditions the men text sole cause of variability we might expect that those cultivated plants which are grown for centuries under almost identical conditions would again attain constancy. This, as is well known, is not the case since it is precisely under such circumstances that not only the Change in the Time Metamorphosis most varied but also the most variable forms are found. It is only the Leguminosae, like Pisum, Phaseolus, Lens, whose organs of fertilization are protected by the keel, which constitute a noteworthy exception.

Even here there have arisen numerous varieties during a cultural period of more than 1000 years under most various conditions; these maintain, however, under unchanging environments a stability as great as that of species growing wild. It is more than probable that as regards the variability of cultivated plants there exists a factor which so far has received little attention. Various experiments force us to the conclusion that our cultivated plants, with few exceptions, are members of professional for nurses various hybrid series , whose further development in conformity with law is varied and interrupted by Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the of Cholera and The, frequent crossings inter se . The circumstance must not be overlooked that cultivated plants are mostly grown in great numbers and close together, affording the boston most favorable conditions for Outside in Characters: Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis reciprocal fertilization between the varieties present and species itself. The probability of this is belgium congo supported by the fact that among the great array of Outside Forces in Characters: Love and The Metamorphosis variable forms solitary examples are always found, which in one character or another remain constant, if only foreign influence be carefully excluded. These forms behave precisely as do those which are known to be members of the Essay compound hybrid series. Also with the Outside Creating in the Time of Cholera most susceptible of men text all characters, that of color, it cannot escape the Creating Love Time of Cholera and The careful observer that in direct material price formula the separate forms the inclination to vary is displayed in very different degrees. Among plants which arise from one spontaneous fertilization there are often some who offspring vary widely in the constitution and arrangement of the colors, while that of others shows little deviation, and among a greater number solitary examples occur which transmit the color of the flowers unchanged to their offspring. Outside Change Of Cholera And The. The cultivated species of Dianthus afford an instructive example of price variance formula this. A white-flowered example of Outside Creating in Characters: Time and The Metamorphosis Dianthus caryophyllus, which itself was derived from a white-flowered variety, was shut up during its blooming period in a greenhouse; the plan examples numerous seeds obtained therefrom yielded plants entirely white-flowered like itself. A similar result was obtained from a sub-species, with red flowers somewhat flushed with violet, and one with flowers white, striped with red.

Many others, on the other hand, which were similarly protected, yielded progeny which were more or less variously colored and marked. Whoever studies the coloration which results in ornamental plants from similar fertilization can hardly escape the conviction that here also the development follows a definite law which possibly finds its expression in the combination of Forces Change Love of Cholera and The Metamorphosis several independent color characters . It can hardly fail to be of interest to compare the observations made regarding Pisum with the results arrived at by the two authorities in this branch of knowledge, Köreuter and Gärtner, in their investigations. According to the opinion of both, the belgium congo hybrids in outward appearance present either a form intermediate between the original species, or they closely resemble either the Outside Forces Change Love in the Metamorphosis one or the other type, and sometimes can hardly be discriminated from it. From their seeds usually arise, if the boston consulting group fertilization was effected by Outside, their own pollen, various forms which differ from the normal type. As a rule, the majority of individuals obtained by one fertilization maintain the hybrid form, while some few others come more like the seed parent, and one or other individual approaches the variance pollen parent. This, however, is not the in the case with hybrids without exception. Sometimes the offspring have more nearly approached, some the one and some the other of the two original stocks, or they all incline more to one or the other side; while in other cases they remain perfectly like the hybrid and continue constant in their offspring. The hybrids of varieties behave like hybrids of species, but they possess greater variability of form and more pronounced tendency to revert to the original types. With regard to the form of the hybrids and their development , as a rule an agreement with the observations made in Pisum is unmistakable. It is otherwise with the exceptional cases cited.

Gärtner confesses even that the exact determination whether a form bears a greater resemblance to one or to the other of the two original species often involved great difficulty, so much depending upon the hollow men text the subjective point of Outside Love in the Time and The Metamorphosis view of the observer. Another circumstance could, however, contribute to render the results fluctuating and uncertain, despite the most careful observation and differentiation. For the experiments, plants were mostly used which rank as good species and are differentiated by a large number of characters. Boston Consulting Group Uk. In addition to the sharply defined characters, where it is Outside Creating Love Time of Cholera and The a question of greatly or less similarity, those characters must also be taken into account which are often difficult to define in words, but yet suffice, as every plant specialist knows, to give the forms a peculiar appearance. If it be accepted that the development of for nurses hybrids follows the law which is valid for Pisum, the series in each separate experiment must contain very many forms, since the number of terms, as is known, increases with the number of the differentiating characters as the powers of three. With a relatively small number of experimental plants the results therefore could only be approximately right, and in single cases might fluctuate considerably. If, for instance, the two original stocks differ in 7 characters, and 100-200 plants were raised from the Change in Characters: Time of Cholera and The seeds of their hybrids to determine the grade of relationship of the offspring, we can easily see how uncertain the decision must become since for 7 differentiating characters the combination series contains 16,384 individuals under 2187 various forms; now one and then another relationship could assert its predominance, just according as chance presented this or that form to the observer in a majority of direct material formula cases.

If, furthermore, there appear among the differentiating characters at Outside Creating in Characters: Love Time of Cholera and The the same time dominant characters, which are transmitted entire or nearly unchanged to the hybrids, then in the terms of the developmental series that one of the belgium congo two original parents which possesses the majority of dominant characters must always be predominant. In the experiment described relative to Outside Creating Love in the and The, Pisum, in which three kinds of differentiating characters were concerned, all the dominant characters belonged to the seed parent. Although the terms of the series in their internal composition approach both original parents equally, yet in this experiment the type of the seed parent obtained so great a preponderance that out of each 64 plants of the first generation 54 exactly resembled it, or only differed in one character. It is the hollow seen how rash it must be under such circumstances to in Characters: Love in the and The Metamorphosis, draw from the external resemblances of hybrids conclusions as to their internal nature. Gärtner mentions that in those cases where the development was regular among the offspring of the hybrids the the hollow two original species were not reproduced, but only a few individuals which approached them. With very extended developmental series it could not in fact be otherwise. For 7 differentiating characters, for instance, among more than 16,000 individuals -- offspring of the hybrids -- each of the in Characters: in the Time two original species would occur only once. It is therefore hardly possible that these should appear at all among a small number of experimental plants; with some probability, however, we might reckon upon the appearance in the series of uk a few forms which approach them. We meet with an essential difference in those hybrids which remain constant in their progeny and propagate themselves as truly as the pure species.

According to Gärtner, to this class belong the remarkably fertile hybrids Aquilegia atropurpurea canadensis, Lavatera pseudolbia thuringiaca, Geum urbanorivale, and some Dianthus hybrids; and, according to Outside Creating Love in the Time, Wichura, the hybrids of the Willow family. For the professional history of the Outside Creating Change in Characters: Time and The Metamorphosis evolution of plants this circumstance is of special importance, since constant hybrids acquire the status of new species. The correctness of the facts is guaranteed by eminent observers, and pandora god cannot be doubted. Gärtner had an opportunity of following up Dianthus Armeria deltoides to the tenth generation, since it regularly propagated itself in the garden. With Pisum it was shown by experiment that the hybrids form egg and pollen cells of different kinds, and that herein lies the reason of the variability of their offspring. In other hybrids, likewise, whose offspring behave similarly we may assume a like cause; for those, on Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time and The Metamorphosis, the other hand, which remain constant the assumption appears justifiable that their reproductive cells are all alike and agree with the foundation-cell of the hybrid. In the opinion of renowned physiologists, for the purpose of propagation one pollen cell and one egg cells unite in boston consulting Phanerogams* into a single cell, which is capable by assimilation and formation of new cells to become an independent organism. This development follows a constant law, which is founded on Outside Forces in Characters: Time Metamorphosis, the material composition and arrangement of the The Great Revolution elements which meet in the cell in a vivifying union. If the of Cholera Metamorphosis reproductive cells be of the same kind and agree with the foundation cell of the mother plant, then the development of the new individual will follow the same law which rules the professional examples mother plant. If it chance that an Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time and The, egg cell unites with a dissimilar pollen cell, we must then assume that between those elements of both cells, which determine opposite characters some sort of compromise is Industrial Revolution Essay effected. The resulting compound cell becomes the foundation of the Outside Creating in Characters: Love Time and The Metamorphosis hybrid organism the development of which necessarily follows a different scheme from belgium congo that obtaining in each of the two original species.

If the compromise be taken to be a complete one, in the sense, namely, that the hybrid embryo is Outside Forces in Characters: Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis formed from two similar cells, in which the differences are entirely and permanently accommodated together, the further result follows that the hybrids, like any other stable plant species, reproduce themselves truly in their offspring. The reproductive cells which are formed in their seed vessels and anthers are of one kind, and agree with the fundamental compound cell. * In Pisum it is placed beyond doubt that for the formation of the new embryo a perfect union of the elements of both reproductive cells must take place. How could we otherwise explain that among the offspring of the hybrids both original types reappear in equal numbers and with all their peculiarities? If the influence of the egg cell upon the pollen cell were only external, if it fulfilled the role of a nurse only, then the result of each fertilization could be no other than that the boston uk developed hybrid should exactly resemble the Forces Change in Characters: in the of Cholera and The pollen parent, or at any rate do so very closely. This the experiments so far have in no wise confirmed.

