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Bicultural definition

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Best Homework Tips To Cut Study Time In Half. Definition? Charlie is a perfect example of a smart young man who needed the best homework tips to cut his study time in half. He is expansion a smart young man but he wasnít always showing it in school. When I first met him, he was in the middle of eighth grade, taking one of my study skills classes. He had been trudging through three-to-four hours of homework every night, with lukewarm grades! His mom was concerned because homework was ďstressing him outĒ and was the definition, source of many family arguments. Within a few short weeks, however, Charlie learned study skills and the best homework tips that helped him cut his homework time to less than one hour every nightÖand improved his grades! He definitely discovered the excellent study skills and the best homework tips. I asked Charlie to international strategy share the best homework tips and top three study skills that made the bicultural, most difference for him. This is what he shared several months later: 1. Get organized! ďI didnít realize how much time I wasted looking for things,Ē explained Charlie. ďMy notes, homework assignments, folders, textbooksÖI spent so much time digging through my book bag for things.

Many times, I had to ask my dad to drive me back to school because I forgot stuff in my locker. He was never happy with that, it took a lot of time and he always wondered whether I#8217;d ever learn the best homework tips.#8221; To help Charlie get organized, we condensed his 14 different folders and notebooks down to ONE binder. It was instantly easier for him to track papers, assignments, and notes because everything went in Global and Drug Use Essay one place. This also reduced the volume of his supplies by 60%, which instantly resulted in a more organized book bag and locker. Just doing this one simple thing helped him know he was on bicultural definition his way to learning the best homework tips.

We also talked about his locker routine so he was less likely to The Blood Tasting example forget things at school. Charlie recalled, ďYou pointed out that every time Iím at bicultural my locker, Iím in a rush. Expansion Strategy? Iím rushing to bicultural definition class, to lunch, to strategy the busÖno matter when Iím at my locker, itís always a rush. Bicultural? So, I had to figure out how to get what I needed quickly. I broke it down and now I ask myself two questions every time Iím at my locker. Economic System? This keeps me focused and definition, helps me get everything I need.Ē 2. Epidemic: Constructed For The Benefit? Power down! ďI really didnít like it when you first suggested that we turn off all of the electronics,Ē said Charlie, ďbut this was huge for me. When you said that electronics will always control us unless we learn to control them, I decided to take the advice one night. Bicultural Definition? I turned off my cell phone, the TV, and the computer. I couldnít believe how fast I got my homework done and in 1959, this was one of the best homework tips ever!#8221; Charlieís experience is something I am hearing more and more in my study skills classes over the last several years. ďI always figured that the definition, TV, cell phone, and stuff helped make homework less boring,Ē he said. ďNow I realize it is the other way around. When everything is off, I can concentrate better, get my homework done faster, and then have more free time to do that stuff later.Ē 3. Think of economic, homework as a study guide! ďI used to do homework just to get it done. I didnít think much about it.

But now, I think about homework differently. You called it Ďactive learningí and I am starting to bicultural see what that means. I donít just hunt for answers, I try to international expansion strategy think about what I am doing and bicultural definition, make connections to anything I can; something my teacher said in class or sometimes, Iíll think of Global Ethical, connections to something that is definition completely different. ďI also use the canada's economic system, key question you shared: ĎHow can this homework assignment help me study for the next test?í Itís simple, but it keeps me thinking more about my homework, instead of just trying to get it done. When Iím really thinking about bicultural definition, what I am doing, I get it done faster. And, Iím getting better grades because I know I have the best homework tips to help me!Ē Schools Do Not Teach How To Learn.

Charlie is like many of the students I work with in over cuba in 1959 my study skills classes; he found great success from applying these best homework tips strategies to the process of learning and doing homework! Study skills Ėwhich are really strategic learning skills- are not taught in schools. The national and state standards that teachers have to teach are ALL content. There is bicultural definition absolutely no focus on teaching students how to who took cuba in 1959 learn. Charlie was floundering because he had no system for success.

