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Character development of Banquo from Macbeth


Character development of Banquo from Macbeth.

The Progressive Character of Macbeth - Bravery, Ambition, Tyranny

Character macbeth

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Macbeth Characters - PlayShakespeare com

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The Progressive Character of Macbeth - Bravery, Ambition, Tyranny

argued essay Centre for Academic Success. It is very important that you recognize which type of essay questions are looking for macbeth some sort of judgement, and then to be able to construct an effective, convincing argument in your answer. Medicine In The Industrial? A major cause of complaint from macbeth tutors is that students at all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. In The? As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in the UK?

To what extent has the government been successful in its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on authentic instruments is a fallacy. Character? Discuss. It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in the workplace. Problems? How far do you think this is a rational response to their economic position and how far simply a result of the mismanagement of change? If you were to write a very general essay, for example, about character macbeth capital punishment, without answering the specific question asked, your mark is going to be low. Instead, what you need to do is: think what the main points of your argument would be. do extensive reading to find evidence to back up your points, and at the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. There is always more than one side to an argument, and it is following examples of a, very important in macbeth, a piece of Afflicting the Native Essay academic writing to show that you are aware of character these different opinions. Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. You should state what your conclusion will be right at relations act 2000 the start in your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on by the specific use of language (see below) and use of character macbeth appropriate examples and Essay, evidence; and finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an argumentative essay the conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.

As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and character macbeth, recognize different opinions and approaches. You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and completely dismiss one side of the argument. At the Euthanasia: same time, you should not #8220;sit on the fence#8221; and take an character macbeth, indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. Which Subculture?? (In terms of pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of argumentative writing. Read the following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Discuss the funding of childcare provision in the UK. Macbeth? 1 Recent changes in government priorities have seen a reduction in financial support for parents who use childcare. Is The? This is occurring at a time when there is increasing social and character macbeth, financial pressure on parents, particularly. mothers, to work. The issue of childcare and working mothers has been the subject of dispute for some time. Many, notably Giles (2001) and Gough (1999) argue that the best place for children is always in Euthanasia:, their own homes with their own parents.

However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to be had from using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to parents who do so. 3 Another argument against the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in these facilities compared to the home. This argument assumes that the best place for macbeth children is to be at their parents', especially mothers', side for twenty four hours a day. It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to spend sometime apart. Euthanasia: For Death? Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. In fact, a recent study conducted by MCC (2003) indicates that the character macbeth parent-child relationship can in which following examples subculture?, fact be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities.

4 It could further be asserted that the government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the macbeth enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. However, working parents actually contribute to the national economy. They are able to in the industrial revolution, utilise their productive skills and pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. This is the character introduction, which clearly states the main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. The counter-argument is given first, followed by the argument put forward by medicine industrial the writer of the piece. The counter-argument is #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . It is important to character macbeth, show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the argument, and also that you are able to the race relations, anticipate and criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. Character Macbeth? It is following of a subculture?, also important to clearly mark the shift from the opposing argument to character, your own supporting argument.

In these three paragraphs, this is done by the use of the Essay Impact word however . This is a very short conclusion. 1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the opposing opinion written in another text: Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. Character? A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue. This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and Euthanasia: Essay, point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. It is the contention of the character Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of medicine in the foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on macbeth, to assert that these tourists spend a lot of Essay about Sports money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down.

Indeed, surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to character macbeth, visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can see animals in those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the Essay Global Impact ugly concrete marine park venues. The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for Scientific Research 19.2.93. Character? The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93. Jones, G. (1991). The Myths about Animal Research in Marine Parks. Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. Smith, H. Which Of The Following Are Not? (1992).

Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. Leisure Business Review . Vol 24, No. 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93. Links to further resources on developing an argument. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email.

Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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Macbeth: Character List | CliffsNotes

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The Progressive Character of Macbeth - Bravery, Ambition, Tyranny

Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and character macbeth, fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities. © Lubans et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012. Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of Euthanasia: The Debate for Death Essay, low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend.

The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and character macbeth, Skills (SCORES) intervention is Euthanasia: The Debate, a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and character, community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. For Death Essay! The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of character, Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m 2 )], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience.

Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the what definition, impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and macbeth, active. Medicine Industrial Revolution! The findings from the macbeth, study may be used to guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and school policy in primary schools. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910. Participation in The Debate physical activity (PA) is character macbeth, essential for optimizing children’s physical, social, cognitive and psychological development [ 1 , 2 ]. Activity of vigorous intensity may have additional benefits for young people, as physical fitness is the race act 2000, a better predictor of metabolic health than total PA [ 3 – 5 ]. Unfortunately lack of PA among children and adolescents is a global concern [ 6 ] and current estimates suggest that only 50% of Australian primary school-aged children are meeting the current PA guidelines (i.e., 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA) [ 7 ]. In particular, promoting PA among youth from disadvantaged backgrounds is a public health priority because these individuals have reduced access to character macbeth PA facilities and resources [ 8 , 9 ] and are often less active than those of middle and high socio-economic position [ 10 – 12 ]. The school setting is an ideal environment for the promotion of PA among youth as schools have the necessary equipment, personnel, facilities and curriculum to promote and provide opportunities for PA [ 13 , 14 ]. Numerous school-based PA interventions have been evaluated [ 15 , 16 ], including those specifically targeting youth from low-income backgrounds [ 17 , 18 ]. Multi-component school-based interventions that involve parents and encourage PA within and beyond the school day, are more efficacious than curriculum only which of the are not of a, interventions [ 15 , 16 ]. Although the evidence for macbeth, effective school-based interventions is strong, studies rarely report their effect on movement skill competency.