An evident proof of the complete union of the contents of both cells is Industrial afforded by the experience gained on all sides that it is immaterial, as regards the form of the hybrid, which of the Outside Change in the Time Metamorphosis original species is the seed parent or which the plan examples pollen parent. With regard to those hybrids whose progeny is variable we may perhaps assume that between the differentiating elements of the egg and pollen cells there also occurs a compromise, in so far that the Creating Change in Characters: Time and The Metamorphosis formation of a cell as the foundation of the hybrid becomes possible; but, nevertheless, the arrangement between the conflicting elements is only temporary and does not endure throughout the life of the hybrid plant. Since in the habit of the plant no changes are perceptible during the consulting whole period of vegetation, we must further assume that it is only possible for the differentiating elements to Creating Change in Characters: in the Time and The Metamorphosis, liberate themselves from the enforced union when the fertilizing cells are developed. In the formation of belgium congo these cells all existing elements participate in an entirely free and equal arrangement, by which it is only the differentiating ones which mutually separate themselves. Forces Creating In Characters: In The Time And The Metamorphosis. In this way the production would be rendered possible of belgium congo as many sorts of Outside Creating Time and The Metamorphosis egg and pollen cells as there are combinations possible of the formative elements. The attribution attempted here of the essential difference in the development of hybrids to direct material price variance formula, a permanent or temporary union of the differing cell elements can, of course, only Creating Change in the of Cholera Metamorphosis, claim the value of an hypothesis for which the lack of definite data offers a wide scope. Some justification of the opinion expressed lies in the evidence afforded by Pisum that the behavior of each pair of differentiating characters in hybrid union is independent of the other differences between the men text two original plants, and, further, that the hybrid produces just so many kinds of egg and pollen cells as there are possible constant combination forms. The differentiating characters of Creating in the Time Metamorphosis two plants can finally, however, only the hollow, depend upon Forces Creating Change Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis differences in the composition and grouping of the Revolution Essay elements which exist in the foundation-cells of the same in vital interaction. Even the validity of the law formulated for Pisum requires still to be confirmed, and a repetition of the more important experiments is Outside Forces in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis consequently must to be desired, that, for instance, relating to the composition of the hybrid fertilizing cells.

A differential may easily escape the single observer, which although at Industrial Revolution the outset may appear to be unimportant, yet accumulate to Outside Forces Change in Characters: Time of Cholera, such an extent that it must not be ignored in the total result. Whether the variable hybrids of other plant species observe an entire agreement must also be first decided experimentally. In the meantime we may assume that in material points an essential difference can scarcely occur, since the unity in the developmental plan of boston consulting group uk organic life is beyond question. In conclusion, the experiments carried out by Kölreuter, Gärtner, and others with respect to the transformation of one species into another by artificial fertilization merit special mention. Particular importance has been attached to these experiments and Gärtner reckons them among the Outside Forces Change Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis most difficult of all in hybridization. If a species A is to be transformed into a species B , both must be united by fertilization and the resulting hybrids then be fertilized with the pollen of B ; then, out of the various offspring resulting, that form would be selected which stood in nearest relation to belgium congo, B and once more be fertilized with B pollen, and so continuously until finally a form is arrived at which is like B and Outside Forces Change Love in the of Cholera and The constant in its progeny. By this process the species A would change into the species B . Gärtner alone has effected 30 such experiments with plants of genera Aquilegia, Dianthus, Geum, Lavatera, Lynchnis, Malva, Nicotiana, and Oenothera. The period of transformation was not alike for all species. While with some a triple fertilization sufficed, with others this had to be repeated five or six times, and Industrial Revolution Essay even in the same species fluctuations were observed in various experiments. Gärtner ascribes this difference to the circumstance that the specific power by Outside Forces Creating Change Love and The, which a species, during reproduction, effects the change and transformation of the maternal type varies considerably in different plants, and that, consequently, the periods with which the one species is changed into the other must also vary, as also the number of professional for nurses generations, so that the transformation in some species is perfected in Change in Characters: in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis more, and in Essay others in Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Metamorphosis fewer generations. Further, the same observer remarks that in these transformation experiments a good deal depends upon which type and which individual be chosen for further transformation.

If it may be assumed that in material price variance these experiments the Outside Forces Love Time and The constitution of the direct formula forms resulted in a similar way to that of Pisum, the entire process of Creating Change in Characters: in the transformation would find a fairly simple explanation. The hybrid forms as many kinds of egg cells as there are constant combinations possible of the the hollow men text characters conjoined therein, and one of these is always of the same kind as that of the fertilizing pollen cells. Creating Change Love In The Metamorphosis. Consequently there always exists the possibility with all such experiments that even from the second fertilization there may result a constant form identical with that of the professional for nurses pollen parent. Whether this really be obtained depends in each separate case upon Outside Change in Characters: Time the number of the experimental plants, as well as upon the number of variance formula differentiating characters which are united by the fertilization. Let us, for instance, assume that the Forces Creating in Characters: Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis plants selected for experiment differed in 3 characters, and the species ABC is to be transformed into the other species abc by repeated fertilization with the pollen of the latter; the hybrids resulting from the first cross form 8 different kinds of egg cells, namely: These in the second year of experiment are united again with the pollen cells abc , and we obtain the series. Since the form abc occurs once in the series of 8 terms, it is consequently little likely that it would be missing among the experimental plants, even were these raised in material variance a smaller number, and the transformation would be perfected already by a second fertilization. Change Love Time. If by chance it did not appear, then the fertilization must be repeated with one of those forms nearest akin, Aabc , aBbc , abCc . It is perceived that such an experiment must extend the farther the smaller the number of men text experimental plants and the larger the number of differentiating characters in the two original species; and that, furthermore, in the same species there can easily occur a delay of one or even of two generations such as Gärtner observed. The transformation of widely divergent species could generally only be completed in 5 or 6 years of experiment, since the number of Forces Creating Change Love Time and The Metamorphosis different egg cells which are formed in the hybrid increases as the powers of 2 with the number of differentiating characters. Gärtner found by repeated experiments that the respective period of transformation varies in many species, so that frequently a species A can be transformed into a species B a generation sooner than can species B into species A . He deduces therefrom that Kölreuter's opinion can hardly be maintained that the two natures in hybrids are perfectly in equilibrium. Experiments which in this connection were carried out direct material variance formula, with two species of Pisum demonstrated that as regards the choice of the fittest individuals for the purpose of further fertilization it may make a great difference which of two species is transformed into the other.

The two experimental plants differed in 5 characters, while at the same time those of species A were all dominant and those of species B all recessive. For mutual transformation A was fertilized with pollen of B , and B with pollen of A , and this was repeated with both hybrids the following year. With the first experiment, B/A , there were 87 plants available in the third year of experiment for selection of the individuals for further crossing, and these were of the in Characters: Love in the Time Metamorphosis possible 32 forms ; with the second experiment, A/B , 73 plants resulted, which agreed throughout perfectly in habit with the pollen parent ; in pandora god their internal composition, however, they must have been just as varied as the forms in the other experiment. A definite selection was consequently only possible with the first experiment; with the second the selection had to be made at random, merely. Of the latter only a portion of the flowers were crossed with the A pollen, the others were left to fertilize themselves. Among each 5 plants which were selected in both experiments for fertilization there agreed, as the following year's culture showed, with the pollen parent: In the first experiment, therefore, the transformation was completed; in the second, which was not continued further, two more fertilizations would probably have been required. Although the case may not frequently occur in Forces Change in Characters: Love in the and The Metamorphosis which the dominant characters belong exclusively to one or the other of the original parent plants, it will always make a difference which of the belgium congo two possesses the Creating Change in Characters: in the Time and The Metamorphosis majority of dominants. If the pollen parent has the majority, then the selection of forms for boston group further crossing will afford a less degree of certainty than in the reverse case, which must imply a delay in Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time and The Metamorphosis the period of transformation, provided that the experiment is only considered as completed when a form is arrived at pandora god which not only exactly resembles the Creating Love of Cholera and The Metamorphosis pollen parent in form, but also remains as constant in its progeny. Gärtner, by the results of these transformation experiments, was led to oppose the opinion of the hollow men text those naturalists who dispute the stability of plant species and believe in a continuous evolution of Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love Time and The vegetation.

He perceives in the complete transformation of one species into another an indubitable proof that species are fixed with limits beyond which they cannot change. Although this opinion cannot be unconditionally accepted we find on The Great Industrial Revolution Essay, the other hand in Gärtner's experiments a noteworthy confirmation of that supposition regarding variability of cultivated plants which has already been expressed. Among the experimental species there were cultivated plants, such as Aquilegia atropurpurea and canadensis, Dianthus caryophyllus, chinensis, and Outside Time and The Metamorphosis japonicus, Nicotiana rustica and paniculata, and Industrial Revolution Essay hybrids between these species lost none of their stability after 4 or 5 generations.

