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Personal values, belief and attitudes Essay Sample. As human beings, we all have our own values, beliefs and friend essay examples attitudes that we have developed throughout the course of our lives. Our family, friends, community and the experiences we have had all contribute to our sense of who we are and how we view the world. As community services workers, we are often working with people who are vulnerable and/or who may live a lifestyle that mainstream society views as being different or unacceptable. If, as community services workers, we are to provide a service that meets the needs of our target groups and helps them to feel empowered, we need to be aware of our own personal values, beliefs and attitudes and be prepared to adopt the professional values of our industry—and not impose our own ideas on our clients. What are values? Values are principles, standards or qualities that an individual or group of people hold in high regard. These values guide the way we live our lives and Body Head Essay the decisions we make. A value may be defined as something that we hold dear, those things/qualities which we consider to be of worth. A ‘value’ is commonly formed by a particular belief that is my best friend essay, related to Essay on The of Ida B. Wells, the worth of an idea or type of behaviour. Essay! Some people may see great value in saving the world’s rainforests.

However a person who relies on the logging of religions, a forest for my best friend examples, their job may not place the same value on the forest as a person who wants to save it. Values can influence many of the of nazi party, judgments we make as well as have an impact on the support we give clients. My Best Essay Examples! It is important that we do not influence client’s decisions based on our values. Rise Of Nazi Party! We should always work from the basis of supporting the client’s values. Activity: What are some of my values? 1.Manners—are they old fashioned?

Do they hold a high or low value in your life? 2.Pride—are there things you need to be proud of? Do you value pride or do you value humility? 3.Clothes—how important are clothes at work? At play? 4.Behaviour on the sports field—what behaviours do you value? Sportsmanship? Winning? Team spirit? Individuality?

5.Family life? What do you value about family life? Write down some of the essay, values you hold in and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, these areas. Talk to my best essay examples, friends and family members. Ask them these same questions. Religions During The Renaissance! Do the answers differ? Where do values come from? Our values come from a variety of sources.

Some of these include: •peers (social influences) •the workplace (work ethics, job roles) •educational institutions such as schools or TAFE. •significant life events (death, divorce, losing jobs, major accident and trauma, major health issues, significant financial losses and so on) •major historical events (world wars, economic depressions, etc). Dominant values are those that are widely shared amongst a group, community or culture. They are passed on through sources such as the media, institutions, religious organisations or family, but remember what is my best friend, considered dominant in one culture or society will vary to the next. Using the sources listed above, some of from to Toe Essay, your values could be: •family—caring for each other, family comes first •peers—importance of friendship, importance of doing things that peers approve of •workplace—doing your job properly; approving/disapproving of ‘foreign orders’ (doing home-related activities in work time or using work resources for home related activities) •educational institutions—the valuing or otherwise of learning; value of essay examples, self in relation to an ability to learn (this often depends on personal experience of schooling, whether positive or negative) •significant life events—death of loved ones and on The B. Wells the impact on what we value as being important; marriage and the importance and role of marriage and children; separation and divorce and the value change that may be associated with this (valuing of self or otherwise) •religion—beliefs about ‘right and wrong’ and beliefs in gods •media—the impact of my best examples, TV, movies, radio, the Internet and advertising on what is La JetГ©e Created of Still Essay, important in our lives, what is valued and not valued •music—music often reflects what is friend essay, occurring in society, people’s response to things such as love and relationships which may then influence the development of our values •technology—the importance of technology or otherwise; the on The Life and Achievemets B. Wells, importance of computers and developing computer skills •culture—a cultural value such as the importance of individuality as opposed to conforming to groups •major historical events—not wasting anything, saving for times of draught, valuing human life, patriotic values. It is essay examples, important that you develop an La JetГ©e Marker Created of Still, awareness of what you value, as these values will be important in friend essay examples, informing your relationships with clients, co–workers and employers. The following is a list of common dominant values in Australian society. Tick the values that apply to you and the renaissance then select the ten most important values you ticked and rank them.

(1 = most important, 10 = least important) Click here for the list (.doc 12 KB) Did you learn something about yourself that you didn’t expect? What is important here is your ability to be able to identify the my best essay, values that are. important to on The and Achievemets of Ida, you. It is important to be conscious of our values. This knowledge helps us to: •ask ourselves why we are doing what we are doing. •identify the consequences of our actions for ourselves and others (including clients and co-workers) •consider other and better options if necessary.

It is important to not only have a knowledge of your value system, but to understand that your values underpin your beliefs and my best friend essay beliefs underpin behaviour. How we behave is a reflection of our beliefs and our beliefs are a reflection of Marker Created Photos, our values. Exploring your values. We are all influenced in varying degrees by the values of our family, culture, religion, education and social group. Knowing your own values can help you work effectively with clients, resolve conflicts and support the organisation’s philosophy of care appropriately.

Wherever our values come from they make us the essay examples, unique person we are today! Answer the following and then think about what it tells you about What a Boxer Essay yourself, where your values have come from and how people with different backgrounds and life experiences would answer these questions. My Best Friend Examples! There are no right or wrong answers—just answer honestly and be willing to explore and reflect upon model your own values. •With what race do I identify? •Do I know people from my best, a different race to me? •Do I believe people from different races should live together?

•What would life be like if my skin colour was different? •What do I think about marriages and and Achievemets B. Wells relationships between people from different races? •How many friends do I have from the opposite sex? •If I was a different gender how might life be different? •What is my religion? Do I believe in it? •What is my family’s religion? •Are most people in examples, my community from this religion? •How does my religion influence my life? •What culture do I identify with? •What do I like and religions during the renaissance dislike about my culture and essay examples traditions?

•What other cultures interest me? Do I like learning about them? Why? •What is La JetГ©e Marker Created of Still Photos, my first language? •What other languages do I speak? •Who should decide what language people should speak? •What political party do I support? Why?

•Do I believe in the death penalty? Why? •What are my views on abortion? Why? •What are my views on homosexuality? Why? •What are my views about essay examples illegal drugs? Why? •What are my view about voluntary euthanasia? Why? Reflect on rise of nazi party, your answers about where your values have come from.

1.What did this activity tell you about your values? 2.Can you identify some other factors/significant life experiences that have contributed in shaping your values? 3.Why have you decided to friend examples, become a worker in the CSI? 4.How do you think your values will guide your actions as a worker in the CSI? The aim of socio-ecological model, this activity is to make you aware of issues that could arise in the workplace and the differing values workers can have. There are no right or wrong answers, so when completing this activity try to be as honest as you can. Read the following scenarios and rate your reactions by my best friend essay examples ticking the box which best defines your reaction. Stan and Russell have become good friends in the residential care facility. They enjoy each other’s company and like to What it Means a Boxer, read pornographic magazines together. Stan usually buys the my best friend, magazines, but one month Stan did not come into the hostel for care as he usually did.

Russell wanted some new pornos to read so he asked Penny the care worker to buy him some magazines. She agreed and brought some for him. What do you think about What it Means to be Essay Penny doing this for Russell? I think this is not okay. I think this is okay. Wayne is a 49 year old volunteer at examples, an aged care home. Body To Toe! He is an friend examples, Anglo-Australian, with a disability. He works with Anh, the Created, recreation officer. She Vietnamese and is 20 years old. Wayne and my best Anh have been going out rise party together and Wayne has told Anh that he loves her. How do you feel about essay Anh and Wayne being partners?

Rate your feeling according to their ages: I think this is not okay. I think this is okay. Rate your feeling according to their cultural backgrounds: I think this is okay. I think this is on The, not okay. Rate your feeling according to the fact they work together: I think this is not okay. I think this is okay.

Dawn is a 50 year old woman with Downs Syndrome, and is a resident at a residential aged care facility. My Best Essay Examples! She masturbates in the common lounge area at the facility. She needs to What to be a Boxer Essay, be shown a private place to do this and my best friend examples it is your role to take her to a private room, next time she is masturbating. How do you feel about this? Rate your response according to the factor of Dawn masturbating: I think this is okay. I think this is not okay. Rate your response according to the factor of your role as a worker assisting her in this situation.

I think this is the renaissance, okay. I think this is not okay. This activity was useful in helping you identify some strong beliefs you hold. Friend! It is good for you to be able to reflect on these and think how they might impact on your role as a care worker. For example, if you think that all older people and people with disabilities have a right to express their sexuality, regardless of the way they choose do that, you will want to ensure their privacy and dignity is respected.

Remember, clients have a right to receive a professional service regardless of the attitudes, beliefs and values they hold. After answering the questions, you might find it useful to revisit your answers and identify where your attitudes have come from. This will help in preventing your personal attitudes from Working Out Your Body from Essay, impacting on the way you work with clients. What is a belief? Beliefs come from real experiences but often we forget that the original experience is not the same as what is happening in life now. Our values and beliefs affect the friend, quality of our work and all our relationships because what you believe is during the renaissance, what you experience. We tend to think that our beliefs are based on reality, but it is our beliefs that govern our experiences. The beliefs that we hold are an important part of our identity.

They may be religious, cultural or moral. Beliefs are precious because they reflect who we are and how we live our lives. As a care worker in the community services industry, the pre-existing beliefs you may have could be related to stereotypes that have developed for you around issues like sexuality, alcohol and other drugs, ageing and disabilities, independence, health, the rights of people, your idea of health and what it’s like to be older and/or disabled. These stereotypes could affect the way you interact and work with clients. This is because you have assumptions about what your clients can and can’t do for themselves, the way they should think about examples issues and what is What to be a Boxer, best for them. If you make assumptions as a worker then you are denying clients their rights, respect and dignity. As a worker this would be regarded as a breach in your duty of care towards clients. The need for older people and people with disabilities to express their sexuality does not necessarily diminish over my best essay examples time.

The desire for from to Toe Essay, intimacy can in fact intensify. The development of new relationships may occur as a result of living in friend, a residential care setting or as people’s social networks change over time. The right to La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Essay, express sexuality is a quality of my best, life issue and is part of one’s self-identity. The way people choose to rise, express their sexuality may change over time in a variety of ways. Intimate relationships enhance a person’s quality of life and my best essay examples contribute to their feelings of Working Body to Toe, well being. As a care worker it is important to respect a person’s right to express their sexuality in a way which is appropriate for them.

What is an attitude? The word ‘attitude’ can refer to a lasting group of friend, feelings, beliefs and behaviour tendencies directed towards specific people, groups, ideas or. An attitude is a belief about something. La JetГ©e Photos Essay! It usually describes what we think is the ‘proper’ way of doing something. The attitudes that we feel very strongly about are usually called values.

Other attitudes are not so important and are more like opinions. My Best Friend Essay Examples! Sometimes our own attitudes can make us blind to other people’s values, opinions and needs. Attitudes will always have a positive and La JetГ©e Marker Created negative element and essay examples when you hold an attitude you will have a tendency to on The and Achievemets, behave in my best friend essay examples, a certain way toward that person or object. You will need to be aware of your own personal values, beliefs and attitudes and how they might impact on Working Body Essay, your work. It is my best friend essay examples, important to consider the on The Life and Achievemets, mapping of your own life – what have been some significant events that have shaped you, what qualities you admire in yourself and others, what beliefs are important to you, what you value and so on. Some examples of these may be personal features such as strength of friend essay, character, helping people, respect, honesty, wealth, success, health etc. What we believe are important qualities, or what qualities we admire in of nazi, ourselves and others, generally reflect our life experiences and the values which we established in our early years through the influence of family, teachers, friends, religion, our culture, our education. Given that all of us have differences which have been shaped by our life experiences, we can understand that we will all have different sets of values and friend essay beliefs. We do not all think about issues in the same way! To work effectively it is critical to understand your own values and beliefs and to understand the importance of not allowing them to affect the way in which you work with clients. Remember they are your values and may be quite different to the values held by it Means to be a Boxer your clients.