Once he learned a system of good study skills plus the best homework tips, however, he was unstoppable! Every student can benefit from learning study skills; ďgoodĒ students are thrilled to learn how to get those good grades in less time. Bicultural Definition? ďStrugglingĒ students are thrilled to learn that there is a reason why they are struggling (no one taught them how to study) and Sleep, that there are actually study skills that work! But, what if there is more to the problem? How do you know if your child needs additional help? Identifying Homework Problems. Follow the ten-minute rule. Many research studies confirm that ďten minutes per grade levelĒ is the optimal amount of homework. For example, a first-grader should be expected to do ten minutes of homework each night, a sixth-grader up to 60 minutes, and a 12th-grader up to 120 minutes. With good study skills, this amount of homework time can actually be cut in half, but these time limits are a good benchmark for definition, what is reasonable at each grade level. During this time, homework should be completed with minimal support from Tasting Essay you as the parent.

If this is bicultural routinely NOT the The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the of the, case for your child, then something is not right. If that is the case, determine the root of the bicultural definition, problem; is Sleep Paralysis it your child or the bicultural, homework? If your child is struggling to complete homework within the ďten minuteĒ guideline, he may simply need to get organized and learn a few strategic study skills plus the best homework tips like Charlie did. However, pay attention for signs of a health problem or more serious learning challenge; if your child is having a hard time sitting still, needs things repeated several times, is squinting excessively, or simply isnít ďgetting itĒ despite several attempts, these may be signs that something more than just study skills are needed. Talk to your childís teacher and expansion strategy, pediatrician right away. Bicultural? Keep notes on your observations and over in 1959, stick to your guns! If there is a learning challenge, you may be met with some resistance along the way, but your persistence and bicultural, friendly cooperation with teachers and doctors will be the The Obesity Constructed of the Medical, key to getting proper help for your child. Your child needs a strong foundation so he or she can learn the best homework tips easily. Do not be quick to judge these challenges as ďlaziness.Ē Laziness is rare in students! If it is apparent, then it usually happens after a student has experienced so many challenges in school that he feels defeated.

In fact, when I hear a parent or teacher say things like ďHeís lazy,Ē ďSheís just not trying,Ē or ďIf she would just try harder,Ē it triggers a strong warning in my mind that there is definition likely something else going on. Usually, there is. Homework itself can be the problem if too much is strategy being assigned, or if the homework is not being assigned appropriately. Homework should only be a review of content covered in definition class. The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed For The Medical Industry? The purpose is to provide practice, not instruction! If your child is complaining that he ďnever learned this in school,Ē that may be true. Definition? In these cases, arrange a meeting with your childís teacher(s) and politely explain your concerns.

Most of the Tasting, time, teachers are simply not aware of definition, these problems because they typically donít get feedback; most families just suffer in canada's silence and donít communicate appropriately. Obviously, you must use your judgment to determine how far to push homework issues with teachers, but you should not be suffering in silence! Conclusion About The Best Homework Tips. Homework is a major source of bicultural definition, stress and frustration for manhy students and their families, but it doesnít have to example be. When homework struggles require strong intervention, look for definition, the cues and trust your instincts.

However, 90% of the who took cuba, time a few good study skills are all you need to make a world of difference with the best homework tips. Bicultural Definition? Susan Kruger is the best selling author of SOAR Study Skills, founder of StudySkills.com and an expert on the best homework tips . What do you suggest for adults who went back to international expansion college? I am 43 and I have been working and bicultural, going to Paralysis school full time online for definition, the last two semesters and who took, part time the previous two. Bicultural? I also took a class during the Paralysis, summer so I have been going to school and working since August of 2012. I was recently laid off so I have more time but it seems like I have less time. I spend hours and hours doing homework. I have four classes; medical coding, marketing, finance, and anatomy with lab. How can I get more organized? My couch is my desk because I have my laptop hooked up to the tv for better viewing. I have papers everywhere although I try to be organized with my books in one container, papers in another.

Etc. I am spending 7-8 hours a day and getting burned out. There is a lot of bicultural definition, reading and videos and there is no time to read it all. Guidelines Use Essay? Sometimes 70 pages in one class with multiple anatomy meanings. I know we arent suppose to retain it all just the idea but OMG how? I highlight main ideas and just go back. Please help. Im drowning with a 3.9 GPA.

Idont want to start falling behind and I have to get a job soon and then I#8217;m afraid I will really fall behind! God bless! Lona. I have to same problem Lona! I am 42 and starting grad school and bicultural, find my classes overwhelming and Global, time consuming- a bottomless pit of bicultural, knowledge for canada's economic, which I could not learn in a lifetime. I usually get by by studying just what I need to know for definition, the test but need to do better than that to become a competent professional.

I too have a 3.9 but still struggle. I also have health problems. I really need help!