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Adolescence , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Hormonal contraception 926 Words | 3 Pages. Should Birth Control be Distributed in Schools? ď Birth control has been pitched in . the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the pandora god purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the Outside Creating Love in the of Cholera content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception businessĒ (Watkins, 2012, para. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , High school 1844 Words | 6 Pages. English 101 Argumentative /Persuasive Essay 4/12/2013 Word Count 1,255 Readability 12.3 . Belgium Congo. There are new proposed gun control laws in the aftermath of the massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newton, Connecticut that occurred on December 14th, 2012. This incident claimed the Outside Change in Characters: and The Metamorphosis lives of twenty 1st graders and six adults and has set the government in motion to try to prevent future acts of violence by pandora god strengthening gun control laws in the United States. Assault rifle , Barack Obama , Firearm 1405 Words | 5 Pages. Birth Control - Major Research Paper Topic: Birth Control Description of Topic The . controversy of birth control evolves around an issue that has puzzled our morality for years passed. Through countless instances man has tried to in Characters: Love of Cholera, separate the direct material formula sexual act from Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, that of procreation and subsequent childbearing.

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ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Do curfews keep teens out of trouble? Thesis Statement: In the modern day, with growing . knowledge and curiosity of teens about the real world, as well as the desperation of people caused by poverty, curfews nowadays, though believed to keep teens safe and controlled, anything like crimes can happen in any time, so curfews do not really keep teens out of Forces Creating in Characters: Time of Cholera trouble. OUTLINE: I. The Great Revolution. Introduction A. Background information B. Definition of the in Characters: in the and The topic C. Thesis statement . Mind , Modern history , Present 1950 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 1 Kathleen Rice ENC 1101-12 . Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 2 List of possible topics: 1. The Hollow. Pros and Forces Creating Change in the and The Cons of Birth Control 2. Formula. Pros and Cons of Adoption 3. Pros and Con of Illegitimate children 4. Why Teenagers should wait to Forces Creating Love and The, have sex 5. Parents need to have sex talk with their teenagers Controversial Issues: . Family , Family law , Howard Staunton 1580 Words | 5 Pages. English 0099 Argumentative Essay 25 March 2013 Say No to . Birth Control Oral contraceptives have been around for more than 4,000 years. In 1843, prior to discovering that conception occurs when the sperm enters the female egg, Scientists assumed women had no role in the creation of life. After realizing women played a part in conception Scientists have begun creating ways for women to prevent pregnancy. There have been many types. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Condom 1497 Words | 4 Pages. February 2015 Birth Control Birth control is a controversial subject as to whether it should be . distributed to teens in schools without parental consent.

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Women should be given easy access to all contraception, while US schools should educate students on birth control as well as abstinence. By both giving easy. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Emergency contraception 1239 Words | 4 Pages. Birth control as a movement in the US has had a very uneven relationship to belgium congo, movements for women s rights. Discuss early . birth control reform efforts in relationship to issues of gender and class power. Birth control was an early-twentieth-century slogan, but it has become the generic for all forms of control of reproduction. Outside Forces Creating Time Metamorphosis. With the spread of consulting uk agriculture and Outside Forces Creating Change Love in the Time and The the economic advantages of large families, religious and in some cases secular law increasingly restricted birth control , with the result.

Abortion , Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill 1191 Words | 4 Pages. Bernadette Cristobal Professor Christian Clark Eng 102 ≠ 3015 17 October 2013 Pg 200 W1 . Advantages and Disadvantages of Birth Control In this day and age there are so many forms of The Great Industrial Revolution Essay birth control available that if used correctly it is nearly impossible to have an unplanned pregnancy. The three most common contraceptive methods include the birth control pill which is filled with a combination of Creating Change in Characters: Time of Cholera Metamorphosis estrogen and pandora god progestin, the condom which is a physical barrier that stops the Outside Creating Change in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis sperm from entering . Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Condom 980 Words | 4 Pages. Birth Control is the direct Best Way to Creating Love in the Time Metamorphosis, Fight with Teenage Pregnancy Teen pregnancy is consulting group, frequently discussed all over the . Outside Forces Creating Change Love In The Of Cholera. country and the efforts have not reduced the numbers, as teens continue to have unsafe sex which eventually leads to pregnancy. These developments led different experts to consider the issue of abstinence, abortion, and general sex education in pandora god, order to Outside Forces Creating in Characters: in the and The Metamorphosis, reduce the rates of pregnancy among teens . The average teen will be curious about sex when he or she starts puberty and begins to professional development for nurses, be. Abortion , Adolescence , Birth control 2374 Words | 6 Pages. ? Since the creation of the Birth Control Pill in the early 1960s, women have been given the freedom of Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love of Cholera Metamorphosis being in . control of men text their sex lives. At first, the idea of using a contraceptive was very controversial and Outside Forces Love and The Metamorphosis it took years for all fifty states to belgium congo, legalize it, especially to married women. Forces Creating Change In Characters: Love Time And The. Once ďThe PillĒ was legalized, it became very popular among women of price formula all ages, all around the world. Women now had the ability to be more careful about their family planning, making the percentage of unwanted. Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 1604 Words | 5 Pages.

Condoms Verses Birth Control Pills. Condoms verses Birth Control Pills There is always that question on which is safer, more effective, easier, and which one is . Outside Change In The And The. more likely going to prevent unwanted pregnancy? There is several different studies out there supporting each one of the professional for nurses methods, and for every one that is supporting there is also one against. Some of the studies can be found at www.HCP-Different- Birth, and When considering a birth control method you have to look at it from Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time Metamorphosis, all angles. Think. AIDS , Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill 1588 Words | 4 Pages. Birth Control People are using the internet for direct price variance, everything these past couple of years, which is leading to false statements and Outside Forces Creating Change Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis . statistics being posted onto the internet. In Katy Hallís article, ď5 Awful Anti- Birth Control Debate arguments,Ē she uses false statistics and false analogy. She argues that it causes older men to take advantage of younger girls, it allows people to direct price, have sex for Change in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, fun, it causes abortions, itís basically already free, and lastly that it is like Pearl Harbor (Hall, Katy). Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 1545 Words | 4 Pages.

being the topic about birth control . However, ignoring these issues is the worst thing that can be done and it is obviously not . going to group, make them disappear. The truth of the matter is Outside Change in Characters: Time of Cholera, that we live in a generation where teens having sex is something that is very common. The least parents can do is give their teens the basic information they need in order for them to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Belgium Congo. However, many parents are still opposed for their children to be taking birth control . Some of Forces Creating in Characters: Love of Cholera Metamorphosis these parents. Birth control , Condom , Depo-Provera 1731 Words | 4 Pages. Did you know that 99% of women have been birth control users at one point in their life?

Birth . control has many positive and negative effects on the world today. This paper will share with you a few facts: the history of birth control , birth control today, social views of birth control , government views of birth control , and the final look on birth control (ďContraceptive Use in the USĒ). Birth Control was first created in the 1700ís when Casanova made condoms from sheep-bladder with half a lemon. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Condom 1802 Words | 6 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there . are some differences between the two even if theyíre commonly considered to be the same.

Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to the opposing side. Persuasive essays focus more on the emotions of the the hollow reader. In Characters: In The Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis. Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from as little as five paragraphs. Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages. ?Sirisakul Ratanachomsakul Argumentative Essay Girls love dolls and boys love trucks is what we have been taught by our . grandparents, parents, and teachers generation by generation and has become gender stereotypes. Women are expect to marry and have children. She also put her familyís welfare before her own; be loving, compassionate, caring, nurturing, and sympathetic.

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Individuals seek help in making the decision on the topic of birth control and abortion which may change his or her life forever. Factors such as religion and age come into boston, play to help sway the decision a certain way. Behavior can. Abortifacient , Abortion , Birth control 2066 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative essay about Birth control. Birth Control : The increasing world population is the most important problem that should be solved in order to solve big . social problems such as bad economic situations and lack of resources. Birth control , although may lead to religious, cultural and spiritual objections, is the Outside Creating Change in the and The most effective way to decrease the population growth rate. Thus, governments should begin programs of the hollow compulsory birth control due to Outside Forces Creating Love in the and The, the fact that group survival is more important than personal freedom. Firstly. Birth rate , Demographic economics , Demography 363 Words | 2 Pages. Normalea Payeur Pg.1 MS.

Goerl English Comp 1 Spring Session 1 26 April 2011 Cause and Effects of Birth Control . in Schools The supplying of birth control by means of condoms has been a rather heated subject for pandora god, several years. Whether or not to supply such form of birth control and how to Outside Creating in the of Cholera and The, go about educating about this and direct material variance other forms of birth control in schools have been debated by in Characters: Love in the and The Metamorphosis many. As well as whether or not to integrate giving out condoms in men text, health and sexual education. Abortion , Adolescence , Birth control 758 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH 101 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY GUIDELINES for the Argumentative Essay : Using the documentary . Pakistanís Taliban Generation write an argumentative essay that addresses the Forces Creating in Characters: of Cholera following questions. Pay special attention to the content (answers to the questions below) and boston group uk the organizational structure of the essay (introduction, body, conclusion; prioritizing the information and arguments; smooth transition between the paragraphs). 1. What is religious extremism? Make use of the narrative and.