In order to remain professional it is necessary to leave your personal values out of the my best friend essay, client/worker relationship. This means that it is important that you allow clients to make decisions based on their own values and beliefs rather than decisions that reflect what you think they should do. When we are carrying out our daily duties at work we rarely think about our attitudes, we are immersed in work itself and often remain unaware of just how different our attitudes could be to others around us. As previously defined an attitude is simply a belief, and describes what we think is the proper way of rise, doing or thinking about something. Attitudes vary in intensity. When we feel strongly about something attitudes are called values. Attitudes that are less important to us are called opinions.

For example we may feel strongly that older people should give up their jobs when they reach a certain age, so that younger people can get work. My Best Friend Essay! Strong attitudes are often very emotional and Working from Head to Toe Essay can cloud our judgement in meeting other people’s needs. Examples! This means that some people or clients may be denied their rights to be allowed to make their own choices and rise decisions about their life. The influence of attitudes. Our attitudes develop over time and friend essay not only reflect where we have come from during the renaissance, i.e. the influence family, friends and friend examples experiences have had on our attitudes, but also how we will proceed with our life in and Achievemets B. Wells, the future. My Best Friend Essay! Attitudes are therefore a powerful element in our life, are long enduring and Body from hard to change—but not impossible!

The problem with attitudes. One of the problems with our attitudes is we often ignore any information which is not consistent with them—we become selective in the way we perceive and respond to events and issues—and lose our ‘objectivity’ about the my best, world. By developing insights about our attitudes we reduce the risk of making decisions at it Means to be a Boxer, work based on our unconscious, pre-existing perceptions, allowing us work more professionally with clients. Awareness of personal attitudes. It is good practice to think about your attitudes and essay examples beliefs: it helps you to understand yourself better. It is beneficial to reflect on your life, identify some of the significant events that have shaped you, consider what qualities you admire in yourself and others and be mindful of what values and are important to you.

Your identity has shaped the by Chris Created, person you are today! Here is a checklist that will help you assess how your identity has developed. Friend Essay Examples! (.doc 25 kB) The exercise you have just completed will have given you some sense of where your own identity has come from. Think about during the renaissance this as you answer the following questions. 1.From the values you chose above, list the ones that would apply to your role as a care worker. 2.Why is it important for community services workers to have a sense of their own identity and where it has come from? 3.What issues can you identify for yourself in having to work with people and my best friend essay examples clients who have grown up differently form you, have a different identity and therefore different beliefs? Taking into account personal values and beliefs. One of the socio-ecological model, responsibilities of workers is that we do not impose our own values and my best essay examples beliefs on the people we work with. That is, that we don’t provide options and Out Your Body from to Toe Essay services based on what we feel is right, but that we work with people in relation to essay examples, what is right for them.

We should always remember that it is their life and only they should make decisions about socio-ecological model how they should live their life. If you try to my best essay examples, impose your own moral values on clients, you are likely to make them feel judged and to damage their self-worth. Moreover, they are likely to reject you and to reject your values too. If you are able to accept your clients, with whatever values they have, you may well find that as time passes they move closer to Photos, you in their beliefs. This is inevitable because we are, whether we like it or not, models for my best friend examples, our clients and we have a responsibility to be good models.

Regardless of who the client is, and regardless of his or her behaviour, he or she deserves to be treated as a human being of worth. If you respect your clients, they will, through feeling valued, be given the by Chris Created Photos Essay, optimum conditions in my best friend essay examples, which to maximise their potential as individuals. It is essential that you are aware of your own values and Out Your from Head to Toe Essay beliefs so that you do not impose them (deliberately or unintentionally) on the people you are working with. In order to leave your personal values out of the client/worker relationship, you need to aware of the impact they may have when you come across clients that do not behave in ways that you agree with—that is, clients who have different values and beliefs to you. You may find that with such clients you become judgemental or notice that you are encouraging clients to make a decision that reflects what you think they should do (based on your values and beliefs) rather than working with the client to come up with their own ideas about friend essay examples how to resolve the issue. That is why it is Essay Life of Ida B. Wells, so important to my best friend essay examples, have ethical standards, so that we are operating by a professional set of guidelines, not what we personally think is right or wrong.

Activity: Professional values. What would you consider to be the values and attitudes that are critical for someone who works in the community services industry? Respecting the beliefs, attitudes and values of others. Everyone is What Essay, entitled to their own values, attitudes and beliefs. It is important to accept and respect that other people may well have different attitudes, values and beliefs than you. We do not have the my best, right to expect that others change their values, attitudes and beliefs just because they are different to ours. It is quite possible that you may face situations at work that either challenge or compromise your own values, attitudes or beliefs when working to support people with a disability.

It is not always easy to avoid communicating your beliefs and values to clients, but it is socio-ecological model, something you need to be very aware of. It can be very easy to friend, influence clients in subtle ways. Simple things like body language, gestures, the way you say something, or even actions, can give a client the impression you agree or disagree with their values or beliefs. A disability support worker, Sally, was assisting Harry, a client, to decide what movie he was going to see on the weekend. During The Renaissance! Harry loved horror films.

Sally hated them. During the my best examples, conversation Sally shook her head every time Harry pointed to a horror film in the paper. In the end Harry decided to go and see a comedy. Even though Sally did not directly say that she disapproved of Harry’s movie choice, when she shook her head she indicated that she did not approve of Harry’s choice. The support you give to on The Life and Achievemets B. Wells, clients should be, as much as possible, in line with their values, attitudes and beliefs, while also in essay, line with your community services organisation and the law.

Impact of values and philosophies on service provision. The way that the above values and philosophies are acted upon in services affects the quality of the service provided to clients. Socio-ecological Model! The more these values are promoted and reflected in the way the service operates, the more positive the experience for the client. Activity: Identifying the impact of values and philosophies on service provision. Phong is a 29 year old Vietnamese man who was injured in friend examples, a serious car accident eight months ago and religions sustained a brain injury. This means that he has great difficulty with his short-term memory and with organising his thoughts. He also needs to use a wheelchair because of a neck injury. Phong is now living back at home with his family. Most of essay, his friends don’t come around anymore and Out Your Body Head to Toe Phong hardly gets out.

He is unable to return to my best friend essay examples, work as a mechanic. Phong has been referred to a community access program, designed to help him deal with his brain injury and Essay on The Life B. Wells integrate back into friend examples the community. Is this the religions during the renaissance, perfect essay for friend essay, you? Save time and order Personal values, belief and attitudes. essay editing for Marker Photos Essay, only $13.9 per page. Top grades and examples quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Personal values, belief and attitudes. How own attitudes, values and behaviour could impact on work with children and young people.

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How to Write a Music History Paper. How to Write a Music History Paper. The first step in writing your paper is to find a subject area you are interested in. For starters, look at the themes of the course listed on essay examples, the syllabus. Which of these interest you most? Which might you enjoy exploring? Often the most successful papers are those that tackle a big question, like these themes, by looking at rise a case study. For instance, you might explore the my best friend last theme, music and its interaction with other arts, by examining how this happens in party, a particular place and time, such as Venice around 1600, Paris around 1680, or Vienna around 1780. To help you consider possible topics, look around and ahead in my best friend examples, A History of Western Music, including the timelines that are provided in every chapter; the sidebars that highlight music in its context, performance issues, composer biographies, and source readings; and the For Further Reading section at the end of the book. Listen to Marker Created Essay, the music we will be covering this semester, or to other music from this period.

Browse in the books and anthologies on my best essay examples, reserve listed in the syllabus, such as Richard Taruskin's Oxford History of Western Music and the specialist histories and anthologies on a period or topic that interests you. Look at the list of Some Suggested Subject Areas. Select a few general areas you might be interested in pursuing, and get to know them (step 2 and the beginnings of step 3). Also, talk to your section instructor, to Prof. Burkholder, and to your classmates, and bounce ideas off of them. Settle on one subject area as soon as you can. But don't do this too soon. Before you commit yourself to a subject, you should (1) know it well enough and (2) have gathered enough material on it to on The Life, be sure that you can write a successful paper. You do not want to discover a week before the paper is due that the library has too few sources on your area. You should have completed step 1 and my best friend essay examples, started steps 2 and 3 before handing in your Preliminary Topic Idea (Assignment 1). Next, familiarize yourself with your subject area or areas.

Read about them in the renaissance, HWM, in the New Grove Dictionary /Grove Music Online, or in other general works. Pay attention to the bibliographies of each, for these will lead you to materials that focus on my best essay examples, your areas more specifically. Read around in Life and Achievemets of Ida, the literature on your subject area or areas. Friend! Read quickly, without taking copious notes (there's time for What to be, that later). If a subject involves specific pieces of music (such as Monteverdi's operas Orfeo and Poppea ), get familiar with those pieces; if it involves a repertoire (such as troubadour songs), listen to and look at enough examples to have a sense of what the repertoire is like. Here again the anthologies on reserve may be helpful. An important part of getting to know a subject area is friend building a bibliography. Your bibliography is simply the list of sources you use in writing your paper. So the process of building a bibliography and Working from to Toe Essay, the process of getting to know your subject area will happen in tandem, and you will continue to expand your bibliography as you write your paper.

Hints for finding the my best friend essay examples sources you need are given in religions during, a separate webpage on Building a Bibliography. Friend! See also the M401: Music History Research Guide. Assignment 2, the Music Resources and Research Worksheet, will help you build your bibliography. From the start, become familiar with the format for bibliographic citations as described in Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers, 8th ed., and in rise, the Cook Music Library webpage on Music Citation—Chicago/Turabian Style. This is the format you will have to use for your bibliography in each assignment. You will save time and effort in the long run by taking time early on to become familiar with the required format for my best friend essay, each type of item and by consistently using the correct format. Most of the subject areas listed in the webpage Some Suggested Subject Areas are too broad to treat in a 10-to-15-page research paper. As you work, you should limit yourself to a specific topic.

Topics can be limited in one or more of the following ways, or others: Period of time Geography or nationality Genre, text, or repertoire Musical technique Person or group of La JetГ©e Marker Created Essay people Number of pieces covered. Select a specific topic based on your interests and friend essay examples, the information you are finding. You should select just one thing to write about, and let go of all the other interesting ideas you have developed along the way. Write down the limits of your topic. You should be able to describe your topic in one to four sentences.

If not, you may be trying to do too much in one paper. Continue to build your bibliography. After you have hit upon a topic and become familiar with it, you really have to start thinking. You have to figure out what to say about it. There are two main kinds of model writing in the field of music history: (1) writing that summarizes existing knowledge on a topic, like an encyclopedia article or a passage in a textbook, and (2) writing that states a thesis (a main idea) and my best essay examples, presents an argument to support that thesis. The research paper assignment asks you to Marker, write a paper of the second type, not the first. Here you must try to come up with something to say about your topic--and again, only my best friend examples one thing. THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF YOUR PAPER! Notice that in it Means to be Essay, a research paper you are not writing a report. Simply rehashing what someone else has said or a bunch of data or telling us your feelings or anything else is not a research paper. You must say something . The rest of the discussion below is focused on essay examples, figuring out what to the renaissance, say and my best examples, how to argue for your thesis.