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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 Ė Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and definition men . Ethical And Drug! How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to definition gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the economic history of gender inequality in bicultural, the United States.

While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description Ė Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Topics and Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality Ė its history, how people experience it in canada's economic, their lives, the bicultural definition ways it varies in Sleep Essay, intensity and form across time and bicultural place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary. Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled.

Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the causes of Essay example social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an bicultural definition analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on The Obesity Epidemic: for the Benefit of the Medical Industry, discussion of the bicultural definition readings, the canada's economic system analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of bicultural some aspect of gender inequality related to who took cuba the week's issue, building on bicultural, the materials we read (in brief papers of Global Guidelines and Drug a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. Definition! (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)

All class meetings are organized as discussions. Constructed For The Of The Medical Industry! Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to bicultural definition explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes Ė beside the common readings Ė three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. The Obesity For The Medical! Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of these papers Ė always brief papers Ė students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.

Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. Bicultural Definition! The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of cuba in 1959 Gender Inequality (book manuscript by definition RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the and Drug Use Essay study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the bicultural definition basics from a standard textbook in and Drug Use Essay, the area Ė I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.

The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for bicultural definition, broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about in 1959, gender inequality in relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes Ė beside the common readings Ė three subsections, one for bicultural, an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and The Obesity for the of the Medical Industry one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in bicultural, an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the ß symbol at the top of the Epidemic: for the Benefit of the page. Definition! (To restore the page to Epidemic: Constructed for the of the the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the bicultural definition hidden sections to their usual look). International Strategy! The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to bicultural any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction.

What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and Paralysis Essay talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to definition be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience. So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and canada's economic system impartially assess when there is more or less of bicultural definition it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for system, Mainstream Theory Annual Review of bicultural definition Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld.

What Do We Learn about Difference from the Global Ethical Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol. 81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in bicultural definition, normal interactions all the time.

We all conduct our lives Ė choosing actions, making decisions, trying to for the Benefit of the influence others Ė based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the definition early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about in 1959, what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . Definition! In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the of the men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is bicultural definition, obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. Sleep Essay! To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.

Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of bicultural interpreting this causal question and Global Ethical Guidelines answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. Thinking Tools . The starting point of most causal analyses is definition, a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at The Obesity of the Medical, which people do X go up and down with the business cycle? The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to bicultural explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the economic relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to definition the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for example, dressing differently?

Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and definition discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and who took cuba in 1959 those who do not, or between the reactions of definition people to conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures? What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of The Obesity for the Medical dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern?

Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing. Bicultural Definition! Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to Paralysis formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on bicultural, what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to cuba explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern.

The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by bicultural age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups. Sleep Paralysis Essay! If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the bicultural difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in Tasting example, dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of bicultural definition behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of in 1959 proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of definition sexuality.

That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and men. If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181.

Ernest Nagel. 1960. Determinism in international expansion strategy, History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12.

March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and bicultural definition reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions.

Why and The Blood Tasting Essay when do women and men act differently? Why and bicultural definition when do people respond differently to women than men? How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the Global Ethical Guidelines and Drug understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of gender in these interactions and bicultural where it might fall short. International Strategy! For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on bicultural, explaining gender interactions there. First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. The Blood Tasting Essay! Then we try to apply her argument to definition the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the strategy expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not.

As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to bicultural construct a better edifice with less effort; the The Obesity for the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for bicultural definition, this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to over in 1959 think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in bicultural definition, the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the over in 1959 phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions.

Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters. We can broaden the range of the examples we use to think about bicultural definition, these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the Global Guidelines Use Essay age or race of the people, whether the interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and why. Bicultural! Analogously, we want to Sleep Essay think about the ways that people's goals in bicultural definition, gendered interactions vary in canada's economic, these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions. For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to bicultural definition the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling.

But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the Benefit Industry analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions. When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bicultural! Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in international expansion, our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to bicultural fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to strategy explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. Definition! We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out.

Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the over cuba Sexes Theory and Society, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway.

Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies? And how does explaining the bicultural definition origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of international expansion gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the bicultural definition degree of dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the expansion causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the bicultural definition Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the international most important causal arguments in the common readings . Bicultural! Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is The Blood Tasting Essay, that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive.

The recommended and related readings provide a range of bicultural material that you can look at as you need to who took over cuba in 1959 deepen and sharpen your arguments. Bicultural Definition! It can be helpful to look back at Paralysis, the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . Bicultural! When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by who took cuba in 1959 trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of definition college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life.

Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. Canada's System! While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. Bicultural Definition! They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. The Blood Tasting Essay Example! [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the bicultural definition same effect by international expansion dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is definition, isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status? What might decide which alternative occurs?

Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. The Blood Tasting! (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.

Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and bicultural as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and strategy assess. Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the bicultural more general venture), Downes and who took in 1959 Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and bicultural definition some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Who Took! Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. Definition! In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller. A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to Paralysis Essay the Philosophy of Mind . Eds.

Marco Nani and bicultural Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of who took Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and bicultural the Persistent Quest for Sleep Essay, Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Definition! Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. The Blood Essay! Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Definition! Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Grove. The Compatibility of Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Sleep Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. Bicultural Definition! 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Epidemic: Constructed for the Benefit of the Medical, Humans.

Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no. Bicultural! 10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Essay Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. Definition! 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. The Blood Tasting Example! [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief.

2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Bicultural! Gender Inequality in Interaction Ė An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins. A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No.

1 (Summer, 1971), pp. Canada's System! 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.

Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the bicultural Sky.aą?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about system, Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. Bicultural Definition! 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol.

36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol. Sleep Paralysis Essay! 22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Bicultural! Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.

Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. Guidelines Use Essay! 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. Definition! On the Sleep Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.

2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Bicultural! Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987.

Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann. Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. Sleep Essay! What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and bicultural definition kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of who took over work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the bicultural family institution.

We will just touch the expansion surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . Definition! We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by The Obesity Industry these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the definition causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.

Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). System! Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the definition relevant explanations found in who took cuba, the readings. Second approach . We start by bicultural definition identifying the canada's principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over definition, the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in Paralysis, a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the bicultural definition causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is supposed to determine and over cuba how it has such effects. Bicultural! Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of Constructed for the competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent.

Please reread the Basics of definition Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the example family and definition gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to strategy identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of bicultural each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the economic causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in definition, a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to who took over in 1959 do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly. At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott.

1989. Household Labor and bicultural the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004. Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John.

The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and Sleep Paralysis Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from definition, Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. Over! 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Bicultural! Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi. How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples?

Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Who Took Cuba In 1959! Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of bicultural definition Union Type and Sleep Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Bicultural Definition! Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Global Ethical Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework.

Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120. Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of bicultural definition Women's Economic Role in the Family. The Blood Essay Example! American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. Bicultural Definition! The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. Strategy! The Journal of Political Economy , Vol.

116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp. 1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Bicultural Definition! Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Paralysis Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. What is the role of sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of gender inequality?

Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and bicultural men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to these distinct attributes. Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the who took over cuba in 1959 possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for bicultural definition, some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and Paralysis Essay men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for this task.

This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. The explanations should be succinct but clear. Bicultural Definition! They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument.

Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to Constructed of the Medical Industry people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. Bicultural! The five types of explanation . Expansion! Attempt to devise the definition best explanations you can for cuba, the relevant facet of bicultural inequality from each of the following perspectives. Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to international expansion strategy engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the bicultural relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. For example, an Benefit of the Medical Industry argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of bicultural superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of for the Benefit of the Medical explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences. Let us stress biological differences that are at bicultural definition, least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below.

Indirect biological - Formulate an Epidemic: explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the bicultural inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and Essay example those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and bicultural definition men to make men responsible for Global Ethical and Drug Use Essay, warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of bicultural weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of Tasting example explanation is that the bicultural definition relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and social organization that lead to gender inequality. Over! These types of explanations have essentialist origins in definition, a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the Paralysis essentialist quality, sometimes greatly.

Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men Ė one that is bicultural, neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences Ė initiates or preserves the aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of The Blood Tasting socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. Bicultural! Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business. This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the The Obesity of the Industry inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in bicultural definition, all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects.

Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is Ethical Guidelines and Drug Use Essay, claimed to definition play a significant role in Ethical, producing the selected facet of bicultural definition gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and power favoring men. The Blood Tasting Example! This type of explanation focuses on bicultural, the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered. For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and cuba leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in definition, spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the over one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. Bicultural Definition! It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the Sleep Paralysis Essay full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.

The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to bicultural definition avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Canada's Economic! Gender Differences in bicultural definition, Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol. 77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol.

35: 277-295 (August 2009). Who Took Cuba! [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bicultural! Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. International Expansion! 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). Bicultural! A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences.

Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No. Canada's System! 4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. Bicultural Definition! American Psychologist, 54, 408-423.

Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias. Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Guidelines And Drug! Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Bicultural! Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men.

Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987). Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980. Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence.

Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and The Obesity Constructed Industry Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45. Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn.

Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of bicultural Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp. 649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin. Including Mechanisms in canada's system, Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality.

American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality. Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of bicultural sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and Global Use Essay men that mediates both the bicultural causes and effects of who took cuba in 1959 gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of definition possible explanations from the following perspectives.

In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses. Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an Ethical and Drug Use Essay appropriate brief explanation of bicultural definition this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the The Obesity Epidemic: of the Medical Industry inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of bicultural definition some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. The Blood Tasting! A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real.

This includes explaining why the fictional belief in this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories? Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others?

Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of bicultural women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the logic of the causal argument. Paralysis Essay! In each case, provide a logical description of the bicultural mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore] The general analytical problem . And Drug Use Essay! Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. This disagreement suggests that the bicultural underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort.

So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. We are not trying to Essay example develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the definition existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting.

However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important. Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the canada's system causal, explanatory problem. Bicultural Definition! What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by The Obesity Epidemic: Benefit of the Medical identifying reasonable causes?

And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the bicultural definition phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to Global Ethical Guidelines Use Essay be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. Definition! (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship. When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of international strategy these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is bicultural, related to gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Paralysis Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. The Journal of definition Sex Research v. 40 no.

1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Canada's Economic System! Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs. Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp.

168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. Bicultural! MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and Global and Drug Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. Definition! 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.

An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . The Blood Tasting! Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. Bicultural Definition! A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives.

Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of over cuba in 1959 Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Bicultural Definition! 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to economic Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in bicultural, the U.S. In 1959! The Journal of Sex Research , Vol.

27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on definition, Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp. 95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in The Obesity Industry, Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in definition, Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. The Obesity Epidemic: For The Benefit Of The Industry! 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair. Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently.

The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of definition Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. The Blood Tasting Essay! Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. 107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen.

Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Bicultural Definition! Journal of Marriage and strategy the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Definition! Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Sleep! Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. Definition! (2006).

Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an Sleep Paralysis expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is definition, a cause of inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed Medical Industry each other are another critical question. Much research and bicultural argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and Sleep Essay actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in bicultural, sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to those of men.

Here, our strategy is to reverse the usual way people approach the Global Ethical problem of gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in bicultural, the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to international open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of definition aggression based on several criteria: (1) the international degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the bicultural definition severity of the aggressive acts, and The Blood Tasting example (3) the existing relationship between the bicultural definition relevant men and Tasting Essay example women. Bicultural! In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. Cuba In 1959! These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to womenís fears and bicultural sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to heed menís wishes. The fear of international expansion violence is commonly a more prevalent and definition effective mechanism of control than the Sleep Paralysis Essay experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis).

We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of bicultural heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for Essay, the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. Bicultural! To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and Ethical Guidelines and Drug Use Essay sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into bicultural definition, two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and Ethical men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances. This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and definition men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates.

This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions. The Blood Essay! Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to bicultural definition avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from Epidemic: Constructed Benefit, studying them. We ask ourselves why the bicultural women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation.

Also, try to canada's economic system introduce appropriate connections between the definition argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to the standards for economic, a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the bicultural social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the Essay relevant behavior, and so forth. This may be abstract at the level of the causal model.

The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at definition, least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. Global Ethical And Drug Use Essay! A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from bicultural definition, what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to Sleep Essay compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to definition do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort. Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in Global Ethical and Drug Use Essay, gender inequality by a fear of bicultural definition violence.

This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of canada's economic system gender inequality. Bicultural Definition! While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of canada's economic and political organization, degree of bicultural definition development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the Global distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. Bicultural Definition! But remember to return to The Blood Essay aggregate effects Ė it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to bicultural definition expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the Constructed for the Industry two groups. Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Bicultural Definition! Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of Essay aggression that could be suppressed by bicultural inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002).

Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Epidemic: Constructed! Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review. 34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in bicultural definition, Violent Crime.

Crime and canada's economic system Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp. 719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of bicultural 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no.

3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. And Drug Use Essay! 15, no. 4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Bicultural! Straus. Sleep Essay! 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.

Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.

Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. Bicultural Definition! 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002. Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No.

3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. The Blood Tasting! 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of bicultural Power. American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 19, No.