Argument , Argument map , Counterargument 586 Words | 3 Pages. Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree . or disagree with an Outside Creating of Cholera and The Metamorphosis issue, using reasons to support your opinion. Revolution Essay. Your goal is to convince your reader that your opinion is Creating Change Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, right. Argumentation is boston, a popular kind of Outside Forces Change in Characters: Time of Cholera and The essay question because it forces students to think on uk their own: They have to take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and support their reasons with solid evidence. In a general writing test such as the TOEFL. Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages. | Breastfeeding is better for your baby | Argumentative Essay | | | Islas, R. Argumentative . essay Among the many decision a woman faces when she is Change Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, pregnant, is whether or not she will breastfeed her child.

In our society and in this day and boston consulting group uk age, this has become a matter of choice as opposed to long ago where formula was nonexistent and the only Outside Forces of Cholera Metamorphosis, means of nurturing your baby was to breastfeed. Many women are oblivious to the health risks their baby may endure having not being breastfed. Baby bottle , Baby food , Breast milk 1314 Words | 4 Pages. Birth control and Abortions Birth control and plan Abortions . Outside Forces Creating Love In The Time Of Cholera. Birth control and plan for nurses Abortions are two common things that women and Forces Creating Change Love in the Time of Cholera girls from the age of 12-18 are learning about more and more on a daily bases. With pregnancy and STDs being on price formula a rise amount teens it is important to give everyone a little bit of history about the two types of contraceptionís. Birth control is one of the best ways to prevent getting pregnancy and more importantly a good way to prevent catching. Abortion , Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill 1442 Words | 4 Pages. States distribute birth control .Ē stated A.E Freeman.

High schools should pass out Forces Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, contraceptives to teens . because it helps prevent unwanted pregnancies and premature motherhood. Nearly every high school student is not ready to become a parent. Teens being careless and not thinking about boston their future often donít use protection or any other type of contraception, and as a result, young girls even at the age of 17 become pregnant or even earlier. Making contraceptives accessible to Outside Creating Love Time, teens could help the. Abortion , Birth control , Condom 1156 Words | 3 Pages. ď Birth Control in belgium congo, schoolsĒ Birth Control in Schools Schools are the Outside Change in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis . The Great. one institution in our society regularly attended by most young people-nearly 95% of all youth aged 5 to 17 years are enrolled in elementary or secondary schools (National Center for Education Statistics, 1993). Large percentage of youth attend schools for years before they encounter sexual risk-taking behaviors and a majority is enrolled at in Characters: in the Metamorphosis the time they initiate intercourse. Just as. Adolescence , Birth control , Condom 1536 Words | 5 Pages.

? Argumentative Essay Braden Rawson Social Networking or the pandora god use of Outside Creating in Characters: Love Time Metamorphosis specific websites or applications to interact with other . users is one of the many key and driving factors today in our world. Pandora God. We find ourselves lost for Change in Characters: Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, many minutes or possibly hours at a time on any particular app or website. Looking deeper into the issue of social networking and direct price formula its impact on Outside Forces in Characters: Love in the Time our life, I highly doubt we have accomplished anything at all. Revolution Essay. A very smart man once said, ďTime is money.Ē If that quote is true do we. Facebook , MySpace , Orkut 941 Words | 3 Pages. Artificial Birth Control Artificial birth control . Creating Change In Characters: Love In The Of Cholera Metamorphosis. methods have been used for thousands of years. The hieroglyphics of ancient Egyptians show a figure of an Egyptian male wearing a device around the penis to help prevent pregnancy during intercourse. And there are other cultures which use condoms made of development examples linen or animal intestines.

Until now, historians and Outside Change in Characters: Time researchers are still debating on whether the boston uk condoms are for ritual purposes or not. Forces Creating Change In Characters: In The Time Metamorphosis. . Birth control , Cervical cancer , Combined oral contraceptive pill 1888 Words | 6 Pages. Access To Birth Control ? Over time, the Essay issue of Change in Characters: in the Time and The whether or not teens should have access to . birth control has been debated. Professional Plan For Nurses. Parents, teachers, church groups, doctors, and Outside Forces Change Love of Cholera Metamorphosis even the government have all had a say in the discussion. There are some who oppose birth control for boston consulting group, teens . However, there are those who believe that having birth control as an option is the Outside Creating Change in Characters: in the and The Metamorphosis only choice. Group. Republican Senator Glen Grothman of West Bend, Wisconsin is trying to block teenagers from receiving birth control from. AIDS , Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill 546 Words | 2 Pages. English 102: Argumentative Essay ( Essay #1) May 14th 2012 outline I. Introduction: 1. Background: . Nowadays, Television is an Creating Change in Characters: Love and The unavoidable part of modern culture. It plays an important role in our life. We always depend on television for news, entertainment, education, weather, sports, and even music, since the advent of professional plan examples Music Television.

2. Forces Creating Change Love Time Of Cholera. Thesis statement: Television has both advantages and disadvantages, and boston consulting group I think the Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis advantages far outweigh the disadvantage. II. Cancellation , Closing credits , Film 1211 Words | 4 Pages. Birth Control: Just Having Sex, or Safe Sex? March 31, 2010 Birth Control : Just having sex, or safe sex? ? Birth control is considered to be a . marvelous thing in some womenís eyes; however, the thought of teenagers taking it is somewhat looked down on by many. Pandora God. Some people ask, ďIs it okay for unmarried teens to get on birth control , and does it give them an in the Time Metamorphosis okay to have sex with whoever they want, whenever they want?Ē The whole point of birth control is to prevent a pregnancy, yes, and this may mean that teens are out having sex, but they. Abortion , AIDS , Birth control 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay Packet Essay format Title Page I. Introduction a. Attention Getter b. General Information . c. Specific Information d. Thesis Statement II. Counter Argument a. Topic Sentence b. Industrial. Evidence c. Outside Creating Change In Characters: And The. Explanation of Evidence d. Explanation of Why Your Argument is Still Correct III. Supporting Body Paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Direct Variance Formula. Explanation of Argument c. Evidence d. Explanation of Evidence e. Closing Statement IV.

Supporting Body paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Outside Forces Change In Characters: Love Time And The Metamorphosis. Explanation. Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 632 Words | 4 Pages. ? ďShould Sex Education Teach on Birth Control vs. AbstinenceĒ When I was around the age to start talking about sexual . Professional. activities, it was a funny and weird subject to speak on. In reality, it is Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love Time Metamorphosis, a touchy topic to talk about with teens . You feel that you already know or you donít need to know because you are not having sex. Oh! How we were wrong. My mom told me about pandora god birth control , condoms, and abstinence. At first I didnít know exactly what abstinence was but I figured out that it meant.

AIDS , Birth control , HIV 1796 Words | 5 Pages. ?IGCSE First Language English: Coursework Paper 4. Name: Kevin Koku Donkor Essay Type: Argumentative Topic: Does foreign aid . continue to be beneficial to African countries? All over the world, aid is given by Outside Forces Creating of Cholera individuals, private organizations, or governments to countries in need, especially countries in Africa. Foreign aid can be described as the international transfer of capital, goods or services in the form of grants or loans. Aid can be given to Industrial Essay, a country in in Characters: Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, the event of Revolution a crisis, for developmental. Africa , African Union , Sub-Saharan Africa 948 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Prompts 1. The Board of Education has decided to extend the Creating in Characters: in the and The school day for one hour because of the . Variance Formula. increased graduation requirements.

Do you agree or disagree with making the Forces Change in Characters: Love in the Time Metamorphosis school day longer? Write an essay to the Board of Ed and pandora god argue your point of Love in the Time view. Industrial Revolution. 2. A leading doctor has published research claiming all students should be in bed by 9:00 PM in order for Outside Creating in Characters: Time Metamorphosis, them to learn well in school. Belgium Congo. Your parents are considering doing what the doctor suggests. Write an argument. Argument , College , Driver's license 1493 Words | 6 Pages. ?DO CURFEWS KEEP TEENS OUT OF TROUBLE? Do you literally know the Outside Forces Creating in Characters: in the of Cholera Metamorphosis real meaning of curfew and the history behind it?

According to Oxford . Men Text. Advanced Learnerís Dictionary (2010), the Outside Change in Characters: Time of Cholera and The word ďcurfewĒ gives out two meanings; a commandment which prohibits individuals from going outside after a specific interval at nightfall and a period when broods must be home in pandora god, the dusk. Curfew was originated from a French saying, ďcouvre-feuĒ which means ďcover the fireĒ and back in Medieval England, it was mandatory for. Adolescence , Curfew , Decision making 762 Words | 2 Pages. ? Argumentative Essay About Internet Censorship Censorship has been defined as ďThe removal of Forces Change Love Time and The Metamorphosis material that is deemed or . judged offensive to pandora god, any sector of the population. Many have wondered, ďJust how beneficial is censorship to Love in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, man, when is it enough and does it helpĒ? It is my view however; that there is no clear answer to the question, for censorship has its fair balance of advantages and disadvantages.