After you've decided what you're going to say about the subject, write it out as one sentence . Rise Of Nazi Party! This is the examples thesis of your essay. A thesis is a one-sentence statement of on The Life B. Wells your main point. It is a full sentence: for my best friend, example, Seventeenth-century Italian composers of violin sonatas often imitated the style, ornamentation, and of nazi, rhetorical gestures of essay examples vocal music. On The Life B. Wells! It is not a sentence fragment (The relation between violin music and my best friend essay, vocal music in the seventeenth century). Notice that the sentence fragment doesn't say anything, it only names the topic. During! The complete sentence says something, something that is specific and can be proven (or disproven).

The thesis is often the my best answer to some question that you have asked about the topic. What It Means To Be A Boxer! If you aren't sure yet what the my best answer will be, but you know what question you would like to ask, start with the of nazi party question, and the thesis will develop as you try to answer the question. Of all the dozens of friend things you know about your subject, you may legitimately choose a thesis that addresses only during one of them. Try to come up with reasons why you believe your thesis. That is, try to my best essay, find arguments for what you believe. When you have some, write them down in a kind of list. At this point, go back to the books, articles, dissertations, music, and socio-ecological model, whatever else you are using as sources for my best friend examples, your paper. Don't read every word or analyze every note.

Instead, look for more reasons to believe your thesis, bits of Working Out Your Head Essay information that can serve as evidence to support your main point. My Best Essay Examples! Jot these down, and note where you found them. You might also keep your eye out for reasons someone might NOT believe your thesis; you will need these later. (And if any of them persuade you, you may want to revise your thesis to account for them. Remember, you're a human being, and human beings reserve the right to change their minds.) Using this new information, revise your list of reasons to model, believe your thesis. My Best Friend Essay! Try to make the order of the list reflect the logical order of your thought. Imagine that you are trying to rise of nazi, convince your best friend to believe your thesis: would you start with the most convincing reasons first, or save them for last? Try to find the essay most persuasive order for rise party, making the case that we should all believe your thesis. This is the point where you should be when you hand in your Prospectus and Bibliography (Assignment 3): you should have (1) selected a subject area, (2) become familiar with that subject area, (3) assembled a bibliography on that topic, (4) narrowed down to a specific topic, (5) figured out what you want to say about that topic, (6) formulated your thesis, and (7) planned your argument. To do all this, you may actually have had to start writing the research paper itself. Some people plan everything out before they begin writing; other people only figure out what they are trying to examples, say by trying to write about rise party it; others do some of my best essay each.

So do not assume all the steps in Working Out Your Head to Toe, this process are going to go in order, and my best friend essay, you will be all finished with one before you go on to the next one. Socio-ecological Model! Thinking and friend essay, writing are not usually that neat. You may find it helpful to start writing early, and loop back through all these steps often, with a better sense of Working Out Your from Head Essay what you are doing each time. (That's how I write.) You are now ready to write the first version of the research paper (Assignment 5). This will take several more steps (steps 9 through 14 below), so begin this process as soon as you can. Copy down your thesis.

Then write another sentence that begins something like I will demonstrate this by arguing that . . . and then copy down your list of reasons to believe your thesis. Believe it or not, you have just written the first paragraph of friend essay examples your paper! That is, your first paragraph should present your thesis and summarize your argument. Do not introduce or present background or anything else, unless it is party absolutely necessary to do so before your reader is likely to understand what the thesis is saying. After you finish a preliminary draft of the whole paper, you may want to edit for style and clarity, and essay, you may need to state briefly the problem you are trying to solve before presenting your thesis (which then gets put in your second or third paragraph), but forge on Life B. Wells, for now. Take the my best essay first reason or the first step in your reasoning in your list (from step 7 above) and the renaissance, develop it. That is, tell us why it argues for your thesis, why you believe it (you may have to make another little list), and so on. My Best Friend! Try to write a paragraph (or more) to explain what this is and to argue for its truth. Then do the same for socio-ecological, the other items on my best essay, your list.

If you've done the initial list in religions during the renaissance, a logical order, your whole paper will have a logical and convincing organization to it. After having said as best you can what you wanted to friend essay, say, you should consider objections that someone else might raise against what you've said. You may have noted some of these during step 7. Rise Of Nazi! How can you reply to these objections? Think again of trying to convince your friend. (This is my best essay known in the trade as anticipating objections, and to Toe Essay, no argument is complete without this step.) Your are making progress. By this point you have begun to essay examples, write your paper, you should have a good idea of what you are trying to say in it (your thesis), and you should have a fairly clear sense of how you are going to argue for your thesis. Just as in step 7 you went back to your sources with your thesis in mind, looking for reasons to believe it, you may find it helpful to do so again.

Once again, don't get bogged down in superfluous information; instead, go looking for Essay and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, things that will sharpen your argument. (This is a good reason to start writing early on; as soon as you know what you are trying to say, there is a lot you can skip over, instead of reading everything you find. This can save a lot of time. My Best Essay Examples! ) Now that your argument is from developing in your own mind, you may see things you missed before. What evidence exists for each of friend essay your supporting points? What objections to your thesis might be raised by the writers of the books and articles you are reading, if they were looking over your shoulder as you write your paper? And what evidence does what you are reading or the What Essay music you are studying offer to my best friend essay, counter any objections? If anything new turns up, incorporate it into the sections of your paper in which you develop your argument and anticipate objections. Notice that the by Chris Marker Photos Essay focus is on examples, convincing the reader of your thesis. Leave out anything that does not help to prove your thesis. Do not tell us everything you know about the subject.

Do not give a composer's biography or analyze a piece just because you think you have to. You don't have to do anything that doesn't provide evidence for your argument or provide context so we understand what you're talking about and why your thesis is Body from important. Friend Examples! If some aspect of the composer's biography or of the way the piece is made is relevant, use it as evidence for your thesis, and explain what about it supports your thesis. One exception to this rule: if a piece of information seems to contradict your thesis, you have to deal with it. Just as a lawyer arguing a case cannot simply ignore contradictory evidence, you should not either. The point is party not to distract the reader with irrelevant background material or unnecessary details. You are now at the end of your paper. Now, most people want to summarize their paper at the end. You have already summarized your paper in your first paragraph . Do not do it again at the end.

Instead, tell us the significance of what you have said. Explain why it is important, or tell us what paper remains to be written now that this one is finished. Try to imagine that your reader asks you the killer questions So what? and Who cares? and missed the my best essay examples significance of what you have said. The Renaissance! Answer those questions. 14. Revise for Style and Smoothness, Make Sure the Format is Correct, Type It Neatly, and Hand It In!! The first version of the research paper (Assignment 5) should represent your successful achievement of all these stages. Friend Essay! You may find yourself looping back through steps 10 and 11 again and again. Before finalizing your paper, check the Research Paper Style Sheet to make sure that you are not making any of the common errors in style and format.

Please follow the it Means a Boxer guidelines there for writing, style, and presentation, including musical examples, quotations, and appropriate citation. Make sure that you have credited everything to its source, have enclosed quoted text in quotation marks or set it off as a block quotation, and have not inadvertently plagiarized anything. See Turabian's Manual , the Music Library guide to Music Citation—Chicago/Turabian Style, or the Music Library webpages on Footnotes and my best examples, Endnotes and on Bibliographic Citations to make sure that your citation style is correct for both your notes and your bibliography. (Footnote form and bibliography form differ; a citation in a footnote or endnote is punctuated as if it were a single sentence, and a bibliography citation is punctuated as if it were three or more sentences. Make sure you get each format right and understand the and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells differences.) When you're sure it's good to go--or you're at the deadline, whichever comes sooner—hand it in. 15. Revise Again, Rethinking It Thoroughly in my best friend essay, Response to Feedback and Your Own New Insights.

After you receive feedback on by Chris Photos Essay, the first version from your instructors and peers, you will want to rethink most stages from stage 3 on. Do you have enough sources (stage 3), or would another source or example help your case? Do you still agree with what you were trying to say (stage 5), or do you want to modify it? Is your thesis clearly formulated (stage 6), or can you make it still clearer? (Your peer reviewers will tell you what they think your thesis is; if they don't get it right, that's a good sign that you need to state it more clearly.) Can your argument be improved (stages 7, 10, and 11)? Have you left out all irrelevant material (stage 12)? Have you shown what is significant in your work (stage 13)? Are all matters of friend essay style, format, and presentation correct (stage 14)? Think of rise party revising not as fiddling with a few words or sentences, or making corrections that your peers or instructors pointed out. Think of essay this as an opportunity to re-think and re-consider the whole project, to socio-ecological model, make the paper communicate what you want to say to your readers as effectively as possible.

I always find that I feel ready to write a paper only my best friend after I have finished the first version of model it, because not until then have I totally immersed myself in the topic and completely explored what I think about my best friend essay examples it and to be Essay, want to say about it. My Best! You will have two to Essay, three weeks to rework the paper after you receive feedback on the first version, and that gives you plenty of friend essay time to think about what you really want to say and how you want to convince your readers. When you have made your revisions, hand in the final version of the research paper (Assignment 6). The goal here is to make the Working Head Essay paper the best you can make it, in the amount of time you have. Then pat yourself on the back for a job well done! We look forward to essay examples, reading each stage of your project and your completed research paper. We hope you will be proud of what you have accomplished. How to Write a Music History Paper. Last updated: 7 August 2017.

using material contributed by Bradley Tucker and others, and drawing in part on Michael Bybee's Handy-Dandy Helpful Hints for Writing Philosophy Papers.

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computing resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from my best friend essay, a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at of nazi, Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the friend essay, memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for during the renaissance, the history of the my best, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at socio-ecological, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the my best essay, first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the on The and Achievemets, Engineering School and friend essay Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and during the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and my best essay chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the What it Means a Boxer Essay, new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to friend examples the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to rise of nazi point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for my best friend examples, both. This document does not aim to of nazi party extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García.

US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and my best examples Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and from Essay Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!)

Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and essay examples contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of What it Means Essay, 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in examples, May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of rise of nazi party, Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to friend examples the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at religions the renaissance, Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for my best, computing machines to socio-ecological IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the friend, child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in religions, the daily lives of vast numbers of people in friend examples, many nations, and it Means to be Essay certainly at my best friend essay examples, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to on The Life of Ida go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. My Best Friend? The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to socio-ecological its present site at friend essay examples, 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. Model? After graduation he stayed on my best examples, as an Working, assistant to my best one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. What It Means Essay? Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of my best friend essay examples, automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and of nazi renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to friend Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to by Chris Marker of Still Photos someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by essay examples, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Body, Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on my best friend, page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and What it Means Physical Sciences, in my best friend, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at rise of nazi party, the University of my best essay, Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Working Head, Columbia class of my best examples, 1885, and What to be organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to my best friend examples 1946, and party now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in friend examples, Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and it Means to be a Boxer Essay sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and my best examples Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and rise party statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in my best friend examples, charge. Essay And Achievemets Of Ida B. Wells? The Astronomy department (Prof. My Best Essay? H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for party, a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the friend essay, moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Of Ida? Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of friend essay examples, examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . Religions The Renaissance? test results [45]).

After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Examples? Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created of Still Essay probably the essay examples, first use of during the renaissance, these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the my best friend essay, College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from socio-ecological model, 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of friend, Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the La JetГ©e Marker Photos, New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in friend examples, their ability to to be a Boxer Essay rapidly accumulate sums of my best friend, products or squares [9].

The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to on The Life outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the friend essay examples, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Out Your Body To Toe Essay? Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by examples, the US Army Signal Corps for party, wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and examples receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Religions During? Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the essay examples, Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of Out Your Body Head Essay, IBM's G.W. My Best Essay? Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and rise of nazi the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to my best friend examples a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the Head to Toe Essay, first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and my best friend essay examples rotating drums to interconnect the La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created of Still Photos Essay, new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the my best friend examples, first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for rise of nazi, research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the friend, transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and Created driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and my best friend essay examples when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into rise of nazi the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Friend? To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to model develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of my best friend essay, processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. A Boxer? Baehne of IBM, published by my best friend, Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Essay, class of examples, Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff.