This is a notable omission because PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence [ 19 , 20 ] and evidence suggests that failure to attain competency may contribute to medicine in the industrial revolution this decline, whereas competency may serve as a protective factor against this trend [ 21 , 22 ]. Proficiency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) is macbeth, considered to be the revolution, foundation for character macbeth, an active lifestyle [ 23 ] and the primary school years represent the “golden years” of what is the of courage, motor skill development [ 23 , 24 ]. FMS include locomotor (e.g., running and hopping), object control (e.g., catching and character macbeth, throwing) and stability (e.g., balancing and Afflicting the Native Essay, twisting) skills [ 23 ]. These skills are ideally developed in macbeth childhood and subsequently refined into definition of courage, context- and sport-specific skills [ 24 – 26 ]. A recent systematic review of the health benefits associated with FMS competency found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and PA in character macbeth children and an inverse relationship between skill level and Essay about Sports, weight status [ 27 ]. Teaching movement skills improves both actual and perceived competence [ 28 , 29 ], both of which are important for future PA [ 30 , 31 ]. Indeed, lack of confidence in the physical domain is a major barrier to PA among many children and character, adolescents [ 32 – 34 ]. Alarmingly, many children finish primary school without achieving mastery in a range of Americans Essay, FMS and those from macbeth, disadvantaged backgrounds often demonstrate the lowest competency levels [ 11 , 35 ]. The low PA and poor FMS competency observed among children living in low-income communities can be explained by socio-environmental factors (e.g., working parents, lack of PA opportunities and about Sports, unsafe neighborhoods etc.) [ 36 , 37 ], but may also reflect a failure of character macbeth, current school-based programs and strategies [ 38 ]. Industrial Revolution! Indeed, the recent Crawford report highlighted both the central role that schools play in the promotion of PA and the dire state of PE and school sport in Australian primary schools [ 38 ]. Formative research conducted by Morgan and colleagues indicated that the crowded school curriculum along with inadequate teacher training programs contributes to character macbeth teachers’ reluctance to teach PE and the poor quality of existing PE programs [ 39 , 40 ]. Euthanasia: The Debate Essay! Combined, these findings illustrate the importance of designing and character, evaluating school-based approaches to PA promotion among the most vulnerable individuals (i.e., those living in low-income communities). This paper provides the rationale and methods for the Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention. Relations Act 2000! SCORES is a multi-component school-based intervention that combines a range of evidence-based behavior change strategies to promote PA and FMS competency among primary school aged children from low-income communities. The Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage was used to identify eligible primary schools. The SEIFA index (scale 1 = lowest to 10 = highest ) summarizes the characteristics of people and households within an area and was developed using the following data: employment, education, financial well-being, housing stress, overcrowding, home ownership, family support, family breakdown, family type, lack of wealth (no car or telephone), low income, Indigenous status and foreign birth. Sixteen government primary schools located within 30 minutes drive from the University of Newcastle, with a SEIFA index of ? 5 (lowest 50%) were invited to character participate in the study and eight schools consented to participate (50% consent rate).

All students in grades 3 and medicine revolution, 4 (Stage 2) at the study schools were invited to participate in character macbeth the program. From the 592 eligible children at Euthanasia: The Debate for Death Essay the eight schools, 460 children consented to participate (78% consent rate). Power calculations were conducted to determine the character macbeth, sample size required to detect changes in the three primary outcomes [i.e., PA, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and FMS] at the 12-month assessments. All calculations assumed baseline-posttest correlation scores of 0.80 and were based on 80% power with alpha levels set at p 0.05. The Race Relations! Using the character macbeth, standard deviation (SD = 33) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.05) values from the Kinder-Sportstudie (KISS) [ 42 ], it was calculated that a study sample of N = 440, with 8 clusters (i.e. schools) of 55 students would provide adequate power to detect an achievable between group difference of the race relations act 2000, 11 moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes/day [ 42 ]. Based on data from the Action Schools BC! (SD = 13) [ 43 ] and the KISS (ICC = 0.03) [ 42 ] studies, a sample of 440 would also provide adequate power to detect a between group difference of 4 laps on the multi-stage fitness test (i.e., CFR outcome). Character! In the Essay Sports Global, absence of existing ICC values for FMS outcomes, an ICC estimate of 0.05 and character, a SD of act 2000, 15 units [ 44 ] indicated that the study would be adequately powered to detect a between group difference of 5 units on the TGMD-II gross motor quotient. Baseline assessments were conducted prior to randomization by character, trained research assistants. The intervention will be evaluated using a group RCT-design and schools were randomly allocated to the control or intervention groups for the duration of the study.

Schools were match-paired based on Problems Americans, their size and macbeth, SEP (based on post-code of school) then randomly allocated to of the following are not subculture? the intervention or control group using a computer-based random number producing algorithm by a researcher not involved in the current study. This method ensured that schools had an equal chance of allocation to macbeth each group. SCORES intervention components, potential mediators and outcomes. The SCORES intervention will be implemented in Problems Afflicting Americans Essay three phases. Phase 1 will focus on teacher professional learning, student workshops, provision of equipment and the establishment of a school committee. In Phase 2, the character macbeth, research team will work with the school committees to advocate for Problems the Native Americans Essay, relevant policy change to promote PA and character macbeth, FMS. In addition, the research team will employ a range of strategies to Problems the Native Essay engage parents and encourage them to support their children’s PA. Phase 3 will address strategies to improve school-community links (e.g., inviting local sporting organizations to assist with school sport programs). Macbeth! The focus of this phase will be program consolidation and what definition of courage, the research team will work with schools to establish sustainability.

The intervention components are detailed in character Table 1 and a description of how the socio-ecological framed intervention will facilitate behavior change at the individual, interpersonal, organizational and community levels is provided below: Individual: While the The Debate, intervention will involve a number of indirect strategies to support and macbeth, improve children’s PA behaviors (i.e., through teachers, parents and the community), students will be directly involved in the SCORES leadership workshops which will be delivered by the research team. Sports Impact! The workshops will focus on developing leadership and organizational skills necessary for running lunch and recess PA sessions and macbeth, assisting classroom teachers to deliver high quality PE lessons. These sessions will be designed to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence and relatedness). and enable them to Essay achieve SCORES leadership accreditation. Intervention components, behavior change techniques and macbeth, targeted constructs in the SCORES intervention. Behavior change strategies. 1) Student leadership.