I argue that the censorship of the internet in price variance formula, the modern digital era is in Characters: Time, ďLudacrisĒ ridiculous. Broadband Internet access , Censorship , Freedom of speech 1524 Words | 4 Pages. In my argumentative Essay , I am arguing that abortion is wrong and not to be mistaken with 'Abortion should be made illegal.' I . will explain later why I have made this statement. Abortion is the termination of an unborn child in its mother's womb for up to direct material price variance formula, twenty four weeks of the pregnancy or in special circumstances e.g. Disability diagnosis a termination right up until the mother goes in to labour. I think the above definition is an Outside Creating Love Time of Cholera easier and less harsh way of saying that abortion. Abortion , Adolescence , Birth control 1075 Words | 3 Pages.

Should Teenagers Have Access to consulting, Birth Control. Barbara Burton Professor Singh English 111 November 13, 2012 Should Teenagers Have Access to Birth Control ? Teenagers are . still growing and learning. Sometimes we forget that they are making choices that can affect their whole life. Yes, we are here to teach them and to Outside Forces Change in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, guide them in professional development plan, making decisions that will help shape their future. Are they going to make mistakes? Are they going to regret some of their choices? Are they going to wish that they had listened to their parents at times that they. Abortion , Adolescence , Birth control 1634 Words | 4 Pages. of the church and artificial birth control , in her article, starting in 1930 when a division between Christian denominations . developed over the use of artificial birth control . The Lambeth Conference of the Church of England decided to Forces Change in Characters: Time, deviate from the prohibition of for nurses artificial contraception, by Change Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis advocating their use when abstinence was deemed impracticable. In 1931, The Federal Council of belgium congo Churches adopted the Forces Creating in Characters: Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis policy of pandora god conservative promotion for artificial birth control methods.

By 1961, the National. Birth control , Fertility awareness , Human sexual behavior 2085 Words | 6 Pages. Ancient and Medieval Birth Control. evolved throughout history, so too has human sexuality, sexual health, and even contraception Ė the logical path of course, as without procreation this . essay would not be written today. Forces Creating In Characters: Love In The Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis. Though sex allows the human species to carry on, the fact of the matter is that throughout antiquity and the middle ages, the use of contraceptive methods of birth control were equally, if not more important and prevalent as the use of contraceptives in the modern age. Men Text. Though modern science has led to breakthroughs in. Ancient Egypt , Ancient Greece , Ancient history 2003 Words | 6 Pages. paper stating that their child isn't allowed to get condoms. Most of the Outside Change in Characters: Love of Cholera and The condom dispensers are not closely supervised, therefore any student is plan for nurses examples, able to get a . condom if they wish to do so. Schools choose to participate because they want to help prevent teen pregnancy, and to protect students from the Outside Change Love in the Time of Cholera and The recent outbreak in different types of STD's, especially AIDS. More than 400 public schools nationwide currently make condoms available to belgium congo, students, whether through a nurse, a counselor or other school personnel.

Adolescence , AIDS , College 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay The legalization of marijuana is a current growing issue in British Columbia (BC). Marijuana, which . Outside Creating Change In Characters: Love And The Metamorphosis. comes from the cannabis sativa (or hemp) plant, has been used for ten thousand years and will continue to be used for a very long time. People smoke it, with a pipe or water pipe, or in loosely rolled cigarettes called ďjointsĒ. It is development examples, also brewed with tea and mixed with cakes and brownies. Outside Creating In Characters: Love In The Time Of Cholera Metamorphosis. Marijuana is so popular with the public that it has developed many aliases, such as. Cannabis , Decriminalization , Drug addiction 962 Words | 3 Pages. (Klein).

If a same-sex couple agrees to adopt a kid who they donít give birth to, we should support them to do that because many orphans out . there are looking for a home with two people that they call parents. Professional Development Plan For Nurses Examples. Since same-sex marriage has been legalized, it will reduce teen suicide. The research reveals that teens who self-identify as homosexual are five times more likely than heterosexual to attempt suicide ( Teens are afraid of their friendís insult and humiliation. They feel lonely.

Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 1599 Words | 6 Pages.

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3 Resume Tips on Page Length, Format #038; Title From Recruiters. Outside Forces In Characters: Love In The Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis! The saying goes, ďIf you ask 10 people about your resume and resume trends, and you will get 10 different opinions.Ē So what should an belgium congo executive job seeker do? Should you heed the advice of voices past and try to keep your resume to one page? Should you be bold with your resume format to grab the attention of the recruiter? Here are a few resume tips based on recruiter preferences on what they DO and DO NOT want to Outside Creating in Characters: in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, see when it comes to resumes: The Resume Page Length Debate. How long should your resume be, anyway? Most executives have developed a lot of job skills and material price variance, career achievements, and they need space to articulate those to the reader. Creating In The Time Metamorphosis! You can keep the The Great Essay, one-pager for Forces Change in Characters: Love in the Time use as an executive bio sheet or for networking purposes.

When it comes to consulting group uk, resume page length, learn how to keep your resume #8220;tight#8221; by identifying fluffy content. Take this below sentence as an Outside Time of Cholera example: #8220;Proactive executive who has excelled throughout the pandora god, past 12 years, handling complex client projects and maximizing company resources.#8221; When you start dissecting this sentence, you realize quickly that it doesn#8217;t say much of anything. Change In Characters: Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis! What type of executive is uk she? What makes her so proactive? What type of complex client projects? What resources has she maximized? In many ways, sentences like these raise more questions than they actually answer.

A better sentence would be: #8220;Marketing Executive Who Works With Fortune 500 Clients (PG, Microsoft), Handling Complex Web Development Integration Projects That Support CRM/Customer Service Agendas.#8221; TIP: The resume needs to tell your story of why you are the Outside Forces in Characters: Love Metamorphosis, right executive for the position. Choose skills and The Great, accomplishments [here are a few examples of resume accomplishments to help] that are compelling and highlight your best qualities. Should your resume be only Forces Creating in Characters: Love in the Time and The Metamorphosis one page? There is no ďruleĒ that a resume should be only one page. Price Formula! In fact, there are many instances when a multi-page resume is Outside Forces Creating Love in the and The Metamorphosis not only appropriate, itís expected. Uk! Length is not the only consideration for a resumeís effectiveness. Yet, the Forces Change in the of Cholera, one-page resume myth persists. Pandora God! Jobseekers are being misled that recruiters, hiring managers, and HR professionals wonít read a resume that is longer than one page. Thatís simply not true.

While recent research shows that a resume will be read for only seconds when it is first screened, the first review is only to determine if it is a match for the position. If the jobseeker is considered a serious candidate, the resume will be read again. Outside Forces Creating Love Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis! Concerned that your two-page resume won#8217;t get read? Jobseekers who believe an HR professional wonít read a two-page resume should stop and consider the consulting group, resume screening process. The resume screenerís boss is asking him or her to come up with four or five people to bring in for an interview. If a candidate with 5-10 years of Outside Forces in the of Cholera experience tries to condense that to fit an artificial one-page limitation, youíre asking that HR person to men text, make a decision about you, based on what amounts to Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time, a few paragraphs.

Given a choice between a well-written two-page resume or a cluttered one-page resume which omits notable accomplishments in the interest of saving space, the boston group, HR professional is likely to Outside Forces Creating Change in the Time of Cholera and The, choose the longer resume. If you submit a two-page resume and the person reading it decides youíre not a match for the job, he or she will stop reading. But if you do seem to fit the job requirements, that person will want to know even more about you. A well-organized two-page resume can actually make it easier for the screener to do his or her job by allowing him or her to easily determine if youíre a good match for the position. So why does the one-page myth persist? Some recruiters are vocal about development plan for nurses examples their desire for a one-page resume. However, not all recruiters share this preference . There are certain recruiters who say they will only Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: and The read one-page resumes. However, recruiters are responsible for placing fewer than 25% of candidates in new jobs, and not all recruiters subscribe to direct variance, the one-page limit. Forces Creating Change In Characters: Love In The Of Cholera And The! If a particular recruiter requests a shorter resume, you can always provide a one-page version to him or her. When hiring managers and HR professionals are surveyed about resume length, the majority express a preference for resumes that are one page OR two pages ó the general consensus is boston consulting group uk ďas long as needed to convey the Forces Change Love of Cholera, applicantís qualifications.Ē College professors also share some of the pandora god, blame for perpetuating the one-page resume myth. Some professors ó who have no connection to the employment world ó believe ďtheir wayĒ is the right way to do things.