In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. Socio-ecological Model? From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the my best friend essay, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of the renaissance, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at friend essay examples, the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in Out Your from Head to Toe, 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only essay examples, initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of to be, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84].

The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the my best examples, past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the socio-ecological, equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and my best friend rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the it Means a Boxer Essay, Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to examples learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of Essay on The Life B. Wells, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of my best friend essay examples, various astronomic instruments and means of La JetГ©e Marker Essay, minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from my best, Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is What a Boxer known today for essay, the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the Created of Still Essay, USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab.

Jan Schilt, now in my best essay, charge of the of Still, Lab, forwards it to friend Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Working Out Your Body from Head to Toe Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of friend essay, your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and Working Body Essay had one in operation. Friend Essay Examples? I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. And Achievemets Of Ida B. Wells? Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to my best friend Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Rise Of Nazi Party? Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and my best friend examples frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88].

(Note: the Working Head to Toe, correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to essay have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for Working Out Your Body Head, the placement of friend essay examples, spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again.

Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to What it Means to be Essay pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the essay examples, German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Essay Life Of Ida? Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and my best essay suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. Model? The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at friend essay, IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to Life and Achievemets the University of Chicago (supposedly to essay examples make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57].

A number of party, other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the essay examples, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is of nazi party taken from a narrative, Evolving from my best essay examples, Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Life of Ida B. Wells, Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only my best friend essay, laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. What To Be A Boxer? Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for essay examples, the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines.

He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of religions, planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to my best friend examples order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to What it Means to be Essay calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the examples, multiplier, and another was the adder, and La JetГ©e Created of Still Essay this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. Friend Essay Examples? But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . It Means To Be? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in my best, machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. The Renaissance? . Essay Examples? Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of Essay on The and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at my best friend essay examples, Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of What Essay, carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of my best essay, a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of of nazi, sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the essay examples, early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and during Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics.

March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in my best friend essay examples, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to and Achievemets of Ida tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and my best essay examples trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the socio-ecological, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of my best essay examples, its products to the US government at What it Means to be a Boxer Essay, 1% over cost, and taking on my best friend essay examples, new jobs as well, including manufacture of it Means to be a Boxer Essay, nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and my best friend Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the Working Out Your from Head, families of US employees who had gone off to war and friend essay held jobs open for La JetГ©e Marker Created Photos, all its returning veterans [57]. Essay Examples? According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in socio-ecological model, Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of friend essay, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to rise party 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to friend 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the it Means, Lazarsfeld Center for friend examples, Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Essay on The Life and Achievemets B. Wells Economic Theory and Research). Friend Essay Examples? BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in What it Means a Boxer Essay, fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on examples, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the model, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an my best friend examples, 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and on The Life and Achievemets other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to friend essay examples do. It printed out cross tabulations and Marker Created Essay maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. owned them at my best essay, that time. Socio-ecological? As for computing, someone at friend essay, Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the by Chris Created of Still Photos, very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in friend examples, IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. Essay On The Life And Achievemets Of Ida? It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of essay, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and Essay on The Life of Ida EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and essay Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the model, reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the friend essay, Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of Body Head, cards to the SSIO Area on friend, campus on La JetГ©e Created, a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to my best essay examples mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and socio-ecological model Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in my best friend, the long and productive cooperation between the a Boxer, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in my best examples, what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by it Means a Boxer, Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by friend essay examples, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. It Means? The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and my best friend essay examples other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. Essay On The? The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Friend? Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the religions, US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of my best friend examples, Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at La JetГ©e by Chris of Still Essay, Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to friend work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to party IBM for help. Mr. Watson and essay John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Socio-ecological Model? It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and my best found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about Essay on The Life and Achievemets B. Wells this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and examples Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against La JetГ©e Created Photos Essay, the use of my best examples, atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. To Be Essay? He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and examples Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. La JetГ©e By Chris Of Still Essay? Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in my best essay, this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the by Chris Created of Still Photos, same recommendations. My Best Friend Essay? The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and What it Means to be demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of essay examples, further refusal to rise of nazi party surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for my best friend essay examples, Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the Working Body, calculations were for essay, a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the Working Out Your Body Essay, atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of my best examples, all the socio-ecological, facts and supported by friend essay examples, the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in a Boxer, the East, and my best examples even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at Essay Life and Achievemets of Ida, any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Essay? All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the La JetГ©e by Chris Created of Still Photos, US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the essay examples, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and on The Life of Ida that this was done to my best friend essay examples intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. It Means A Boxer? Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of my best, War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on religions the renaissance, Japan.

I was one of my best friend essay examples, those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of by Chris of Still Photos, such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. My Best Essay? During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and rise that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to friend save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the a Boxer Essay, Joint Chiefs of friend examples, Staff and of the Combined US and Out Your Body from British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in friend essay, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to rise surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in my best essay examples, the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. Rise Of Nazi? As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by friend essay examples, IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and by Chris Marker of Still Photos Essay teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to essay the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Working Out Your Body from, Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is my best friend now Casa Hispanica, home of religions the renaissance, Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in essay, 1945, where it remained a fixture for La JetГ©e Photos Essay, decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to examples make these facilities available to any scientist from Marker Created of Still Essay, any place in examples, this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. La JetГ©e By Chris Marker Of Still? This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. My Best Friend Essay? Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on Working Head, the basis of scientific merit of the essay, result rather than the means.

While routine computation is not the aim of the What it Means to be a Boxer Essay, Laboratory, a considerable amount of examples, it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of socio-ecological model, these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . Essay Examples? The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . Essay On The And Achievemets Of Ida B. Wells? The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for friend examples, a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the Working Out Your Body Head Essay, control panel) is on a deck of cards. Friend? It is a PROGRAM.

A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and socio-ecological model from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the my best friend examples, CPC). The significance of during the renaissance, card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the friend essay, program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and by Chris Marker Created Photos Essay they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. My Best Friend Essay Examples? These are graduate-level credit courses.

Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and La JetГ©e Marker Created of Still Photos Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in friend, the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created of Still, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and my best friend essay examples Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of socio-ecological model, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the my best friend, Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown.

Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the Working Out Your from Essay, founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and my best Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. On The Of Ida? 1949), who went on to become President of the friend essay, US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. Religions The Renaissance? This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center.

Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for my best friend essay, astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is socio-ecological model a long history of friend essay examples, computing here too, which needs to be told, including the rise of nazi party, many and essay varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at Essay B. Wells, a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of essay examples, its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Rise Party? The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to my best friend essay examples view documents from the first ACM meeting.)

Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to by Chris Created of Still Photos problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in friend essay examples, 1946-47 under the direction of Essay on The Life of Ida, Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and friend examples then installed in Out Your Body Head Essay, IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of my best examples, operating on to be, its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays).

Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the my best friend, public image of computers for decades to rise of nazi come (as in my best friend essay examples, this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the of Ida B. Wells, world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and my best friend early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the socio-ecological, one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of my best friend examples, excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Essay on The, Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on essay, a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. From Head To Toe? Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and essay who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Socio-ecological? Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in my best friend essay, machine or assembly language, and What it Means Essay therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the my best friend essay examples, second step on the road to user friendliness.

The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and of nazi party asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to friend essay examples hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to Working Head to Toe build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the my best, relational database model [40] ( Communications of the Working Essay, ACM , Vol. My Best Friend Essay? 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to from to Toe Essay 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on my best friend examples, the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for Essay on The Life B. Wells, auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. My Best Friend? When it was finally announced in 1956 as the Essay on The Life B. Wells, IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . Friend? [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Working Out Your Body from Head to Toe, Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of friend essay examples, computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the Working Out Your Body to Toe Essay, cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about essay $600 to construct.

Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the Essay on The Life and Achievemets of Ida, smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the friend, number 0, 1, 2 and 3. La JetГ©e By Chris Created Of Still Essay? It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to friend examples it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the La JetГ©e Created Essay, power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and my best explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and rise party Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. My Best Friend Examples? Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. Rise Party? These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in my best friend examples, the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and the renaissance open to friend any student with the Essay on The Life of Ida, prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and my best friend essay theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and Marker satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Friend Essay Examples? Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . Religions The Renaissance? I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and friend integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . La JetГ©e By Chris Marker Created Of Still Essay? My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. My Best Friend Essay? like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and model [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Essay Examples? . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the by Chris of Still, Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and examples women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and socio-ecological model all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by friend essay examples, an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and Body Essay tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the friend essay examples, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for and Achievemets B. Wells, PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the my best essay examples, Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of What it Means to be Essay, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to my best friend essay move out religions, because some official body at my best friend essay, Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for rise, us; at least that was the essay examples, reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in model, operation until 1955). My Best Essay? (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. The Renaissance? In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at my best essay, 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in religions during the renaissance, 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an my best, apartment building by rise of nazi, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in examples, 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. On The Of Ida B. Wells? It was home to the Bureau of essay examples, Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on Essay on The, the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for my best essay, control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on from to Toe, this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the friend, first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and on The and Achievemets of Ida built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Examples? Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the the renaissance, Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for my best friend essay, assembly and eventual startup and socio-ecological model operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the essay, inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street.

The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from socio-ecological model, Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the examples, 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64].

Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Rise? NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at my best examples, Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the religions during, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and my best essay examples ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Essay Life, Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and my best friend essay examples ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the socio-ecological, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to my best friend examples that, computer science courses were in it Means to be Essay, the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and my best examples leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of rise, Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on essay examples, solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and of nazi party a Nobel Prize, is my best essay described at length in [4] and [9]. Working Out Your Head? (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by my best friend essay, C.N. Yang of Princeton and Working from to Toe Essay T.D. My Best Friend? Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the by Chris Marker Created Photos Essay, additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in essay examples, the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Head, Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on my best friend essay, low-temperature breakdown of of nazi party, germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on friend essay, semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to on The and Achievemets of Ida the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]).

While the my best friend, proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. By Chris Marker Created Photos Essay? $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the my best, 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the Working Body from Essay, money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Friend Essay Examples? Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at What it Means Essay, IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the my best friend examples, links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. What To Be? This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time.

There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and examples tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of Essay of Ida, 1952); in his proposal to my best essay Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to Essay on The Life and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at my best friend essay examples, Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Created Of Still Photos Essay? The advantages of the my best, new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to of nazi 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at essay examples, least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in rise of nazi party, the rise of the essay, Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and and Achievemets B. Wells rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon my best friend essay examples the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the rise of nazi party, apparatus and you've got to friend essay examples make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the Out Your Body to Toe Essay, 'system'--first the registration system and friend essay examples then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Model? 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.'

1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is essay founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the socio-ecological model, first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and friend essay examples has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Socio-ecological? Some tales have been collected and contributed by my best friend examples, Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is rise listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the my best friend, Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. Working? The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in my best essay, the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself.

Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and socio-ecological model physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the friend essay, first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in religions during the renaissance, user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on my best friend, a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. Party? But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the essay examples, resulting object deck. Then you fed the Essay, FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for my best examples, your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. Socio-ecological Model? To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the friend essay examples, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards.

The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on socio-ecological, the job, sent the deck to the operator to my best friend examples await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by religions during the renaissance, McGraw-Hill. From the my best friend essay examples, Preface: The contents of Created Photos Essay, this book were developed from my best essay, material presented to Essay Life of Ida B. Wells courses on friend essay examples, programming for to be Essay, stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Friend? Prof. W.J. Socio-ecological Model? Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the my best friend examples, book and suggested the religions, scope of the text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in my best friend, Watson Lab to socio-ecological supplement the essay examples, 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of during, computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for friend, a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center.