Students will be provided with an opportunity to achieve SCORES leadership accreditation. Students will attend the which of the following are not subculture?, SCORES leadership workshop, which will be delivered at the study schools during PE/sport by character, the research team. This will provide students with formal acknowledgment (i.e. certificates) and Euthanasia: Essay, rewards (i.e. water bottles, stickers) for macbeth, their participation. SCORES leaders will be encouraged to set up (i.e. Afflicting! equipment monitor), run (i.e. deliver lunch and recess activities) and promote (i.e. speak on assembly) PA and FMS development in the school setting. Students who complete these tasks will have the character macbeth, opportunity to achieve a yellow award (complete 5 tasks), red award (complete 10 tasks), and blue award (complete 15 tasks), and receive the associated rewards (i.e. certificates, wrist bands, hats, sporting equipment). ?Model or demonstrate the which of the are not of a subculture?, behavior. ?Provide contingent rewards. ?Prompt identification as a role model. ?Plan social support or social change.

?Set graded tasks. 2) Professional learning workshops for teachers. 1 x full day for Stage 2 teachers 1. The research team will deliver professional development workshops for teachers. Workshops will focus on effective teaching methods for the development of FMS, strategies for teaching and character macbeth, assessing FMS, increasing MVPA and Impact, enjoyment in macbeth PE and school sport (based on the SAAFE teaching principles). ?Model or demonstrate the behavior. ?Provide feedback on performance. 1 x half day for all teachers at intervention schools. i) Stage 2 teachers’ workshop: will be held at the university. This workshop will be provided for Stage 2 teachers only. ii) Whole-school workshops: will be delivered in the study schools during one of their scheduled professional learning days.

3) Parental engagement. 4 x newsletters. i) Newsletters - Parents of which of the following are not of a, study participants will be provided with newsletters to educate and encourage them to support their children’s PA behaviors. Newsletters will also provide updates and feedback on character macbeth, the project. ?Provide information on consequences. ?Provide feedback on relations, performance. ?Plan social support or social change. ?Provide general encouragement. 1 x Parent evening.

ii) FMS Homework – Students will be encouraged to complete practical homework tasks focused on FMS development with their parents/guardians. Weekly FMS homework. iii) Parent evening – Parents will be invited to attend an interactive information session on how to macbeth promote and increase PA and FMS in the home setting. 4) Policy and environment. i) School committee and policy review and recommendations: The research team will conduct a review of PA policy in the schools. Medicine! The research team will work with Principals and school committees to character revise policy to Essay about Sports Global Impact support the PA promotion. Policy recommendations include: ?Provide opportunities for macbeth, behavior. ?Provide access to equipment to Afflicting the Native Essay encourage behavior. a) Functioning school PA committee (i.e., school committee to meet once a school term). b) All students participate in at least 120 minutes of timetabled PA per week (i.e., ensure PE and school sport are timetabled). c) 50% of PE and character macbeth, school sport time devoted to MVPA (i.e., lessons designed to maximize huff and puff activity).

d) Annual reporting of about Global, students’ FMS and fitness (e.g. report cards describing student levels). e) Promotion of active playgrounds (e.g. organized activities and access to character equipment). f) Involve family members in school-based PA (e.g. parents as helpers in PE and school sport). ii) Equipment and medicine in the industrial, resources: Each school will be provided with PA equipment (e.g. bats, balls etc.) and resources (e.g. activity cards) to support the implementation of the intervention based on macbeth, their individual school needs (approx. $1,000). 5) Community links. Community organizations (e.g. local football clubs) will be invited to the visit the study schools during PE/school sport. This will help to promote community sporting links. ?Model or demonstrate the medicine industrial, behavior. ?Provide information about opportunities in the local environment.

Note: FMS = Fundamental Movement Skills; PE = physical education; SCORES = Supporting Children’s Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills. 1 Stage 2 teachers are the classroom teachers of students in the intervention schools. SAAFE teaching principles and character macbeth, strategies. Supportive – Lessons conducted in a supportive environment. 1. Publicly recognize all students’ effort, learning, achievements, and improvement. 2. Provide feedback on student effort, process and progress (not results). 3. Identify and manage inappropriate student behavior (e.g., teasing, over-competitiveness). 4. Promote positive social interactions between students. Active - Lessons involve a high level of about Sports, movement and character, active learning time (ALT).

1. Use small-side games, circuits and tabloids to in the maximize participation. 2. Ensure equipment is character, plentiful and in the revolution, developmentally appropriate. 3. Monitor in-class physical activity using pedometers (i.e., approx. 75–85 steps/min of PE time is character macbeth, equal to 50% ALT). 4. Use student leaders to set-up games and activities. Autonomous – Lessons involve elements of choice and opportunities for graded tasks. 1. Of The Are Not! Ensure that tasks incorporate multiple challenge levels, and give students the freedom to select level of difficulty. 2. Provide students with opportunities to create and modify rules and character macbeth, activities. 3. Provide students with opportunities for leadership roles.

4. Encourage students to Problems Afflicting Americans Essay assess their own skill performances (e.g., detect and correct their own errors). Fair – Lessons provide all students with an character, opportunity to experience success. 1. Essay About! Ensure tasks are not dominated by the most competent students. 2. Modify the tasks to increase the opportunity for success (i.e., make the goals bigger, reduce the number of macbeth, defensive players, alter the equipment used, revise the task rules). 3. Ensure students are evenly matched in competitive activities. 4. Acknowledge and reward participation and good sportsmanship. Enjoyable – Lessons are designed to be enjoyable and the race act 2000, engaging for all students. 1. Character Macbeth! Include a wide variety of games and activities. 2. Provide engaging and Americans, age appropriate tasks. 3. Avoid boring and repetitive activity (e.g., running around the field for a warm-up). 4. Macbeth! Don’t use exercise or activity as punishment.

Parents will be engaged using the following strategies: a) newsletters describing intervention progress and encouraging PA and Americans Essay, FMS practice, b) weekly FMS homework (using FMS activity cards to be completed by children at home under parental supervision), and c) a parent information evening focusing on parental strategies to character promote PA and FMS development outside of school setting. Finally, students who have gained SCORES accreditation will be responsible for organizing recess and of the examples of a, lunch-time physical activities for other students in the study schools. Organizational: The research team will work with the schools to implement evidence-based policy and character, practice that is The Debate, supportive of all students’ PA. The specific PA policies are provided in Table 1 . A school committee will be established to guide a review of existing school policy and macbeth, the implementation of new policies. The research team conducted an audit of each school’s equipment and which of the following are not of a subculture?, resources. Intervention schools will be provided with PA equipment (e.g. bats, balls etc.) to support PA promotion, based on their individual requirements. Community: The research team will conduct an audit of character macbeth, sport and PA organizations within each school’s local community. Community organizations will then be invited to visit schools during PE and Essay Sports Global, school sport. Macbeth! The aim of this intervention component is to create partnerships between schools and The Debate Essay, community organizations.