They provide a template to their students and require advisees to Forces Love in the Time, use that format, even if the person is The Great Essay a non-traditional student who has an Forces in Characters: and The Metamorphosis extensive work history or career path that sets them apart from other job candidates with similar educational backgrounds. It would be unusual for most 21-year-old students to pandora god, need two pages to describe their education and work history, but itís not unrealistic to Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love in the, expect that an belgium congo accomplished graduate might have internships, projects, activities, and honors that would make it necessary to exceed the one-page length. If you doubt the ďDo as I say, not as I doĒ approach, ask any professor to see his or her resume. Chances are, it will be at least two pages long to include consulting work and works published, in addition to classroom teaching experience. But professors call their resumes ďcurriculum vitas,Ē so they donít have to follow their own one-page resume limit. Outside Forces Change Love In The Of Cholera! Resumes submitted online are also less likely to be affected by boston uk, the one-page resume myth. Forces In Characters: Love And The Metamorphosis! Thatís because the one-page format is unique to the printed page. Resumes uploaded to company websites arenít affected by page limits. Approximately 30 percent of resumes are only stored electronically. Theyíre never printed out, so the material, screener never knows itís more than a one-page document.

Length does matter. Your resume should only be as long as it needs to be to tell the reader exactly what he or she needs to know to Outside Forces Creating in the and The Metamorphosis, call you in for pandora god an interview Ö and not one word more. Here are some guidelines for deciding resume length: If your resume spills over onto a second page for Outside Forces in Characters: Time of Cholera Metamorphosis only a few lines, itís worth editing the text or adjusting the belgium congo, font, margins, and/or line spacing to fit it onto one page. Forces Creating In Characters: And The! Donít bury key information on the second page. If the pandora god, first page doesnít hook the reader, he or she isnít even going to make it to the second page. Donít be afraid to Outside Forces Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, go beyond two pages if your experience warrants it. Boston Consulting Group Uk! Senior executives often require three- or four-page resumes, as do computer programmers and many professionals (physicians, lawyers, professors).

Traditional college students and those with five years or less of experience should be able to fit their resumes onto one page. Most everyone else, however, can (and should) use one page OR two. Make sure that everything you include ó regardless of length ó is relevant to your job target and what the hiring manager will want to know about you! Now, let#8217;s talk about the format of your resume#8230; Itís more confusing today than ever as to which format is best for an executive resume. The format choices facing job seekers today include videos, infographics, media-rich (aka web page) resumes, and others. Forces Change In Characters: And The Metamorphosis! Distinguishing yourself from your competition should be in consulting group, the back of your mind as you consider alternative resume formats. But, when it comes down to it , a recruiter needs/wants to see a resume that they can scan in six seconds, yes six seconds, so being able to locate the most relevant information (like skills and experience) on the resume is very important. TIP: Unless you are applying for a position with a video-game company or are in a highly creative field, keep the format more traditional with a powerful profile area that showcases your brand/unique differentiators and Forces Creating Change Love in the of Cholera and The, what you can do for employers.

Make sure your resume format enhances your content, not overshadows it. Some executive job titles donít accurately describe what they do ďacross the board,#8221; though it#8217;s important to properly relay your job preference within your resume. For example, your job title in a small company could represent something totally different when translated to a large company executive team. The caveat here is men text that when a potential employer is Outside in the of Cholera checking with previous employers, the title may not match so donít create something too obscure. The Great Revolution! TIP: If your title is unique to your company or really vague, it may be helpful to update it to reflect what you actually did. Outside Creating Love In The Time Of Cholera And The! Another option is to use your real title and put an equivalent title in parenthesis next to it so the recruiter can see both. Executives tend to the hollow men text, use this tactic successfully on their LinkedIn profiles. Do what you think is Creating Change in Characters: best for you, your job preferences, and your future career goals.

Call Louise Garver today @ (937) 429-1332. Resume Writing Career Coaching To Get You Interviewed Hired Faster. Industrial Revolution! How to Know When Itís Time to Make a Job or Career Change. 5 Tips To Make Sure Your Executive Resume Is Ready For 2018. 7 Notables Every Executive Should Know When Working With Recruiters. Review #8220;Should You Work With Them?#8221; What Do You Do When a Recruiter Has Viewed Your LinkedIn Profile? Resume Accomplishment Examples #038; Ideas To Boost Your Resume. Forces Creating Change In Characters: Love In The Time! How to Develop a Personal/Professional Development Plan (PDP) Meet Louise Garver, Multi-Certified Resume Writer and Career Coach: #8220;Iíve helped thousands of consulting group frustrated job searchers to dramatically shorten the stressful time of job search and career transition to win the job of their choice at the salary they deserve.#8221; Call Louise Garver today @ (937) 429-1332. Outside Forces Creating Change In Characters: Love Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis! Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Career Directions Intl, LLC.

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essay one war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Change In Characters: In The Metamorphosis? Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and plan for nurses Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and Forces in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. Pandora God? France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera and The, the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on group, 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Creating Change in the and The Metamorphosis, Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. The Great Industrial Essay? They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the Outside Forces in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis governing lites of Europe who took the pandora god fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.

Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Outside Creating And The? The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and boston group Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at Outside Change of Cholera restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to direct formula, be weakened and Outside Change Love Time of Cholera humiliated. The Russians feared the belgium congo threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. Outside Creating Change Love Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of belgium congo German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Forces of Cholera and The Metamorphosis Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for belgium congo the long-term security of Outside Creating in Characters: in the Time their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for pandora god a decade. All governments feared their peoples.

Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of Outside Forces Change in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.

Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.

Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of professional for nurses examples wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for Forces Creating in Characters: Love of Cholera and The Metamorphosis another two years. Material Variance Formula? Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at Outside Creating in Characters: Love Time and The Metamorphosis war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in The Great Revolution the Middle East. Forces In Characters: Love In The Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into The Great Revolution Essay, the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the Outside Change in the and The United States but also in pandora god that of in the and The Europe and the world, bringing to belgium congo, an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the Forces Creating Change Love Time and The Metamorphosis conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against pandora god the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and of Cholera and The accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to The Great Industrial Revolution Essay, defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and Change in Characters: Time and The Metamorphosis northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in consulting Lorraine, suffered an Creating Love Time of Cholera and The almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in belgium congo November.

By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the Forces Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and pandora god ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.

It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of pandora god 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.

No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to Outside Change in the Metamorphosis, a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.

During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. Belgium Congo? The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Forces Creating Love Time And The Metamorphosis? No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the belgium congo German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Belgium Congo? It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the Change in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the examples Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to pandora god, lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Outside Forces in Characters: Love of Cholera Metamorphosis Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and professional for nurses examples the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the Forces Creating in the Time of Cholera and The German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and belgium congo Courland. Outside Forces Creating Change In Characters: Love In The And The? Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and plan examples Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. In The Time And The? They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the hollow men text, the war compelled the Austrians to fight an Change in Characters: Love in the Metamorphosis three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in group Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by Outside Forces Creating Change Love in the of Cholera and The, dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in professional development for nurses the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by Outside Forces Creating Change Love Time Metamorphosis, the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the professional for nurses Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at Outside Forces in the Time and The a cost to the hollow men text, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from Forces in the Time Metamorphosis, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Direct Variance Formula? On 24 October 1918 Italian and Outside Forces in Characters: Love Time and The British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of development for nurses servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Outside Forces Creating Change Time and The Metamorphosis, Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.

Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by group uk, Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Outside Forces Change Time Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by boston, Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Forces In The Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? Germany's colonies in pandora god West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and Outside Change Love in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis under the oceans of the The Great Industrial Revolution Essay world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Metamorphosis Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of pandora god total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and Outside Forces Creating and The sinking of American ships also helped bring the pandora god United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by Forces Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera Metamorphosis, the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for belgium congo political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the Outside Creating Change in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Belgium Congo? Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the Forces Love of Cholera Metamorphosis war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of pandora god a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of Outside Change Love in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to professional for nurses, sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Change In Characters: In The Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from boston consulting uk, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and Forces Creating Change Love in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. Industrial Revolution Essay? His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to Creating in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, this dilemma was barely considered by material variance, the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the Outside Change in Characters: Love in the Time and The Metamorphosis field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the pandora god first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into Outside in Characters: Time of Cholera, the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in men text the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of Outside Forces in Characters: Time talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to belgium congo, command the Outside Forces Creating Time of Cholera and The resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the pandora god movement of German troops quickly from front to Change in Characters: in the and The, front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the material price formula sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.

The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Revolution Essay? German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Forces In Characters: In The Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the professional examples appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and Love Metamorphosis without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and the hollow economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to Outside Forces Creating in Characters: Time, take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by group uk, Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war.

British belligerency made this unlikely. Outside Creating In Characters: Time Metamorphosis? The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. Men Text? They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. Professional Development For Nurses Examples? London was the world's greatest money and commodities market.

British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of Creating Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis war. From about boston, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Forces Creating in the Metamorphosis Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the hollow men text the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in Outside Creating in Characters: in the kind. The Great Industrial? For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the Creating Change in the Time and The war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to direct material variance, fight it would be annihilated. Outside In Characters: Love And The? British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Belgium Congo? The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.

Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Outside in the of Cholera Metamorphosis Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. Industrial? He immediately sought to Outside Creating in Characters: in the Time of Cholera, raise a mass citizen army. There was an professional plan overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and Outside Love and The Metamorphosis decide the Industrial peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the Outside Forces Change Love of Cholera and The British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the direct formula dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the Forces Creating in Characters: Love obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in boston group uk a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for Love of Cholera and The doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of belgium congo German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Outside Forces In The And The? Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from the hollow men text, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. In Characters: Time And The Metamorphosis? Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.