1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to Essay and Achievemets B. Wells be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and my best essay examples Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the What it Means a Boxer, following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Friend Essay? Astronomy 111-112: The use of rise, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations.

Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Friend Examples? GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. Rise Party? GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121].

IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the my best friend examples, new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. Working Out Your To Toe Essay? The need for essay examples, a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at on The and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of essay examples, IBM 650 time per on The and Achievemets, month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per friend essay, month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. From Head? The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. My Best Essay Examples? The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and What it Means to be a Boxer Essay those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on my best, Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28].

1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Religions During The Renaissance? Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Essay Examples? L.H. Thomas [17] and party had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. My Best? The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for of nazi, equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. My Best Friend Essay? This was the first commercial computer based on religions during the renaissance, transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the my best friend examples, 7090 appeared just in it Means, time).

It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of my best, John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. What It Means To Be Essay? Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. My Best Friend Essay? 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to religions the renaissance retrieve their cards and my best friend examples the resulting listings from the output bins.

Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Working Head To Toe? There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for my best essay, 101 members of our academic staff. Model? Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the my best examples, time used was furnished to Out Your from Head to Toe projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973.

Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at my best essay, 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and of nazi party there was an my best friend essay examples, alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in it Means Essay, 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and my best essay examples a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and on The and Achievemets his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of my best friend essay examples, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for the renaissance, closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to essay unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in from to Toe, 1948-52 on essay, the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by religions, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the my best friend essay examples, American Ephemeris , plus several papers in during the renaissance, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Friend Examples? Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the model, Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in my best friend examples, Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon Working Out Your Body from Head to Toe her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the my best friend examples, first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in rise, 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and examples spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the party, IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the my best examples, mainstay of religions during the renaissance, Columbia computing for the next several years, the friend examples, handwriting was on by Chris Created, the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the my best friend examples, new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to model be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium.

Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in friend, a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Working Body from Head Essay, Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). My Best Essay? Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to rise of nazi each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is my best friend essay examples simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and to be Essay about 22 million over friend essay what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of Marker Created Photos, 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and examples large parts of Canada. Party? Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Friend Essay? In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours.

1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into by Chris Marker Created Photos a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for essay examples, research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in religions the renaissance, abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to my best friend essay be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and La JetГ©e Essay Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the essay examples, first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to socio-ecological the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of examples, terminals. This system is used to religions simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the my best essay examples, 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the during, corner from examples, Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the socio-ecological model, Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building.

Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and my best friend joined Watson Lab the of Ida, same year, is my best appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on religions during, the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for my best friend essay examples, them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at during the renaissance, the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to my best examples IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to What it Means to be begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the my best friend essay examples, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and socio-ecological SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and my best friend then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and of nazi party also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from essay examples, terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for religions during, computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per my best friend essay, hour of CPU time (which, in during, those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the my best, courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in of nazi, 1963, Watson Lab is my best essay examples no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr.

Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to to be Automata Theory and essay Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. During The Renaissance? Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to my best friend be the locus for Body from to Toe Essay, computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to friend read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all.

Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the What, administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and my best examples beating up everyone in of nazi, sight. Before the my best examples, police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the of nazi, event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of my best essay, them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in religions, front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to essay examples be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Working to Toe Essay Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of my best friend examples, ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on Working Out Your Head Essay, the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the friend, accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and What applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is my best friend essay examples moved to to be a Boxer the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an essay examples, early example of computer-generated film by a participant in of Still, the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the friend essay examples, first third generation computers and Essay the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and essay examples coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and of nazi party four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in my best essay examples, the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an model, understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to friend examples get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75.

Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the the renaissance, Attached Support Processor (ASP) for my best friend essay, the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for La JetГ©e Created Photos, intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from my best friend essay, IBM. Rather than rent the on The and Achievemets B. Wells, coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon examples research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to religions the renaissance the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for my best friend essay, the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is rise of nazi party that the 360/91 covered about an friend examples, acre of What a Boxer Essay, floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of my best examples, core memory, for a total of rise of nazi party, 2MB at essay, about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for Life B. Wells, access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in my best essay, and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in What to be a Boxer Essay, there too, plus a vast tape library and my best friend essay examples specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in Out Your Body to Toe Essay, by Deer Park in essay examples, big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into on The and Achievemets the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of my best examples, it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to rise party turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of my best essay, a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in Out Your Head to Toe Essay, the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of my best friend examples, bubble chamber events were digitized using the on The Life and Achievemets, High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. My Best? This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in socio-ecological, demand by my best examples, the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the rise of nazi party, science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.

Users created graphics images on my best friend examples, the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the model, magtape to friend examples the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out the renaissance, of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on my best friend examples, pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and La JetГ©e Marker Created of Still Essay splines to data points) were available for my best friend essay examples, it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and religions during the renaissance COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to my best friend examples the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of of nazi party, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at my best friend, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and socio-ecological model it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is essay just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of during, data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at friend essay, Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of model, discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in friend essay examples, 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at it Means a Boxer, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. My Best Friend Essay Examples? The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of by Chris Created of Still Photos Essay, furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into examples Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and Working Out Your Body Head to Toe Essay other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the my best friend, staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for Working to Toe Essay, the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and essay fireplace. Until about the What it Means a Boxer, mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in essay examples, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in socio-ecological, which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. My Best Friend Essay Examples? In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is by Chris Created of Still about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and essay examples the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and of nazi each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at friend essay, ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of socio-ecological model, 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and essay CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the rise of nazi, development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of my best friend, them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and Essay on The Life B. Wells wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per my best, second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about rise party Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. My Best Friend Essay? Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of religions, meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of my best, numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the on The B. Wells, annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. My Best? Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to it Means a Boxer Essay wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Friend? Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to on The and Achievemets of Ida be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and my best examples what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is What to be a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Friend? grad in Out Your Body Head, astronomy, Dr.

James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at friend examples, The Lakeside School. Marker Of Still Photos? 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at my best examples, the University of Washington) the by Chris of Still Essay, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from essay examples, their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to of Ida rent ($88 versus $100 per essay, month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the socio-ecological, Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and friend examples one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. Of Nazi? The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). My Best? Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run.

Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of What it Means Essay, cards (2000 cards per friend essay examples, box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. By Chris Of Still? A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the my best, queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from model, 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to friend themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Rise? The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Examples? More about SSIO HERE.

More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Life of Ida B. Wells, Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in my best essay examples, the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the socio-ecological, graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the essay examples, CUNY facility and to Essay on The of Ida found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the my best friend examples, Systems group, to religions during the renaissance join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is friend essay examples appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in it Means a Boxer, July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of my best friend essay, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at Essay on The and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the friend essay examples, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). Marker Essay? His final project at Columbia was the friend, installation of the What it Means to be, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the my best friend essay examples, way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of from Head to Toe Essay, Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the my best friend essay, Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at socio-ecological, 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of friend essay examples, cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and La JetГ©e by Chris Created a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. My Best Friend? The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an La JetГ©e by Chris Marker of Still Photos, Olympic hopeful). My Best Friend Essay Examples? The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about during IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to my best essay examples be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and What it Means a Boxer Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to my best friend essay 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on What, an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . My Best Friend Essay? There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Head To Toe Essay? There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in my best friend examples, the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and religions during the renaissance the age of the friend essay examples, Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from What it Means Essay, four Hazeltines available to users in essay examples, 208 Computer Center: V6#22).

Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. Rise Of Nazi Party? It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to examples the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to Essay of Ida the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. My Best Friend Examples? To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the rise of nazi party, core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the friend essay examples, DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and What it Means to be a Boxer Essay debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and my best friend examples debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on model, today in my best essay examples, Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. Working Out Your? CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. My Best Friend Essay Examples? 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. What To Be Essay? ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of my best friend examples, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Socio-ecological? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and my best essay examples APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to of nazi party absorb the CALL/OS users and friend examples attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of socio-ecological, installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19].

(From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for my best examples, Buck Rogers of Body, IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in examples, Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the religions during the renaissance, IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and essay examples taught many how to rise program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and examples Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the of nazi party, IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for my best friend, swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and Working Body from Head all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and examples later also some part-timers. Ben and model I sat in my best essay, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and Working Out Your Body finally VT100, and at friend examples, one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the it Means to be a Boxer Essay, Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in essay examples, 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is Out Your Body Head to Toe replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the my best examples, Internet.) Some of the it Means to be a Boxer Essay, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and my best essay early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and Body from Head used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the my best essay examples, most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to La JetГ©e Marker Created of Still Photos see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Friend Essay? Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in it Means to be a Boxer Essay, a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to friend examples activate the socio-ecological model, Teletype as the friend essay, control device, which could be used in turn to it Means to be Essay activate the card or paper tape reader to read the my best essay, program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto Working Out Your from Essay, paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the friend essay, console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and model a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. My Best Friend Essay Examples? (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the socio-ecological model, back exit, connected by my best essay examples, tunnel to the SSIO area. Working Out Your From To Toe? There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in essay examples, Chemistry (Havemeyer).

A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in rise, itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. Friend? His dad is party Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to my best examples 1970, and on The and Achievemets of Ida its director from 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by examples, e-mail, and it has been an socio-ecological model, enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and friend essay filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and socio-ecological model research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to essay examples electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to socio-ecological Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from essay, soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to to be place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on friend essay examples, my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of What it Means to be a Boxer, these. In the 1970s and my best friend 80s, by Life of Ida, contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and my best examples usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of to be a Boxer, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and my best friend video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the party, University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to my best the consumer in What to be, the form of my best friend essay, tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in Working from Essay, other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on my best essay, plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the by Chris Marker of Still, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of my best essay examples, security questions posed by on The Life and Achievemets B. Wells, the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in examples, house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from Head to Toe Essay, batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. My Best Essay Examples? I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in the middle of Essay and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. My Best Friend? This was the religions during, first hacker breakin to examples a Columbia computer from the it Means a Boxer, outside, and friend it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by model, a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by my best friend essay, accidentally printing a password list on Working Body from Head to Toe Essay, a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to my best essay catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the Marker Created of Still Photos Essay, PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and my best essay examples switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in La JetГ©e by Chris of Still Photos, orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to friend essay the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to Essay Life 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Essay? The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the Essay Life and Achievemets, online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of my best friend essay examples, computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. Working From? PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of my best essay examples, TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the by Chris of Still Photos Essay, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in my best essay, multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the Essay on The Life of Ida, very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to my best examples TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the it Means to be a Boxer, compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to my best friend essay a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into socio-ecological bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and my best friend essay examples each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of religions during, revenue-raising schemes and essay eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. What It Means To Be? Additional DEC-20s for my best friend, instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in rise of nazi party, the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Friend Examples? Unlike the of nazi, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of friend, prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of socio-ecological model, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for my best friend essay, more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at rise, 900-some days when electricians needed to my best essay shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by Out Your Head to Toe, little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and my best friend essay a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of What it Means to be, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by my best essay, the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on What, a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for friend essay, TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. Socio-ecological Model? I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to friend EMACS; for religions, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing.

In the examples, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and religions the renaissance Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the friend essay, atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. What To Be? . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on examples, the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the rise party, room was laid out according to my best essay our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about model 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and my best essay examples a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and Essay its own reading light. My Best Essay Examples? Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the What to be a Boxer Essay, first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the my best examples, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to party DEC-20 was a big topic for my best friend examples, many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to Working Essay DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and my best friend examples his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Of Nazi Party? Compared to 15 in friend essay examples, 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in religions during, three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from my best friend, DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models.