It will also serve to increase students’ awareness of, and participation in, extra-curricular sport and PA in their local community. Control group: To prevent potential compensatory rivalry and character macbeth, resentful demoralization [ 54 ], the Problems Afflicting, control schools will be provided with a condensed version of the program following the 12-month assessments. The condensed version of the program will include the character, professional learning workshops for teachers and students, strategies to engage parents and a review of Euthanasia: for Death Essay, school PA policy will be conducted. A PA equipment pack valued at macbeth approximately $1000 AUD (including pedometers, bats, balls, cones, goals etc.) will also be provided based on of the following are not examples of a, individual school requirements. Baseline assessments were conducted by trained research assistants at the study schools.

Mid-intervention (6-months) and character macbeth, post-intervention (12-months) assessments will also be conducted at the race relations act 2000 the study schools. For consistency and accuracy, a protocol manual, which includes specific instructions for conducting all assessments, was developed and will be used by research assistants. Questionnaires were completed before the character, physical assessments in exam-like conditions and physical assessments were conducted in a sensitive manner (e.g., weight measured in a discreet, private setting). Demographic information including age, gender, ethnicity, language spoken at in the industrial home and mother/father’s highest level of school was collected at baseline. Character Macbeth! A range of primary and secondary outcomes and hypothesized mechanisms of behavior change will be measured. PA will be assessed using triaxial Actigraph accelerometers (GT3X and GT3X+), which will be worn by participants during waking hours for seven consecutive days, except while bathing and swimming. Trained research assistants, following standardized accelerometer protocols [ 55 ], will fit the Euthanasia: The Debate Essay, monitors and character, explain the monitoring procedures to students. The Race Act 2000! Data will be collected and stored in 10-second intervals. The mean activity counts per minute (CPM) and character, daily step counts will be calculated, thresholds for activity counts will be used to Afflicting Essay categorize PA into sedentary, light, moderate and macbeth, vigorous intensity activity [ 56 ].

Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) will be assessed using a 20 m multistage fitness test [ 57 ]. Participants will be required to run back and forth between two lines over a 20 m distance within a set time limit. Running speed will start at 8.5 km/hour and will increase by 0.5 km/hr each minute using the Multi-stage test cadence CD. Participants will be instructed to Essay about Impact run in a straight line and to character macbeth place one foot over Euthanasia: The Debate, the 20 m line before the next beep. The test is completed when a participant fails to reach the line for two consecutive shuttles. Scores will recorded as the level and macbeth, shuttle reached, which will be converted to the number of 20 m laps completed to provide a continuous variable for analysis.

Fundamental movement skill competency. FMS competency will be assessed using the Test of medicine industrial, Gross Motor development (TGMD) II [ 44 ]. The TGMD II includes six locomotor (i.e., run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and six object control (i.e., striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, kick, catch, overhand throw, and macbeth, underhand roll) skills. Participants will perform each skill twice and skills will be video-taped for assessment. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability will be established ( 80%) using pre-coded video-tapes before movement skills are assessed. Weight will be measured in medicine in the revolution light clothing without shoes using a portable digital scale (Model no. UC-321PC, AD Company Ltd, Tokyo Japan) to the nearest 0.1 kg. Height will be recorded to the nearest 0.1 cm using a portable stadiometer (Model no. Character! PE087, Mentone Educational Centre, Australia). Body mass index (BMI) will be calculated using the standard equation (weight[kg]/height[m] 2 ) and BMI-z scores will be calculated using the ‘LMS’ method [ 58 ]. Global self-concept will be assessed using Harter’s Self-Perception Profile (SPP) [ 59 ]. Afflicting The Native Essay! The SPP utilizes a four-choice structured alternative format to reduce socially desirable responses.

Participants must first decide which of the macbeth, two statements best describes them and then choose whether the statement is ‘sort of Euthanasia: The Debate Essay, true’ or ‘really true’ for character, them. Problems Americans! Each item is scored from 1 ( low-self-perception ) to 4 ( high self-perception ). Participants will complete the character macbeth, Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) [ 60 ]. Based on a validation study involving children from 11 countries, the medicine revolution, CYRM-28 was found to have good content-related validity and provide a culturally sensitive measure of youth resilience [ 61 ]. The CYRM-28 has 28 items and includes three sub-scales: individual, relationships with primary care-givers, and contextual factors that facilitate a sense of belonging. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale with values ranging from 1 ( Not at all ) to character macbeth 5 ( A lot ). Participants will complete six items related to weekday and weekend day recreational screen time from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study [ 62 ]. The HBSC screen time questions compare favorably with other measures in sedentary behavior [ 63 ] and has acceptable reliability in the race relations children, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 (95% CIs, 0.76–0.92) for watching television on school days to 0.38 (95% CIs, 0.10–0.60) for using the internet for non-school purposes and chatting on line [ 64 ]. Hypothesized mediators of behavior change. A poor understanding of the character macbeth, mechanisms of behavior change in PA interventions has been noted in the literature [ 65 , 66 ]. Students, parents and teachers will complete a range of scales assessing individual and socio-environmental level mediators of PA behavior change. Perceived sport competence will be assessed using a subscale from Harter’s SPP [ 59 ]. Enjoyment of Afflicting the Native Essay, PA will be assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) [ 67 ]. The 16-item scale is scored on a 5-point Likert scales, with responses ranging from 1 ( Disagree a lot ) to 5 ( Agree a lot). Social support from family/household members [ 68 ], friends [ 68 ] and teachers [ 69 ] will be self-reported by participants using existing scales (each containing 5 items).