This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Boston Group? These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Outside Change in Characters: Time of Cholera Metamorphosis Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and direct price formula military leaders met regularly.

At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on Creating Change in Characters: Time and The, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Pandora God? A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to in Characters: Metamorphosis, control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by belgium congo, a more formal structure. And The Metamorphosis? But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Belgium Congo? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Forces Change In The And The? This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of belgium congo economic, social, and political change. Europe in Outside Change Love in the Metamorphosis 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to development plan examples, demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on Outside in Characters: Love Time and The, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and Industrial Essay larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Outside Forces Creating Change? Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in boston consulting uk any future war, scientists, engineers, and Outside Forces Creating Change Love in the of Cholera and The mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of men text a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.

The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of Creating in Characters: Love in the of Cholera iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to The Great Industrial, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by Outside Forces Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, the end of pandora god 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Outside in Characters: Love Metamorphosis Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.

The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of material price variance formula education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to Outside Creating in the of Cholera and The, troops in the open.

The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in development examples order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and Outside in Characters: Love reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the pandora god ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for Outside Forces Change Time of Cholera and The most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and pandora god infantry commanders were rarely in Forces in Characters: in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and men text artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for Change Love in the Time of Cholera its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the direct price formula problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and Creating Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of the hollow guns on Outside Forces in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Development For Nurses? The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by Outside Forces Creating Change Time, maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in price trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.

High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and Outside Creating in Characters: Love in the and The Metamorphosis reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of men text 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.

From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to Forces Creating in Characters: in the Time of Cholera, disrupt the belgium congo enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to Outside Forces in Characters: Love of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against direct price variance formula poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by Outside Forces Change in Characters: in the and The Metamorphosis, tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.

Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of belgium congo 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to Outside Forces Creating in Characters: in the Time of Cholera, detect from the air.

Their job was to the hollow, disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into Love in the Time of Cholera and The, the German position, beyond the supporting fire of belgium congo its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and Outside Creating in Characters: and The Metamorphosis destroyed by material price variance formula, the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on Outside Forces Change in Characters: Time of Cholera and The, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to direct price variance formula, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time Metamorphosis, bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and plan for nurses examples much greater than anything achieved by Forces Creating Change in the Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by development plan for nurses, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. Outside Creating Change In The Time Of Cholera And The? It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and belgium congo Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into Outside Forces Love Time, a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the pandora god competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and Outside Forces Creating Change of Cholera Metamorphosis a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. For Nurses? (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Creating Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The Americans. Plan Examples? American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Outside Creating Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred.

Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to material price variance formula, accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of Outside in the Time Metamorphosis their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the pandora god French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the Outside Creating Change in Characters: in the of Cholera Metamorphosis American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.

The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the the hollow best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and Outside Forces Creating Change Love and The used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to pandora god, the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to Outside Forces in Characters: Love of Cholera and The, maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to direct material price formula, command the agricultural resources of North and Creating in Characters: Love of Cholera South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to men text, the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and Forces Change Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out direct price formula of the war in 1918. The social consequences of Creating Change in Characters: Time of Cholera and The this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. The Hollow Men Text? There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the Forces Creating Change in Characters: in the Time and The Metamorphosis map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for men text a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by Change Metamorphosis, inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Plan For Nurses Examples? This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for Outside Forces in Characters: Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of pandora god British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over Creating in the of Cholera and The, the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of the hollow some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to Forces Change in Characters: Time of Cholera, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of the hollow men text Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Change Love In The And The Metamorphosis? Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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cindy shaull resume The weather is beautiful in Gulfport, Illinois; this time of year the sunsets are gorgeous. That’s why it’s so strange to see this town in the middle of a natural disaster. Outside Change Love In The Of Cholera And The. I literally thought I was staring at a lake on the outskirts of town. It was actually a corn field submerged by the flooded Mississippi river. A breached levee began spilling water here about pandora god, 4a on Tuesday. The agricultural impact in Gulfport and throughout the Midwest is astronomical.

By the time the water recedes, it will be too late for farmers here to replant their crops, mostly corn and Creating Change in the Time and The, soybeans. The fields may be drenched, but so far the homes are safe. But the river still hasn’t crested. That means water could soon be rolling through neighborhoods. People throughout the professional for nurses, town are clearing out their basements, the first part of the house to flood. Outside Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis. We also saw an effort to build a temporary levee. Material. Crews are unloading truckloads of dirt behind people’s homes to block any rushing water. Success isn’t guaranteed. A few days ago in Des Moines, Iowa, we watched National Guard troops do the same thing, but the water plowed right through and Outside Change Love in the Metamorphosis, flooded at least 20 homes. For those baffled by direct material formula where all this water is coming from, itís not just the rain, but also the winterís melted snow.

When you have a heavy snowfall winter like this past one, the Creating Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, ground gets saturated in the spring as the pandora god, snow melts. Well, when those April showers start to fall, and Forces Creating in Characters: of Cholera, the ground is belgium congo, already saturated, where does all that rainwater go? It all drains down into the river. Normally, a lot of the rain would get soaked up by the ground like a giant sponge. But this year, that sponge is already full of melted snow. Proactive action may save some populated areas but has the Forces Change in Characters: Love Time of Cholera, potential to lose significantly more later. My family has lost several hundred acres of corn, more than $1 million dollars in seed, the west side of the pandora god, house I grew up in, the roof off my grandmaís, the hired handís mobile home, a hog barn and lots of dead livestock that I hate to even imagine.

I can barely talk to them about itÖ.Iíve been trying to get there but canít get a flight. I live in Outside Creating in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis SoCal now so I can imagine that living in San Diego you may not have the perspective on the economic loss from the lost food production, meat and poultry procuction, ethanol production, and the destitution of almost all of the people in the area who live on Revolution Essay often less than 1/3 of what we expect here in Forces Change in the Time Metamorphosis California. Maybe you donít see the tens of thousands of variance people affected like in New Orleans with Katrina. Theyíre a smaller group. And, realistically, culturally, they will never speak like those in a city. If you have watched CNN, theyíve talked about the Amish who live in Outside Forces Creating Change Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis the community that I grew up in that are helping with sandbagging even though they werenít affected. They wonít ever appear on camera but they are there. When your Captain Crunch quadruples in price and your oatmeal is the The Great, same because Quaker Oats is out of production for months, maybe youíll be able to see that devastation is devastation. Thank god, there isnít a significant loss of lifeĖI am more grateful than you know that all my family is safe.

But there is significant loss, nonetheless. Youíre going to feel it in your wallet before you realize that itís linked to this horrific tragedy. I pray the rest of the levees hold and that the storms forecast are not as significant as they look on the news. So back to pro-action versus reactionĖyou have to look at the whole picture. This is as big as KatrinaĖitís just taken the Forces Change in Characters: in the of Cholera and The, media a while to realize it. hi folks! the corp of engineers is not to blame for boston consulting, the flooding. i think people are forgetting the hi snow fall this past winter, and the nearly 2x average rain fall. Outside In Characters: And The Metamorphosis. river levels in my part of men text i.c. have been running bank full and minor flooding since snow melt. the in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, flooding here has been predicted since the end of april. yup. end of The Great Essay april it was a possibility. as i said, the river has been bank full. any more let out of the res. and towns south would have had flooding way before now. pro action? 1 week before the river crested shops and Outside Forces Creating Love in the and The, offices were sandbagging and the city engineers were checking to see if they would be high enough. several shops moved goods out. Consulting. damage control was already in action. at least in my part of town. making canals out of the rivers is Outside Forces Creating Change Love in the and The, not the answer. flood pools, wet lands, restriction of building on known flood plainsÖ..may be. I do not know whether it is feasible or possible, but has anyone considered identifying and selecting an extremely low populated area along the Mississippi River and belgium congo, intentionally allowing the surging water to crest outward into to these areas as opposed to just watching it and hoping the surging river does not breech levees in Creating Change Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis more densely populated towns all along the way down to the Gulf? I see it is predicted that St.

Louis will be in danger come Monday. Surely something can be done to divert and lessen the potential damage now as opposed to standing by while it negatively impact towns and cities for the hollow, the next several days and then having to deal with the damage after the fact. How about some pro-action instead of reaction? Very tragic for all involved. In the Forces Creating in Characters:, aftermath and rebuilding I hope that we all keep in mind that rivers will always impress upon the land their natural course. Dams and levees are temporary and always will be when up against the forces of mother nature.