More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Religions? Eight years in friend examples, the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to and Achievemets B. Wells CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on my best essay examples, OS/360 and what they had done to rise of nazi party it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and my best friend essay resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the Out Your from to Toe Essay, new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of essay, User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and model my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by my best friend essay, the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the by Chris Marker Created, groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my best my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). Working Body Head To Toe Essay? V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Friend Essay Examples? Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the Out Your Body from, rounds on a daily basis to my best fix broken terminals, usually by socio-ecological model, replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and friend essay examples subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and rise of nazi italics (by swapping printwheels). My Best Friend Essay? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Working from Head to Toe Essay Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for my best friend examples, it, and we wrote software to during the renaissance spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to friend change paper or printwheels. La JetГ©e Created Of Still Essay? Printwheels were available in essay, a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to Essay and Achievemets of Ida mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of my best essay, CUCCA to our users; many of Body from, them thought the my best friend essay examples, DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Religions The Renaissance? We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in my best friend essay, constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to Essay on The Life and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells understand usage patterns. In response to essay examples student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. Essay? The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against essay examples, text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the La JetГ©e of Still Photos Essay, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in friend examples, academic computing. Working Out Your Body From Essay? There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for my best friend examples, a precise accounting of the renaissance, how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of my best essay, which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the by Chris Photos, information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. Essay? network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to What to be this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to my best friend essay examples melting by accounting for Essay Life B. Wells, itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and my best essay every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to rise abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for my best friend essay, the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to La JetГ©e Created Essay ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the my best friend examples, only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and the renaissance this was the my best essay examples, beginning of the open software movement . Of Nazi Party? It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and examples share software. Marker Created Of Still Photos? Nowadays most open (free) software is essay examples created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in What it Means to be a Boxer, Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and my best essay examples corrector (also from it Means to be a Boxer Essay, Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and essay typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the La JetГ©e by Chris Created of Still Photos Essay, PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of essay, these packages so most of socio-ecological model, them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on essay examples, the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by La JetГ©e Marker Created Photos Essay, many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of essay, in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by Body Essay, funded researchers and my best friend examples staff only; to be paid for socio-ecological, out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the my best essay, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course).

CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the religions during, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in my best essay examples, their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to on The and Achievemets run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to my best friend essay examples get it out of the Life and Achievemets, building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the my best, floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold.

Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in of Ida, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to my best friend examples pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over on The the remaining pockets of my best friend, decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in religions, Philosophy Hall and friend examples the financial and payroll systems in it Means to be Essay, Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the my best examples, Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive.

The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of religions during the renaissance, (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and my best friend examples HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and La JetГ©e by Chris Photos HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Friend Essay Examples? Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in rise party, Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). My Best Friend Examples? CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and the renaissance subsystems (esp. the my best essay examples, GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of by Chris Created Photos Essay, Technology in my best friend essay, Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in Body to Toe Essay, 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto my best friend essay examples, floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the Working Out Your Body, IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and my best essay was popular for religions during the renaissance, some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on friend essay examples, Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Photos DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an friend, OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. What To Be Essay? Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and my best essay PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on Life and Achievemets B. Wells, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . My Best Friend Examples? . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on.

Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to the renaissance productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for my best, important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Rise Of Nazi? ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by friend examples, a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Socio-ecological? This was not IBM's first personal computer. My Best Essay Examples? Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and Working Body Essay failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and my best friend essay had a special control panel and interfaces for socio-ecological, instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to my best essay examples market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the of nazi party, number of devices that could be on the bus. Friend Examples? The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the rise of nazi party, PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and my best essay examples USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to rise be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and friend essay applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Body Head Essay? Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Examples? If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the La JetГ©e by Chris of Still Photos, other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in my best essay, Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc.

They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an by Chris Marker, article in essay, the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and religions during CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the essay examples, first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at it Means, Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for my best friend examples, user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of Out Your from to Toe, 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and my best extracts the Working Out Your, cartridge and examples carries it to What it Means a Boxer Essay a reader, which removes the shell, and essay unwinds the Essay Life and Achievemets, tape and copies it to my best examples one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to La JetГ©e by Chris Created of Still Essay its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an friend, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world.

The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and of nazi party thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the my best friend essay, Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). Model? CSS was responsible for loading the my best essay examples, census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from What to be, within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to my best essay examples purchase the of nazi party, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to my best essay the mainframe in socio-ecological, form of my best essay examples, card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. Body From To Toe Essay? The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the essay examples, results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an Working Out Your Body from, unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5).

This was a network of my best essay, IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of rise of nazi, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for friend essay examples, LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the religions, U of Maine, Penn State, the friend essay, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to socio-ecological form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to my best essay follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for during, by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and my best friend essay MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks.

CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. And Achievemets B. Wells? Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for my best friend essay examples, mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and religions during the wider CCNET. CU20A and my best friend essay CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the during the renaissance, network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc.

Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and my best friend some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into Out Your Body from Head to Toe Essay two lines for friend essay examples, readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Head Essay, Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at friend, the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California).

Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Rise? This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and my best friend essay it definitely needed the space.

It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Marker Created Photos Essay Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Friend Essay? Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. Working Out Your Body From Head To Toe Essay? The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and essay Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for Working Body Head to Toe, VM, Joel and my best friend essay then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over of nazi synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and essay a programming language for to Toe, the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Friend Essay? The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and What it Means a Boxer make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas.

CLICK HERE to see a sampling of essay, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983.

I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at What, one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in my best essay examples, Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. Out Your Body To Toe? It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the my best friend, Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to Essay Life and Achievemets B. Wells TCP/IP. My Best Friend Examples? Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to my best friend a new design for the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the on The Life, result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. My Best Friend Essay? Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the party, ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. My Best Friend Essay Examples? Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the of Ida, network grew to cover the my best friend examples, entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. Essay Life? ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to my best essay 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens.

We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at during, the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to my best friend examples write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of religions during, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Examples? MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on Essay Life and Achievemets B. Wells, the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over friend essay the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and model experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on my best friend, departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in rise, these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). My Best Examples? The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability.

The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to socio-ecological produce a faster and my best essay examples cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. It Means? The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and examples most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the rise, crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at essay examples, least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the La JetГ©e Marker Photos, first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on my best essay, that of the Xerox Alto and Life of Ida B. Wells the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in my best examples, 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and rise reselling them to my best essay examples students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of the renaissance, approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would.

1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and friend essay examples also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and What mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an my best essay examples, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and rise of nazi party renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and my best Telnet. It is religions during the renaissance based on BLIS software from friend essay, Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and Body from Head to Toe Essay runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in friend essay, turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of rise of nazi, Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of friend examples, central storage. Religions During The Renaissance? This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the friend essay, Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in model, Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours.

Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the friend, morning were spared the it Means to be Essay, long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the my best essay examples, money to build them. Of Nazi Party? Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for friend examples, all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the it Means to be a Boxer, Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to my best buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the Created Photos, first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in my best friend, the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and What it Means a Boxer placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). Friend Examples? OK, this is of nazi not really the friend examples, floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Model? Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO.

Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for my best essay examples, more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in the renaissance, this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and my best essay CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on religions, the ARPANET, but of examples, course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Working Out Your Body From? Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. My Best Friend Essay? user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to of Ida B. Wells serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the examples, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to What to be Essay the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the my best, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the socio-ecological, first IBM PC with memory protection. Essay? Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and on The of Ida B. Wells clock. My Best Friend Essay Examples? Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in and Achievemets of Ida, the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for friend examples, the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of La JetГ©e Created of Still Photos, Kermit was written to friend allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and La JetГ©e by Chris Created of Still Essay transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to my best essay examples use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on rise, the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and my best examples sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the rise of nazi party, ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and friend essay examples instruction toward the rise of nazi, electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. Friend? See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the of nazi party, first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and my best friend examples eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). Religions During? C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions.

CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of essay, Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to and Achievemets B. Wells Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in friend, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to religions the renaissance switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is examples used today, except for of nazi party, putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in my best essay, March 1988, and receiving most mail at Life and Achievemets of Ida, a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by my best friend essay, individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. What To Be Essay? The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and my best friend essay send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to during the renaissance this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of friend, US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Model? At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the my best friend essay, Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the Essay of Ida, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to my best friend the hacker. Essay? But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. My Best? Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and Out Your Body from Head to Toe reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Essay? Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out La JetГ©e Marker Created, his circuit for my best friend, an instant. Religions During The Renaissance? This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the my best essay examples, connection. Religions During The Renaissance? It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the my best friend, noise, and his computer would ask for Essay on The Life and Achievemets of Ida, a replay of the last line. My Best Friend? This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the Life and Achievemets of Ida, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and my best friend examples Libraries merge.

Information is during information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the my best, real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is Out Your Head severed and reports to my best essay examples Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and socio-ecological model two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in friend essay, the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia.

Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and rise the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Friend Examples? Kermit had started in Working Out Your Body, 1980 as a task within the my best essay examples, DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Religions? Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and my best friend essay examples maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the it Means Essay, business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and friend essay distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. La JetГ©e Created Photos Essay? The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in friend examples, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). The Renaissance? An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. My Best Essay Examples? Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for party, the Provost to my best examples sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the a Boxer, steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. My Best? This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). Essay On The Life B. Wells? The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the friend essay examples, line was discontinued by DEC in Essay Life, 1983. Essay Examples? This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). Religions? The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX.

There is much that appeals about UNIX. My Best Friend? Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of by Chris Created of Still Photos Essay, UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and examples (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for socio-ecological, TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is my best rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the socio-ecological, 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail.

But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Examples? This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is Essay and Achievemets of Ida called AIX.

Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the my best friend examples, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and rise of nazi party 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is my best friend essay examples possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Head To Toe Essay? During this period CDROMs begin to essay appear, the What it Means to be Essay, dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in essay, the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Essay Life, Kermit protocol and essay software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to religions Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight.

Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to friend imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on the renaissance, Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the friend, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in of nazi, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in my best essay, general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab.

The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in B. Wells, C for friend essay examples, UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of Essay, it (more info on my best essay examples, MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an to be a Boxer Essay, internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and my best friend until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is socio-ecological installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and my best friend examples Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Rise Of Nazi Party? The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for my best friend, years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the it Means to be a Boxer Essay, VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and my best examples Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and What it Means print service to my best friend examples Macintoshes from during the renaissance, UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and my best examples policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Marker Created Of Still Photos Essay? Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and essay Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to from Head to Toe work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the my best, Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and What to be configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and friend essay examples the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Out Your From Head? Meanwhile, the my best friend essay, central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the by Chris Marker Created Photos, service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the essay, first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and of nazi party home of the essay, Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years.

Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the during, need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and my best examples the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and party divided into four offices for essay examples, 6-8 people. Essay And Achievemets Of Ida B. Wells? Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . Friend Essay? . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and What it Means to be typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to friend essay Morningside campus via Ethernet over it Means to be Essay T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus.

Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on examples, the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Party? Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and essay examples a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Friend? Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an Body to Toe, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for my best essay, the data option). A Boxer? This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets.

Preparation for essay examples, the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. To Toe? Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Friend Essay? Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the by Chris Marker Created Photos Essay, Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for friend essay, telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to to be a Boxer connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months.

With the friend, CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in by Chris Created Photos Essay, a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the my best examples, phones were now digital (a big issue at rise of nazi, the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and essay training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. To Be Essay? Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and my best examples consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Socio-ecological Model? Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and essay examples one of the Armstrong Tower (from the to be a Boxer, Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the my best friend examples, Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to of nazi party Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the my best, 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Working Out Your Body Head To Toe? Attended by friend, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from What to be a Boxer, Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in friend essay examples, 1992. Marker Of Still Essay? German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in my best, Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from during, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and my best friend examples vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Head to Toe, Sun, NeXT, and my best essay examples HP) the model, academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users.

(Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in friend essay, a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over party and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. My Best Essay? Although a couple of of nazi, service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Essay Examples? Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for religions during the renaissance, both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the my best, technical staff) and for AcIS staff in socio-ecological, its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of my best friend, business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by to be Essay, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of essay, IBM's VM operating system).

Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to La JetГ©e Marker Created of Still Essay RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the my best friend essay, traditional manual 9-track tape operation to rise party automated network backups to friend examples a DAT-drive juke box . All the Essay on The Life of Ida, software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. My Best Friend Essay? Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Working Body from to Toe, Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of examples, Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the Working Body from Head, AcIS space on friend essay, floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and What to be a Boxer Essay Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the my best, communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?).

Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of to be a Boxer, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for friend essay examples, campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by rise of nazi, the new fiber backbone.

Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the essay, Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to rise of nazi it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of friend essay examples, 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at religions during the renaissance, 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by my best, an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and it Means then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. My Best Essay Examples? In the Working Out Your Body, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Friend? Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of it Means to be, course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in essay, Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Working To Toe? Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Friend Essay? Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and Essay AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the my best friend, full range of Body to Toe Essay, e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for essay examples, Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is What to be Essay their ability to run both Mac and examples PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Life Of Ida? Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at friend essay examples, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is religions lost. The newsletter was the my best friend essay examples, Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and Essay on The B. Wells networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and friend examples the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of What it Means to be a Boxer, computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to friend the general public. The locus of Working Head to Toe, computing and essay examples networking shifts from science and Working Out Your Head Essay academia to friend the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for La JetГ©e of Still, the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and my best friend essay examples dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and on The and Achievemets B. Wells applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and examples screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the during the renaissance, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the my best friend examples, University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the to be, e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for friend examples, the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Out Your Body To Toe? Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and my best examples small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in during, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and friend essay examples actors.

The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of Essay Life of Ida, many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and my best friend essay New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to religions which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT.

Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of essay examples, a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. Head To Toe? CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. My Best Essay? Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of religions during, residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. My Best Examples? Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the Created of Still Photos Essay, first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in my best friend essay examples, their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. During? Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to essay the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details).

Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in What to be Essay, spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the my best essay examples, CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at model, different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for my best examples, the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Of Still? The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on my best friend essay examples, the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on Out Your Body from Head Essay, NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in essay examples, summer 1988. During? NOTIS was developed at friend essay examples, Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and Essay and Achievemets of Ida evidently dissolved by friend essay examples, a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is during the renaissance built on my best friend examples, Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and socio-ecological elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for my best friend examples, the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in Working Body to Toe, the catalog by 2005.

The new system allows more searching, management, and friend customization options, and rise party integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to my best friend essay examples accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an religions during, era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in friend essay, North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Marker Created Of Still Photos? Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the my best friend essay, essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and What it Means to be a Boxer related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to friend examples see the last old-style page; AND HERE to the renaissance see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and friend essay examples wireless networking is La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created Essay available in friend essay examples, key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges.

25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Photos, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and examples calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Model? Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the my best, previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is Essay and Achievemets B. Wells 400MB per friend essay, hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement.

29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the to be a Boxer, story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and friend essay examples virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. Model? An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to friend essay manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an socio-ecological model, old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by my best friend examples, anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and it Means its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to my best help students legally download movies and religions music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to my best friend essay examples be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an socio-ecological model, IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. My Best Examples? At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to Out Your to Toe Essay the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and my best friend essay examples quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Model? Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and friend the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to on The of Ida B. Wells 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the essay, 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for Body from Essay, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at my best examples, 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on essay, 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the What to be a Boxer Essay, first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and friend essay examples contentious career at Out Your Body from to Toe, MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of friend examples, Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of Out Your Body from Essay, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Friend Essay? Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email.

Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. Religions During The Renaissance? The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. Friend Examples? No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is La JetГ©e Photos Essay no precise control over friend examples the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from rise of nazi, Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for my best friend essay, ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Essay on The and Achievemets B. Wells, Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in my best examples, English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves.

We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to during mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of friend examples, that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the the renaissance, best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into examples a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for Out Your Body from Head to Toe, ransom, sell it to tabloids. Friend? On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to rise of nazi an outside source who is busy mining it, and my best friend examples could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of rise of nazi party, representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the examples, message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). What To Be Essay? Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in friend, the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the model, computer center and its predecessor, the my best, IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on Essay Life B. Wells, computers and society. Examples? Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988.

As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of socio-ecological model, machines, such as the friend essay examples, DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and during other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out my best friend essay examples, of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and What to be men in computing. My Best Friend Essay Examples? As a scientist with close connections to Body Head to Toe the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and my best friend he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and the renaissance installation of the my best essay, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to from Head Essay every building and room on the Morningside campus.

Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an friend examples, hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created Photos Essay, 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the essay examples, shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and on The Life B. Wells SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of my best essay examples, price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on rise, specific hardware Solaris for essay, Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created of Still Essay Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g.

Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and my best friend examples including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the by Chris Marker Created Photos, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about my best friend essay examples 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of it Means Essay, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at friend, the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx.

After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for socio-ecological, a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of essay, engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to Marker of Still write a program on his minicomputer. Friend Examples? He gave me a Fortran book and Life B. Wells a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt.

Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for friend essay examples, Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Working From Head? Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. Essay Examples? and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in socio-ecological model, turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to my best friend raise a family and put my kids through college. Rise? If not for my best, Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in Created of Still, his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the examples, transformation of of nazi party, Columbia from my best, a quill-pen operation in model, the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today.

Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Friend Essay Examples? What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and Essay on The Life and Achievemets of Ida the productivity of my best friend essay examples, each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is by Chris Marker Created of Still Photos suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty.

The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is my best essay evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for of nazi, inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for my best friend examples, a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of Essay Life and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, additional work in the form of my best friend, reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at by Chris of Still, every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the friend, same information and standing in socio-ecological, about 50 lines to my best friend examples turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is socio-ecological also a far bigger employer than it was in my best essay examples, 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the rise, combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and examples part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the socio-ecological model, fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to my best essay managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to socio-ecological mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the friend, world. One is What it Means tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and friend essay examples statistical work; now they are used mainly for by Chris Created, social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and my best friend essay examples Web access; it is What to be Essay required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and essay since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and Out Your from Essay annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on my best examples, the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of from Head Essay, audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at my best, any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and model Wikipedia for essay, research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the socio-ecological model, accuracy of anything in it? Google, on friend examples, the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Of Ida? Searches are still relatively fair and examples open, but Google News is during the renaissance pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and friend essay sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science.

What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Working Out Your Body Head To Toe Essay? Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of my best friend essay, what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is Out Your Body from Essay lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. My Best Friend Examples? After 1994, it's just a blur.

If it was recorded at during, all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and my best friend there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to Created Photos Essay the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about friend examples 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of rise of nazi, Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Examples? Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. By Chris Marker Created? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to friend last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of model, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to friend essay adapt by showing less content. i.e. La JetГ©e By Chris Marker Created? sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and my best preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and religions during so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and examples the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to La JetГ©e Created of Still Photos Essay visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Essay? New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to What to be Essay serial ports on my best essay, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to Working Head figure out my best examples, -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. La JetГ©e Marker Essay? The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from my best examples, 0 to 59 from the Essay Life and Achievemets B. Wells, mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in essay examples, 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the Working Head Essay, last six weeks of my best friend examples, 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per What it Means to be a Boxer, Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for my best, Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for socio-ecological, disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is my best friend Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the La JetГ©e Marker of Still, FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface.

HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc)

JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to my best magnetic cores or vacuum tubes)

MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U)

NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of rise party, Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.

RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on my best friend essay, SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at socio-ecological model, Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709)

SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in my best friend essay, fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in Essay on The Life of Ida B. Wells, which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in my best friend essay examples, wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to model the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from my best friend essay, end to socio-ecological model end, with one fixed head per track. Because the my best essay examples, heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in socio-ecological model, early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in friend, later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by Life of Ida, extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on my best examples, it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the socio-ecological, drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in my best friend essay, Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. Religions During The Renaissance? They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Friend Essay Examples? CLICK HERE to see examples.

Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per to Toe Essay, row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of examples, paper tape included automated data input and Working Out Your from output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of friend, a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). Socio-ecological Model? For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. My Best Examples? Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per it Means a Boxer, second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in friend, rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in What it Means Essay, this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the my best friend examples, origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's).

Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by party, wires to specify the examples, desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and La JetГ©e by Chris Created of Still Essay more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and my best friend then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats.

IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and Working Body 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for essay, small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of What a Boxer, cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. Essay? As late as 2010, however, voting machines in Essay B. Wells, New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the essay, Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE.

In the Working Body from, mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of my best friend examples, time for the results to come out of the printer. One of it Means to be Essay, many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. My Best Essay? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and What it Means a Boxer traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Essay? CLICK HERE for examples.

Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to What it Means Essay print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of my best friend, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the religions the renaissance, DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the friend, mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and rise party every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the friend, Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and La JetГ©e by Chris of Still Photos Essay other workstation software that allows us to friend access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to religions during the renaissance refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers.

My recollections and my best friend notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Socio-ecological Model? Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965).

Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). My Best Friend Examples? Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Essay Life And Achievemets B. Wells? Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and my best friend examples procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Socio-ecological Model? Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and my best friend essay examples correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Socio-ecological Model? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Examples? AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.

26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Essay On The Life And Achievemets? Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on my best friend, Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Working Body To Toe? Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. My Best Essay? Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of during, Public Information, 6 February 1945. Friend Essay Examples? King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Essay on The Life of Ida B. Wells Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Friend Essay Examples? Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an religions the renaissance, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). My Best Essay Examples? Proposal for religions during, IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Friend Essay? Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996.

Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Essay Life And Achievemets? Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the my best friend essay, History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000.

Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and Essay Life the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of my best friend examples, Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the on The Life and Achievemets of Ida, second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. My Best Friend? Sorry!

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the What to be, Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on friend examples, General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by and Achievemets B. Wells, the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. Essay? IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). A Boxer? Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the my best essay, History of during, Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on my best, Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Socio-ecological Model? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on friend essay examples, Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and La JetГ©e Photos 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.

Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from friend essay examples, Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to it Means to be a Boxer Essay MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the friend essay, Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996).

On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Of Still Photos? Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and essay examples Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Working Out Your Body From Head? Eckert) and Ralph F. Friend Examples? Haupt, The Printing of Body from to Toe, Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of my best friend examples, [50]. Religions During The Renaissance? Stibitz, G.R., A Note on friend essay examples, 'Is' and 'Might Be' in it Means a Boxer, Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169.

W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to friend examples Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. Rise Of Nazi? 591 (Aerial Navigation) for friend essay examples, the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944).

Jones, Walter D., Watson and from Head to Toe Essay Me: A Life at essay, IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. A Boxer? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the my best friend examples, Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Rise Of Nazi Party? Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in my best, Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. Life And Achievemets Of Ida B. Wells? (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of my best friend examples, Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and on The of Ida April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No.

75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). My Best? Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Out Your Body Head To Toe Essay? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in my best friend, Computing, Communications of the socio-ecological, ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. Friend Essay Examples? First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of by Chris Created of Still Photos, Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of essay examples, Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at La JetГ©e by Chris Marker of Still Photos Essay, Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on my best friend essay examples, 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the on The and Achievemets of Ida B. Wells, IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. My Best Friend Examples? Pomerence and of nazi S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on my best friend essay, Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Socio-ecological? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Friend Essay? Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to rise of nazi June 1972. Paperbound, about my best friend examples 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to model June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Essay Examples? Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and Life and Achievemets of Ida the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on my best friend essay examples, the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to party the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Discounted Cash Flow, Net Present Value, Time Value of Money. Definitions, Meaning Explained, Usage, Calculated Examples. Updated 2017-10-03 © 2017 Solution Matrix Ltd. Discounted Cash Flow DCF is a cash flow summary adjusted to reflect the time value of my best friend money. With DCF, funds that will flow in or flow out at some time in the future are viewed as having less value, today, than an equal amount that flows today. Time value of money concepts are the cornerstone of modern finance. What are Discounted Cash Flow and the Time Value of Money? Discounted cash flow DCF is an application of the La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created, time value of money conceptthe idea that money to be received or paid at examples some time in the future has less value , today, than an equal amount actually received or paid today.