All scales utilize 5-point Likert scales with responses ranging from 1 ( never ) to 5 ( always ). Parents will also report the level of social support they provide for their children using the Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) [ 70 ]. Parents will complete selected scales from the CLASS assessing children’s access to PA facilities and equipment in their home and local community [ 70 ]. Character! Parents will also report barriers and facilitators to their children’s PA in the local community using the medicine industrial, CLASS. Macbeth! Teachers at the study schools will report on their schools’ physical environment and facilities and students’ access to Essay about Sports Impact these within and character, beyond the Essay about Sports Global, school day using scales selected from the New South Wales Schools Physical Activity and character, Nutrition Survey (SPANS) [ 71 ]. A range of process data will be collected to complement the outcome data. Process measures will include i) teacher and student attendance at workshops (i.e., percentage attendance), ii) student leadership accreditation (i.e., number of students who complete the workshop and Americans Essay, satisfy the accreditation guidelines), iii) teacher satisfaction with professional learning workshops (using workshop evaluation questionnaires at the end of macbeth, Phase 1), iv) parental involvement will be determined using a process evaluation questionnaire (e.g. Of The Following Are Not Examples Of A! reading newsletters and completion of character macbeth, home-based FMS tasks) and attendance at about Sports Global Impact the parent evening, v) teacher, student and parent satisfaction with all intervention components (using process evaluation questionnaires at character the completion of the study), vi) compliance with PA policies will be determined through interviews with school Principals, vii) PE intervention fidelity will be determined (using SOFIT observations). Americans Essay! PE lessons will be observed at baseline, 6- and 12-months using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) tool [ 72 ]. Percentage of lesson time spent in MVPA and time dedicated to skill development will be assessed. All teachers of Stage 2 students (both intervention and control groups) will be observed at each time point. The study will be adequately powered to detect clinically important changes in the three primary outcomes at the 12-month assessments. Statistical analyses of the primary and secondary outcomes will be conducted using linear mixed models with PROC MIXED in SAS V 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) and alpha levels will be set at p 0.05. The mixed models will be specified to adjust for the clustered nature of the character macbeth, data and will follow the intention to treat principle.

Potential moderators of the intervention effects (e.g., ethnicity, socio-economic status and act 2000, type of school) will be explored using linear mixed models. Character! Differences between participants in the intervention and medicine in the industrial revolution, groups at character baseline and differences between completers and which examples of a subculture?, those who drop out of the study will be examined using Chi square and independent samples t-tests in character PASW Statistics 17 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL) software. Hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be examined using multilevel linear analysis and a product-of-coefficients test that is appropriate for cluster randomized controlled trials [ 73 ]. In this paper we described the rationale and study protocol for the SCORES intervention.

To the authors’ knowledge, SCORES is the first PA and FMS intervention targeting Australian primary school children in what definition of courage low-income communities. Targeting children of low SEP is important because they have reduced access to character PA opportunities and are typically less active and skilled than youth of middle and what of courage, high SEP [ 11 , 12 ]. Character! By Year 4, students should achieve mastery in a range of which examples of a, FMS, however, recent data suggests that the prevalence of advanced skills is low among Australian children and proficiency levels have declined since 2004 [ 11 ]. Although there is strong evidence that school-based PA interventions are effective in increasing the duration of character macbeth, PA and Afflicting the Native Essay, increasing CRF in children and adolescents, their impact on character, leisure time PA and FMS is less convincing [ 14 – 16 ]. Of The Following Examples! Such programs are typically evaluated among youth transitioning from character, childhood to adolescence, a period of time that is characterized by an erosion of in the, activity patterns [ 19 , 74 ]. Nevertheless, recent well-designed studies [ 42 , 43 , 75 ], such as the KISS intervention [ 42 ] have demonstrated that multi-component school-based interventions can increase PA and CRF in character macbeth children. However, these studies have involved daily PE lessons, which may not be feasible in many schools. Alternatively, interventions that provide professional learning opportunities for teachers and promote PA within existing PE lessons and throughout the school day (i.e., lunch time and recess) may provide a valuable framework for sustainable practice. Unfortunately, many primary school teachers lack the confidence and Afflicting the Native Americans Essay, skills to teach PE effectively [ 40 , 76 ], which may explain their reluctance to teach this subject in character favor of traditional academic subjects (e.g., mathematics and science). The lack of focus on the race relations, teacher professional learning in school-based PA interventions is surprising considering the importance placed on professional learning in the general education literature [ 77 ] and that teachers have specifically stated that professional development in macbeth PE, and about Global, teaching FMS in particular, is urgently needed and a high priority for improving PA-related outcomes in primary schools [ 76 ]. SCORES is an innovative multi-component school-based intervention targeting primary school children in macbeth low-income communities. The strengths of this study include the study design, the objective measures of PA, FMS and CRF and the comprehensive multi-component intervention. The findings from the study may be used to guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and school policy in Euthanasia: The Debate primary schools. Children’s leisure activities study survey.

Competence motivation theory. Child and character, Youth Resilience Measure. Health behavior in school-aged children. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Physical activity enjoyment scale. Physical activity; Self-determination theory.

Schools physical activity and nutrition survey, System for observing fitness instruction time. Test of gross motor development II. This project is funded by what, a Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) grant, the Gastronomic Lunch and the Newcastle Jets. Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors have no competing interests to declare. DRL, PJM, RC, and RCP obtained funding for the research. All authors contributed to macbeth developing the protocols and reviewing, editing, and approving the final version of the paper.

DRL, PJM, RCP and KW developed the intervention materials. TF, JS, LU, SAC and DD are responsible for data collection and cleaning. Relations! DRL is the guarantor and accepts full responsibility for the conduct of the study and the integrity of the data. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B, Hergenroeder AC, Must A, Nixon PA, Pivarnik JM, et al: Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005, 146 (6): 732-737. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Tomporowski PD, Davis CL, Miller PH, Naglieri JA: Exercise and children’s intelligence, cognition, and academic achievement.

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10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.007. View ArticleGoogle Scholar. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/427/prepub. This article is character, published under license to of the are not of a BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the character, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and the race act 2000, Cookies policy.

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Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over character macbeth a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to your resume! We’ve come up with a new set of creative designs that are the perfect blend of professionalism, personality, and just the right amount of style. These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search.

Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. What Is The? Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to character macbeth, the various stages of a career.

Remember: You can download any of Euthanasia:, these resume templates for character free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the which resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to character, give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is what is the of courage, unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to macbeth, any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is what is the, filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews.

But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the macbeth resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. Problems Afflicting The Native? You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and macbeth, unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Euthanasia:? Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Character Macbeth? The hiring manager will be tired of looking at what is the definition of courage that resume template design because a lot of macbeth, other people use it.

That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the Afflicting Americans Essay content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. Character Macbeth? We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from The Debate one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on macbeth, the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. Medicine In The Industrial? With regards to your military experience, check out character our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the what definition templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for character macbeth the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to is the definition, find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in macbeth the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.

Good luck on The Debate Essay, the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Character? i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. What Is The Definition Of Courage? can u suggest to me with template is macbeth, suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and Afflicting the Native, during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Character Macbeth? Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the the race ‘Executive.’ They should able to character macbeth, fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the Essay ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template.

In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in macbeth a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to medicine in the industrial, apply as a home based ESL educator and macbeth, an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is is the definition, more on character, the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for about Sports appointments and macbeth, summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to industrial, native speaking arabs. Character? What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Afflicting Essay? Good luck! Hello. Macbeth? Which is good for cabin crew applicant?

I have no many work experience in service. The Debate? So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at character our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and is the definition, input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience.

Try using the character macbeth ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the race relations act 2000, the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into character macbeth, the job market for extra income, not necessarily in of the examples subculture? the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the character ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search!

Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for The Debate for Death Essay a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and character macbeth, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the is the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret,

In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to character macbeth, check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of act 2000, them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in character your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out Essay about Global this page and choose the character one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application.

As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to is the, get back into macbeth, accounting after that many years outside of the field. Act 2000? I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. Macbeth? If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Problems Afflicting? Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume.

Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Character? Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and what of courage, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to character, choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of the race, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Character Macbeth? There are tons of medicine industrial, errors throughout. Macbeth? See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and of the are not examples subculture?, offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. Character Macbeth? HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to is the, MS Word and PDF.

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A Modest Proposal Critical Essays. A Modest Proposal Jonathan Swift. This entry presents criticism of Swift's 1729 satire A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of the macbeth Poor People from medicine in the, Being a Burthen to Their Parents, or the Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick. Macbeth! See also Gulliver's Travels Criticism (1726). A Modest Proposal is revolution, considered one of the finest examples of satire in world literature. Written in the persona of a well-intentioned economist and published in the form of a popular pamphlet, the tract argues that the problem of poverty in Ireland can best be remedied by selling the children of the poor as food for the wealthy. This outlandish thesis is a manifestation of Swift's outrage at what he saw as the scandalous economic and political policies of the Irish and English governments, and the author uses the assumed voice of the economist, an abundance of detail, literalized metaphors, and other ironic and parodic techniques to devastating effect. At the same time Swift directs his satire at Protestant-Catholic divisions, contemporary economic theories, and other targets.

A Modest Proposal has long been judged an incomparable work of rhetorical brilliance, and it continues to garner new readers and character, additional critical attention to this day. Jonathan Swift was born in following subculture? Dublin, Ireland, on November 30, 1667 to Abigaile Erick Swift, seven months after the character death of his father, Jonathan Swift, Sr. Swift graduated from Trinity College in Dublin in 1686. As he was born of English parents, Swift was anxious to distance himself from Ireland, and he moved to Essay, England in 1689—the first of character macbeth many relocations between England and Ireland. Problems Americans Essay! While living at Moor Park in England, Swift served as a secretary to Sir William Temple, and it was there that he began his writing career. After receiving his Master of character Arts degree from in the, Oxford University in 1692, Swift was ordained into the Church of Ireland in 1694 and was stationed as prebendary of Kilroot, a poor town in northern Ireland. He disliked the experience, and two years later he returned to Moor Park, where he remained until Temple's death in 1699.

Swift subsequently returned to Dublin, where he would remain until 1710, though he traveled often to London. Although he originally supported the Whigs, Swift was eventually won over by the Tories due to their support of the Church of Ireland's position regarding taxation. Swift served as the Tory ministry's main political writer, culminating in 1710, when he was asked to take responsibility for directing the Tory journal The Examiner. Macbeth! In 1713 he was appointed dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Sports Global! One year later King George I succeeded the late Queen Anne, and the newly appointed Whig government took over. Swift was left with no opportunity for character further political involvement, and therefore returned to Dublin, where, over the next two decades, he became increasingly engaged in the Irish political landscape and wrote the majority of in the industrial revolution his most influential political satire. Swift, a longtime sufferer of aphasia and Meniere's syndrome, remained at St. Patrick's Cathedral until 1742, when he was placed under the care of a guardian.

He died in character Dublin on October 19, 1745, and is buried in the middle aisle of St. Patrick's Cathedral. In A Modest Proposal Swift adopts the persona of a concerned economist who suggests that, in order to better combat the poverty and overpopulation of Ireland, the children of the poor be sold as food to the wealthy. As a result, he argues, not only will the which following population be reduced, but the income of the poor will increase significantly as they sell their children. In developing this outrageous thesis, Swift provides abundant detail, projecting the costs of child rearing (which will be saved if the child is eaten), estimating the portion of the population affected, and even providing specific ideas regarding the number of servings a child might provide. He suggests that the meat of the children of Ireland would be considered a delicacy to both the English and to macbeth, Irish landowners, and would therefore be highly sought after for feasts and special occasions.

Throughout, Swift's satire relies on the persona of the economist, an ostensiblly well-meaning visionary whose sympathy for the poor leads him suggest a remedy of Afflicting the Native Essay murderous cruelty. Character Macbeth! His arguments, rationally presented, support a profoundly irrational proposition, and their appalling callousness radically undermine their benevolent intent. Swift uses the absurd thesis of A Modest Proposal to attack contemporary English and Irish politics. He focuses on the metaphorical “devouring” of Ireland's resources by England's policies and by wealthy Irish landowners, literalizing the metaphor to attack the positions of both parties. At its core, his suggestion is Americans Essay, that the English and the wealthy landowners of Ireland are causing the poverty and misery of the population.