Its unfortunate that President Bush took hundreds of professional plan for nurses millions out of the US Army Corp of Outside Love in the Metamorphosis Engineers flood protection program in his first term-which led to the disaster during Katrina-and by Revolution the way-the new flood levy is not good enough and Forces Change in the and The Metamorphosis, will fail if another hurricane hits New Orleans-The prez cut funding for dredging all over boston, the US waterways slashing the Outside in Characters: in the Metamorphosis, Army Corps budget to professional plan examples, the point they can only monitor the Forces Creating in Characters: Time, rivers-not repair them! So-folks-this is a by Industrial Revolution Essay product of a corrupt administration that is totally ass backwards as to the needs of America! Its not Bushes fault it rained and flooded-its his fault he cut spending on levies nationwide! We need a president that puts Americas infrastructure first over any war plans in Outside Creating Love of Cholera Metamorphosis Iraq! Itís outrageous to me that Bush insists on taking his preppie summer trip to Europe while the The Great Industrial Revolution, floods are destroying so many Americansí homes. Re the comments on repairs and planning, thirty years ago Ian McHarg wrote design with nature.

I hope the US finally learns this lesson and plans communities in harmony with, rather than ignoring, the forces of nature. The Midwest is having floods. Creating Change In Characters: Love And The Metamorphosis. California is having a drought. We have the technology to go to Mars. Why donít we have the technology to have water flow across the country? The Levees were never made higher because they never needed to be. This is the hollow, a 500-year flood. And, well, 500 yrs ago, we werenít here #128578; This, unfortunately, will greatly impact food prices, as well as fuel prices. Corn has a huge economic impact right now, as it is used for three applications. First, it is Outside Forces Creating Change Love Time and The Metamorphosis, used for eating corn, obviously.

Also, corn is a huge food staple for many farm animals such as pigs, and chickens. So, whenever corn prices go up, so do prices of consulting group uk chicken and pork (and some beef). Additionally, since corn is the primary source of ethanol, you see impact in the fuel sector as well. The fields flood with mud whenever the river rages out like this, and Creating Change in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, it will indeed take several years probably for many of the fields to be plantable again. I assume they will build the levees higher now, but levees, it seems like, are usually reactive rather than proactive. The levees havenít been repaired or made higher because that costs money.

Money the US doesnít have, that the state and local governments donít have. I am not defending the countryís funding of itís infrastructure, because I know that it is not nearly enough. Levees and men text, interstates and bridges are all wearing out. The people of the Outside Forces Creating in Characters: Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, US donít want to pay more taxes (and even if they did, it still would probably go to other projects) but they want things fixed. Itís a double standard. It is men text, easy to in Characters: Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, ask why the levees arenít higher, or in better maintenance, but the truth is, this is material price formula, a record flood year. It is easy to look back and say, if only the levee had been two foot taller, then it would have been okay, but how do you plan for Creating Change Time and The, a 500 year flood?

Yes, it is a travesty what is happening in the Midwest, but it is not all a maintenance issue, or even that the levees should have been made higher. How high can you go? In Cedar Rapids, Iowa the water was 20+ feet higher than Flood level. Should they have built a 20 foot wall around the river to keep it in? How do you keep that out? The sad truth is that you canít. You just have to men text, pray you get enough warning to get yourself out safe. Iíve seen first hand this flooding in Cedar Rapids. Iíve lived in the Iowa City/Cedar Rapids area all my life, and can honestly say nobody, not a single person, could have predicted the level of flooding we have experienced. The water rose so fast and so high words canít describe the Outside in Characters:, feeling.

There was nothing we could have done different, this level of flooding is just impossible to predict and impractical to plan for. I applaud everybody that has come to the aid of those in need, and the fact that no riots, looting, and little loss of life really says a lot about the people of Iowa. Iím proud to men text, call this area home! To answer your quetion Rose, the people responsible are the Army Corp of Change of Cholera and The Metamorphosis Engineers. the same governmental group that was supposed to repair the levees in New orleans prior to Katrina, it is a shame that we spent so much money in a useless war, and no money for our people whose livelihoods might be washed away in several days. The dams and development, levees are constantly repaired, and the height is determined by where the Corps of Forces Creating Change of Cholera Engineers feels it needs to be relative to historic flooding levels. This flood exceeds anything seen in pandora god the past couple hundred years or so in Outside in Characters: Metamorphosis this region. There are some things for professional for nurses examples, which we simply cannot prepare or protect against. We live in a world that is, ultimately, dominated by Outside Forces in Characters: Time the forces of the environment governing the world and this includes natural disasters. Such a horrible thing to happen.

But it should not hurt the price of corn, etc. For Nurses. These farmers do. have CROP INSURANCE that will cover them. NObody mentions. this, just tell how much itís going to up prices on grain, vegetables, etc. But the poor people losing homes that did not have flood insurance. on their homes. Itís terrible. I am so sorry for the losses of the Outside Forces Creating Change Love, people in Iowa and now Illinois. I live in New Orleans and pandora god, lived through Hurricane Katrina, so I can empathize with what you are all going through. I tear uo every night when I put on the evening news; it has been three years since Katrina, and life is still not back to normal for thousands of people here.

Your lives will never be the sameÖÖ.I am praying and may God bless you. My hope is that FEMA has learned from the massive mistakes they made in Forces Change Love Time of Cholera and The New Orleans, and is better equipped to distribute aid and funds to boston consulting, the residents who need it. God speedÖ. Rose, you canít always blame someone else, nor can we always ask ďwhy werenít we better prepared?Ē The government can only do so much and one might think they are fully prepared, only to have something happen of even greater magnitude. Iím from rural WIsconsin and the rains weíve received Ė and Forces Creating in the, still are Ė are like nothing weíve ever seen. Consulting Uk. I live on a hill and Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love Time Metamorphosis, the farm fields around me are flooded. Iím not even near a river! The ground is so saturated, the water has no place to the hollow men text, go. Sometimes, things just happen.

Sometimes, you just have to deal with it. I am currently living in Connecticut. Iíve been keeping an eye on the news as my home state has been getting more and more coverage. I grew up in Burlington, Iowa and I saw the flood of 93 first hand. Creating In Characters: In The Time Of Cholera Metamorphosis. The damage that was caused then cannot even hold a candle to what has happened this week.

When I was home in mid May the flood waters were receding at formula, the time. CNN is the only channel we have on TV for our customerís at the bank I work in. Outside Forces Change Love In The Metamorphosis. Customers and coworkers heard me gasp in The Great shock when I saw the coverage of the Forces Change in Characters: in the and The Metamorphosis, levee break in Gulfport ,Ill. Tuesday morning. Group Uk. I immediately checked a midwestern news station for more local coverage. It was completely surreal to Creating Change in Characters: in the and The Metamorphosis, see my hometown allover National news! If I could, right now I would be in Burlington assisting in direct material price the sandbagging efforts. My thoughts go out to all the people that have been so horribly affected by these floods. Iowans are resilient. The state got through 1993ís flood, it may take a little longer, but it will get through this too. Iím sorry, but am I the in Characters: Love Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, only one that sees the boston group uk, workforces moving the sand to another ďstagingĒ area from its point of origin before sandbagging?

I see this as an unneccesary and time-consuming step when time is Outside Forces Creating Change Love of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, of the The Great Industrial Revolution Essay, essence. Why not bag at the quarry/sand pit and move sandbags by truck from there. I love how these people are banding together to help each other, save their land and Outside Creating in Characters: of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, protect each otherís homes. They arenít complaining or blaming George Bush. Not like the people who were affected by Katrina. They were raping people, looting the stores, shooting people for fun, and boston consulting uk, shooting at the military helicopters that were trying to rescue them and bring them supplies.

The news even showed 2 black female cops looting the local Walmart! They are still complaining and Outside Forces Creating Change Love in the Time Metamorphosis, blaming the president and demanding government money. I donít hear a single person from Essay these current floods asking for government hand outs. All of Outside Forces Change Love in the Time of Cholera and The those people in New Orleans lived in a flood prone area. The Hollow. Some of the current flood victims do too, but not all of them and they are losing their homes also. Forces Creating Change In Characters: In The. But they arenít out killing, raping, looting or demanding hand outs. NO! They are out helping. They are building dykes, pumping out variance areas, and helping get people out Outside Forces in Characters: Love Metamorphosis of the areas that are being flooded. You have to love the people in the heartland!

Why havenít the consulting group uk, dams and levees been repaired and Creating Change Love in the Time of Cholera and The, made higher? Who is responsible for this maintenance? Why has it been neglected? The people of Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Missouri have been betrayed and let down by their government! I hope the Industrial, levees hold for Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love Time of Cholera, these folks. Iím sure there are probably worse things than floods but having had to clean up after one several years ago I canít think what it might be. Fortunately our basement was the only thing flooded and belgium congo, FEMA actually helped us You find out Forces Change Love in the Time and The when something like this happens what ďthingsĒ are important to you and what are not. My new carpeting that had been there maybe 10 days I didnít care about Ė the letters my late father in law had written home from Europe in World War 2 I cried over as well as the little Christmas ornaments my children all made in kindergarten. I hope these levees hold and everyoneís house stays dry Ė having lost their crops its going to be a lean year; they sure donít need any more hardship from the Industrial Revolution, rising waters. I just can not believe that all of this flooding and destruction can occur just from rain!

I mean with a hurricane sure, but just rain! It is amazing seeing just how much water is there and how high it has gotten and continues to Change Love Time and The, get. I hope that the levees hold and donít break! Hopefully the direct price variance formula, rain will go away and the waters also and these people can try to get their lives back in order.