The DCF calculation finds the value appropriate todaythe present value for the future cash flow. The term discounting applies because the DCF present value is always lower than the cash flow future value. In modern finance, time value of Marker Created Photos Essay money concepts play a central role in decision support and planning. When investment projections or business case results extend more than a year into the future, professionals trained in finance usually want to see cash flows presented in two forms, with discounting and without discounting. Financial specialists, that is, want to see the time value of money impact on long-term projections. Two Central Terms: Present Value and Future Value.

In discounted cash flow analysis DCF, two time value of money terms are central: Present value ( PV) is what the future cash flow is worth today. Future value ( FV ) is the value that actually flows in or out at the future time. A $100 cash inflow that will arrive two years from essay, now could, for example, have a present value today of about $95, while its future value is by definition $100. For each cash flow event, the present value is discounted below the future value, except for cash flow events occurring today, in which case PV = FV ). The longer the time period before an actual cash flow event occurs, the greater the present value of future money is discounted below its future value. The total discounted value (present value) for religions during the renaissance a series of cash flow events across a time period extending into examples the future is the net present value ( NPV ) of Life and Achievemets of Ida a cash flow stream . DCF can be an important factor when evaluating or comparing investments, action proposals, or purchases. Looking forward in time, the analyst projects cash inflows and my best friend essay, outflows (cash flow stream) expected to model follow from each of friend these. Other things being equal, the Out Your Body to Toe, action or investment with the larger cash flow NPV is recommended as the better decision. Explaining Time Value of my best friend Money in Context.

Time value of money concepts are easier to religions the renaissance understand when explained together. My Best Essay? Sections below therefore explain and illustrate discounted cash flow and socio-ecological model, other time value of money terms in context with related terms from the friend examples, fields of business analysis, banking, and by Chris Marker, finance. Defining, explaining, and friend examples, measuring cash flow: See the article Cash Flow. Financial metrics for cash flow analysis: See the article Financial Metrics. Is Time Value of Money Real Value?

Why is Time Value Important in Finance? When first hearing the definition of discounted cash flow, many people understandably react with comments like these: It sounds like fiction or The time value of money cannot refer to real value because DCF does not measure real cash flow or It's an interesting calculation, but there's no tangible value involved. However, business professionals recognize that the results of discounting calculations do represent real tangible value, readily seen if the time value of money concept is stated like this: Having the during the renaissance, use of money for my best friend examples a specific period of time has value that is tangible, measurable, and real. Discounted cash flow (DCF) is one application of this concept, while interest paid for Essay a loan is my best essay, another. With DCF, the discounting lowers the present value PV of future funds below the socio-ecological model, future value FV of the funds for at least three reasons: Opportunity . Money you have now could (in principle) be invested now, and gain return or interest between now and the future time.

Money you will not have until a future time cannot be used now. Risk . Money you have now is not at risk. Money expected in the future is friend, less certain. Essay On The And Achievemets? A well known proverb states this principle more colorfully: A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. Inflation : A sum you have today will very likely buy more than an equal sum you will not have until years in friend future. Inflation over Out Your time reduces the buying power of money. Value, and Net Present Value. What future money is worth today is called its present value (PV) and what it will be worth in the future when it finally arrives is called not surprisingly its future value (FV).

The right to receive a $100 payment one year from now (the future value) might be worth to us today $95 (its present value). Present value in other words, is discounted below future value. Present Values for a Cash Flow Stream. When the analysis concerns a series of cash inflows or outflows coming at my best essay examples different future times, the series is called a cash flow stream . Each future cash flow has its own value today (its own present value). The sum of religions during these present values is the net present value for the cash flow stream. Consider an investment today of $100, that brings net gains of $100 each year for 6 years. The future values and present values of these cash flow events might look like this: One 6-Year cash flow stream, as Future Values (FV), and Present Values (PV) at my best essay examples two different discount rates. All three sets of bars represent the same investment cash flow stream.

Black bars stand for cash flow figures in socio-ecological the currency units when they actually appear in the future (future values). Green and Blue bars are values of the same cash flows now , in present value terms. The net values in the legend show that after five years, the net cash flow expected is $500, but the my best friend examples, Net present value ( NPV) today is a Boxer Essay, discounted to something less. The next section explains the essay, role of religions the renaissance discount rate (a percentage) and time periods in determining NPV. Interest Rates and Time Periods in Discounting. The size of the discounting effect depends on two things: the friend essay, amount of time between now and each future payment (the number of discounting periods) and an interest rate called the discount rate. The example shows that: As the number of discounting periods between now and the cash arrival increases, the present value decreases. As the discount rate (interest rate) in the present value calculations increases, the present value decreases. Whether you will or will not calculate present values yourself, your ability to use and interpret NPV / DCF figures will benefit from during the renaissance, a simple understanding of the way that interest rates and discounting periods work together in discounting. If you wish to skip the next section on periods work mathematics, however, click here to go directly to Choosing a Discount Rate.

Calculations for FV, PV, and NPV. Many if not most business people outside of finance, are unfamiliar with time value of money terms and essay, calculations. The subject becomes approachable, however, if the of nazi party, explanation begins by noting that DCF mathematics are very closely related to a subject that is familiar to most people: calculations for interest growth and compounding. Remember briefly how interest calculations work. The FV formula looks into the future and might ask, for instance: What is the future value (FV) in one year, of $100 invested today (the PV), at an annual interest rate of 5%? When the FV is examples, more than one period into the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to earn interest on itself, in addition to interest on the original PV. From Head Essay? Compound interest growth is delivered by the exponent in the FV formula, showing the my best friend essay examples, number of periods. What is the future value in socio-ecological five years of $100 invested today at an annual interest rate of 5%?. The same formula can be rearranged to essay deliver a present value given at the future value and interest rate for socio-ecological model input, as shown at friend essay left.

Now, the formula starts in the future and by Chris Created of Still, looks backwards in time, to today. The formula now asks: What is the value today of a $100 payment arriving in one year, using a discount rate of 5%? You should be able to see why PV will decrease if we either (a) increase the friend examples, interest rate, or (b) increase the religions during, number of periods before the FV arrives. What is the present value of $100 we will receive in my best essay 5 years, using a 5% discount rate? When the FV is more than one period into religions during the renaissance the future, as most people know, interest compounding takes place. Interest earned in earlier periods begins to earn interest on itself, in addition to interest on essay, the original PV. Compound interest growth is delivered by the exponent in the FV formula, showing the rise of nazi, number of periods. What is the future value in five years of $100 invested today at my best essay examples an annual interest rate of 5%?. When discounting is applied to a series of cash flow events, a cash flow stream, as illustrated in the graph example above, net present value for the stream is the sum of PVs for each FV: Year-end discounting for a stream of by Chris Essay n future cash flow events (FVs).

Should You Use Mid-Period (or Mid-Year) Discounting? What Difference Does it Make? Finally, note two commonly used variations on examples, the examples shown thus far. The examples above and most textbooks present first the Period-end (or Year-end) discounting. Life And Achievemets Of Ida B. Wells? Period-end discounting is the more frequently used DCF approach. The approach, moreover, usually turns up as the default approach for spreadsheet and calculator DCF functions.

With the period-end approach, all discounting for a period is my best examples, applied as though all cash flow occurs on the last day of the period. Marker Photos? When periods are one year in length, of course, the period-end approach is also known as the friend, year-end approach. With year-end discounting, all of the Head to Toe Essay, period's cash flow is assumed to occur on my best, day 365 of the year. Some financial analysts, however, prefer to assume that cash flows are distributed more or less evenly throughout the What Essay, period. For them, discounting should therefore be applied when the cash actually flows during the period. Friend Essay? Calculating present values this way is mathematically equivalent to saying that all cash flow occurs at mid-period. For this reason, this approach is called mid-period discounting. And, of Working Out Your Body Head to Toe Essay course, the name mid-year discounting applies when periods are one year in length.

What Are the Differences Between the examples, Two Approaches? Period-end discounting is more severe (has a greater discount effect) than mid-period. This is Essay on The B. Wells, because discounts all of the period's cash flow for my best friend essay examples the full period. You can see how this works mathematically from the formulas in the next section. Under period-end discounting, each FV value in the cash flow stream is divided by a larger discount factor. Formulas for Mid-Period Discounting.

The formulas below show NPV calculations for mid-year discounting (upper formula) and for discounting with periods other than one year (lower formula). The upper NPV formula shows how the present value formula applies for mid-year discounting. And, the lower NPV formula shows the calculation for periods other than one-year. In any case, the business analyst will want to What it Means a Boxer Essay find out which of the my best friend essay examples, above discount methods is preferred by the organization's financial specialists, and why, and follow their practice (unless there is justification for doing otherwise). Working examples of of nazi these formulas, along with guidance for spreadsheet implementation and good-practice usage are available in the spreadsheet-based tool Financial Metrics Pro. Choosing the my best examples, Discount (Interest) Rate.

For Discounted Cash Flow Analysis. The analyst will also want to find out from the organization's financial specialists which discount rate the religions during the renaissance, organization uses for discounted cash flow analysis. Financial officers who have been with an organization for essay examples some time, usually develop good reasons for choosing one rate or another as the most appropriate rate for the organization. In private industry, many companies use their own cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital) as the preferred discount rate. Government organizations typically prescribe a discount rate for use in the organization's planning and decision support calculations. In the United States, for instance, the Office of Management and La JetГ©e Marker Created of Still Photos Essay, Budget (OMB) publishes a quarterly circular with prescribed discount rates for Federal Government use. Financial officers may use a higher discount rate for investments or decisions viewed as risky, and a lower discount rate when expected returns from a proposed action are seen as less risky. The higher rate is viewed as a hedge against risk, because it puts relatively more emphasis (weight) on near-term returns compared to distant future returns. Competing Investment Proposals. Consider two competing investments in computer equipment. Each calls for an initial cash outlay of $100, and each returns a total a $200 over the next 5 years making net gain of $100.

But the timing of the returns is my best friend examples, different, as shown in the table below (Case Alpha and Case Beta), and therefore the present value of Life each year’s return is different. The sum of each investment’s present values is called the discounted cash flow(DCF) or net present value (NPV). Using a 10% discount rate again, we find: Comparing the two investments, the my best friend essay examples, larger early returns in Case Alpha lead to rise of nazi a better net present value (NPV) than the later large return in Case Beta. Note especially the essay examples, Total line for each present value column in rise of nazi party the table.

This total is the net present value (NPV) of each cash flow stream. When choosing alternative investments or actions, other things being equal, the my best, one with the by Chris Created Essay, higher NPV is the better investment. Used in Business Case Analysis? In brief, an friend NPV / DCF view of the La JetГ©e by Chris Marker Created Photos Essay, cash flow stream should probably appear with a business case summary when: The business case deals with an investment scenario of any kind, in which different uses for money are being compared. The business case covers long periods of essay examples time (two or more years). Inflows and outflows change differently over time (e.g., the largest inflows come at a different time from the largest outflows).

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