Swift's satire is by turns oblique and direct; in one instance he suggests that, while the meat of children likely could not withstand preservation in salt for long sea voyages, he “could name a country which would be glad to character macbeth, eat up our whole nation without it.” His allusion to England (deriving from its close proximity) also directly assaults the Problems English misuse of Ireland. Swift does not spare Ireland, however. At one point he presents a list of alternative solutions to character, Ireland's problems, none of which were ever attempted. In the process he emphasizes the number and extent of Ireland's social ills and the indifference and neglect with which they have been treated. At the same time, through the use of the adopted persona, Swift also satirizes those who propose solutions to the race, political and economic issues without consideration of the human cost involved. With devastating irony, Swift shows the inhumanity of schemes for character alleviating the suffering of the poor that are solely based on rational principles. Somewhat surprisingly, A Modest Proposal received little sustained critical attention until the definition of courage twentieth century.

Most early critics extolled the character macbeth work but treated it only briefly, judging it to be in a unique class of relations act 2000 its own and therefore difficult to analyze. In the character twentieth century scholars began to see the tract as more than a simple attack on particular conditions in Ireland, but as a penetrating interrogation of the political and what definition of courage, economic theories that gave rise to those conditions. Character! In his 1943 analysis of A Modest Proposal, George Wittkowski argued that the work's comedic parody obscured for earlier critics its examination of political affairs. Since then, sociopolitical interpretations of in the industrial Swift's satire—such as those by Oliver W. Macbeth! Ferguson, Robert Mahoney, and Euthanasia:, John Richardson—have vied with analyses of its brilliant deployment of rhetorical strategies—including those of Samuel J. Macbeth! Rogal, Denis Donoghue, and Wayne C. Booth—to account for its enduring power. By consensus, however, A Modest Proposal, is deemed a masterpiece and a stunning example of the satirist's art. Access our A Modest Proposal Study Guide for Free. A Modest Proposal Homework Help Questions. Your original question contained two questions.

You are not allowed to ask multiple questions in enotes, so I have edited the second question and will focus on your first. Please remember to only. The purpose of Swift's satirical essay is to call attention to the problems that were being experienced by relations act 2000 the people of Ireland. He wanted the English (who ruled Ireland) to realize what they. A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift is a satirical piece on how to deal with the poor’s problems. Basically, “Swift suggests that impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by.

The ethos, pathos and logos are persuasive appeals. Logos is the idea of a logical argument. I believe no Gentleman would repine to character, give Ten Shillings for Essay Sports Impact the Carcass of a good fat Child. Macbeth! A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift is a prime example of satire. Satire is defined as the use of humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule to Euthanasia: for Death Essay, expose and criticise people's stupidity and vices.

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essay on girls guide Double-click on any word and character see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the what of courage, most important skills you will learn and character develop during your university years is writing, in particular essay writing. It is important to realise that this is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, and Essay about Sports Impact that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the character, early weeks to the very end of your degree programme. These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Essay writing involves presenting an argument and communicating. Essay. It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in which you need to be clear and persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and sustaining your career in character, journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for for Death Essay, your future students.

The list is endless, and it is obvious that the way you present your arguments in written form can make the difference between success and macbeth failure - in which case you will have to think again. In some of the scenarios outlined above the skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the basic skills and Problems the Native methods are in the main common to all forms of character macbeth formal writing in which an argument or arguments need to be presented. The focus here is primarily on writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and Essay about Impact fine reader of literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into macbeth, presenting them clearly . For Death Essay. Some of the following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an macbeth, essay. The comments are based on years of experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of Problems Afflicting the Native Americans Essay Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Too many in the past have been a list of notes, or a series of sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the character macbeth, literary text with no explanation of the race relations what they are doing there. Let us be blunt here and state that we tutors are not impressed by indiscriminate underlining and the use of character macbeth different coloured pens. Sub-headings written in magenta, underlined in ochre, followed by a list of quotations in The Debate Essay, vermilion are pointless. We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an essay is poor.

An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . Macbeth. To do this you need to work at the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph . The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. It takes experience and practice to develop a sense of relations act 2000 when a new paragraph is needed and character when it has been finished. Examine the introduction to this booklet and this guide to get some sense of Problems Afflicting the Native how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear. The first sentence of the character, paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the act 2000, main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.). The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in character, a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Several stages are involved in essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and the Native Americans the actual writing.

As you gain more experience you will find methods and ways of macbeth working which suit you, your personality and lifestyle. Generally, however, the process will involve the following. You should examine carefully the statements made in Global, the essay question , making sure you understand each word and macbeth what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at this stage can be fatal. Essay. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is essential. Read through notes you may have made in character macbeth, class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the literary text you are examining. Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to the essay in question. To do this it can be useful to Impact, try to think of a title for your essay.

This is character, not to Essay about Impact, be confused with the essay question or title, but is concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an overview of macbeth your approach and analysis, and highlight the main points you examine and the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). You should not assume that an essay has to include and cover all the possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and structured essay focusing on some of the Euthanasia:, main points is far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to character macbeth, say a little about everything. You may find it useful to The Debate for Death, state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why. Keep your reader informed of the development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is being taken and the reasons why.

Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Character. Students often do not make the most of the medicine in the industrial, good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about them. Make sure the relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and focused. A good essay takes time to prepare and write, so start to think about macbeth it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in revolution, timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the time to character macbeth, organise and structure the essay before starting to write). You will probably find that you need to work out your ideas on paper before writing the essay, and are encouraged to prepare an outline of the which following are not examples subculture?, essay: a point by point series of key words, phrases and character ideas. This will help you to organise the structure and to recognise what is relevant and is the definition of courage irrelevant to the essay as a whole. Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to ten words only. Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and character its contents. Again you will discover which method works for what of courage, you as you go along.

Some students find it easier to think and plan the essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only develop their ideas through writing. Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well. It should be stressed here that the first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the character, work begins and develops. The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of planning and preparation even before the actual writing begins. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and Essay about take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and rewarding to character macbeth, work through a number of ideas in depth and detail. Euthanasia:. Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. Character Macbeth. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Computers are essential in which are not, terms of using the character macbeth, time you spend on an essay efficiently and productively.

As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. With this in the race relations act 2000, mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to learn word-processing skills and to character macbeth, make sure you have access to relations act 2000, a computer. Use the university resources. Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is character macbeth, even more important to start your essay early in Essay, order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from character macbeth this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is the race relations, appreciated that students are very busy and do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to character macbeth, learn word-processing skills.

Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. The Native Americans Essay. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the character, representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects . It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and Afflicting the Native Americans Essay repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently , so do not leap about from macbeth point to point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow.

If you do leave one area of the essay to move into following examples of a subculture?, another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and character show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into consideration . '. After each draft of the of the following are not, essay check that each point is character macbeth, presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the the Native Americans Essay, points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and macbeth do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process.

A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of serious discussion of imagery and literary language . Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and then moved on to the next point on the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and why they are being used in definition of courage, the piece of fiction, and character macbeth maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an Problems Afflicting, image is being used then don't mention it. You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of 'spot the image'. Throughout your years at the University of Liège you will be writing essays on literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the literature you are working on or from secondary sources, be they books or articles on macbeth, historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to Essay, the texture and quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the work you want by itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and it is macbeth, a mistake to leave quotations hanging in mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Quotations need to be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at the end of what of courage this guide). You should also provide some commentary on the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material.

This is often likely to be the case as there is really little point in including 'bland' quotations in macbeth, your essay. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. The latter case can be useful, if handled well. Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in The Debate Essay, essay construction also displays independent thinking in that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and believed everything you have read. One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Tutors have read widely on the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to recognise when you are plagiarising. If you use other people's ideas and macbeth words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and referencing . ( See Example 2 at the end of this guide).

Essays need a conclusion , which for the sake of which of the following are not examples clarity should be relatively short. It is generally best not to character, include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. Which Of The Following Are Not Subculture?. You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. People often get the character macbeth, wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an essay title comes in following are not examples, the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to macbeth, distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem. Medicine In The Industrial. It is as much a sign of intelligence to character macbeth, state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the of the following of a subculture?, evidence and decide one way or the other.

Think about character macbeth why you cannot decide. About Impact. Perhaps the evidence is character, conflicting. Perhaps the literary text and its use of Problems Afflicting the Native Americans imagery is macbeth, ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide. Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in responding to the title.

If so, say so. A forced conclusion to an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and Essay about Impact through the character macbeth, consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the Afflicting, basis of the essay. Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the character macbeth, way that you use, add to, adapt and Problems Afflicting the Native modify this material that makes the argument your own and original. Your own voice should be heard. This needs to be qualified by the understanding that there is a particular form and macbeth style in academic writing . Following Examples. This is generally formal, analytical , and 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an macbeth, overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in The Debate for Death Essay, writing you are communicating and that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to express complex ideas with clarity.

One final point needs to be made on macbeth, the subject of the essays you write being about your ideas. Some of what you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to tailor and character construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the head of the course thinks about the text, and what you think she or he wants to hear. If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from those of the tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and Problems Afflicting the Native Americans Essay using evidence from the text and elsewhere to back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument. It is not particularly interesting for tutors to read in essays only what they have said in class, particularly if this is reproduced in character macbeth, a flat, unconvincing, and about Sports unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by macbeth arguments and about Global Impact interpretations outlined in class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and the tutor will wonder why you bothered to include them. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on your own ideas, developed through discussion and reading, not least because you will be enthused by them. Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and re-planned, main points developed, written down on macbeth, paper, then rewritten, and finally given to which are not of a, your tutor.

Nevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished. Once the essay has been graded and returned it is very important that you do not merely look at the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about your tutor's comments, then ask. If it is not possible to ask during class or you would prefer to talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Writing is character, a skill which has to Euthanasia: Essay, be learnt and practised, it is an character, ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an important part of this process. Example 1: Using Quotations. The extract below, from a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. Because the paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in a footnote to the first quotation.

Quotations from secondary sources are referenced by footnotes. Short quotations are included, in quotation marks, within the main body of the paper, whilst the longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Note that even when the writing by the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the novel and secondary sources the sentences are still grammatically correct and coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the medicine in the, rightness of her own power, and uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at an impressionable age, and she is mine for life'. Macbeth. 1 This is Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the child for God, she moulds the child for her own ends. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129). When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the Church as the body of Problems Afflicting the Native Essay Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and character macbeth this is medicine industrial revolution, demonstrated in a literal way when one of her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for confirmation. She becomes increasingly independent of Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for the Classical. Eunice refuses to character, continue her role as the group's jester, or to go with them to the ballet. Cunningly, her tutor tries to about Global Impact, regain control by playing on her religious convictions: All that term she tried to inspire Eunice to become at least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to character, some vocation. About Sports. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to macbeth, Eunice, who was in Euthanasia: for Death, fact secretly attracted to this idea and who lived in macbeth, Corstorphine. (81)

Miss Brodie has different plans for Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is above the moral code, it does not apply to her' (146). This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and which of the following are not examples Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography. The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in producing your essay , even if you have not referred to or quoted from them directly. The order is character macbeth, alphabetical and determined by the authors' names. The Native. Book titles appear in italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas.

When referring to macbeth, books you should include the following examples subculture?, author's name, place of character macbeth publication, the publisher, and the date when the book was published. To reference the source of an article from a journal include the name of the journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and you must be consistent. Consult the what, handbooks to be found in macbeth, the libraries for further details. This is a model used by many British universities and publishers.

Dahlgren, Pete, Television and relations the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975) Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84.

Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and character macbeth Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and which of the subculture? Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the model recommended by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and is used by most American universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete. Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995. Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Gledhill, Christine. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985. 73-84. Lodge, David. Macbeth. The Uses and in the Abuses of macbeth Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in what of courage, David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and character Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. 119-44. Pettifer, James. The Race Act 2000. The Greeks.

London: Penguin, 1993. The essential information provided by each model is given in the same order, but they differ in the way that the character macbeth, details are presented. In The Revolution. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Consult reference works for further advice. These books are on the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995) 1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7.

All further references are to this edition and given in character, the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Essay about Sports Global Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.