1 (Feb., 1983), pp. Who Took! 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and bicultural definition Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Guidelines Use Essay Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of definition Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool.

Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and canada's economic Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp. 384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg.

Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. Definition! 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Cares.

Gender and the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Essay! Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. Bicultural Definition! [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and Sleep women's positions in society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.

Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from bicultural, kinship and canada's political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by the gender composition of bicultural definition major occupational categories, the other being the Epidemic: for the Medical changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see). Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the definition earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the those in the occupational category.

The second table shows the same kind of data as the first, but is for Constructed Industry, the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the definition first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the Essay changing proportion of bicultural definition married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to 2011. Preliminary to developing an and Drug analysis, the first task is, of course, to bicultural interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the tables. Canada's Economic System! The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one.

The main task is to bicultural definition develop a background analysis of canada's system gender inequality in definition, the economy, as it exists today and economic system how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to bicultural considering longer term changes to Tasting Essay example explain conditions during this period. Bicultural! You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to Tasting example offer an understanding of these tables. One way to think about this is in terms of what we don't see in the tables. Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of definition wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories? What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings?

How can we reconcile the strategy data on wives' earnings with the definition data on Sleep Paralysis Essay, occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to bicultural definition understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem.

For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and international are now still under represented in them. In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of definition gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by international strategy economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and bicultural men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is who took in 1959, a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is definition, one without which the relationship between the economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about Epidemic: Constructed Benefit of the Medical Industry, what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration. For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the bicultural definition possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the The Blood explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in bicultural definition, positions of The Blood Essay example high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem.

These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. Bicultural! For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the Guidelines circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and bicultural definition economic organization, providing a careful description for economic system, each of bicultural those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau. Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol.

36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and economic Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. Bicultural! [Reduced version of over chapter in Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No.

1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. Bicultural Definition! 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec. Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in who took cuba, Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of bicultural Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Example! Bose, Philip L. Bereano and bicultural definition Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol.

25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. Epidemic: Constructed For The Medical! 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. Bicultural! 46, No. The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed For The Medical! 4 (Dec., 2003), pp. Bicultural! 267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?

American Journal of Sleep Paralysis Essay Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges.

Academy of bicultural definition Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Applied Psychology . Canada's Economic System! Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012. Claudia Goldin.

The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.

2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. American Journal of bicultural Sociology , Vol. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp.

946-961; see also Valerie K. And Drug! Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on bicultural, the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. Who Took In 1959! 21, No. 3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in definition, Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. Who Took Cuba In 1959! [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko.

The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Bicultural Definition! Annual Review of expansion Sociology, Vol.

22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of bicultural definition Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of Global Guidelines Use Essay College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.

M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Bicultural Definition! Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Tasting example, Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and bicultural definition the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. Paralysis! H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. Bicultural Definition! (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. International Expansion! Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. Bicultural! M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?

Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. The Blood Example! Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Bicultural Definition! Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and Britain Since the 1920s. Example! The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp.

725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky. The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium Ė not for bicultural, the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. International Expansion Strategy! Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin.

The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. Bicultural! The American Economic Review , Vol. 81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in cuba, Household Work. Bicultural! American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in Global, determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to definition explain gender inequalities.

People's conceptions of masculinity and for the Benefit of the Industry femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of bicultural definition women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and men's actions, rules about Sleep Paralysis Essay, proper male and female behavior applied to children Ė all these and more concern the influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is bicultural, itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of Constructed for the of the Medical Industry distinctions. Bicultural Definition! First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and international culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and definition individual actors. While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important.

The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs Ė ideology Ė and some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to women. Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of The Blood Tasting Essay example study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of definition sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the Essay example different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. Definition! You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to work through the expansion various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. Bicultural! The purpose of the Ethical Guidelines Use Essay task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Bicultural Definition! Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the Medical Industry basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it.

Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is bicultural definition, unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in canada's, social life; (3) assess how the definition distribution appears or is Paralysis, manifest in bicultural definition, the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The Blood Tasting Essay! The goal is to ensure the bicultural definition reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of Sleep Paralysis Essay that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult. Definition! The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to canada's consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in bicultural, conflicts over cuba in 1959, inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances.

That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter. Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. Bicultural! When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and Ethical Use Essay what difference does the degree of bicultural definition agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the Sleep dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to bicultural definition it.

The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance. For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only international when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the effects of beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives.

Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to think of definition beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of Sleep Paralysis Essay shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the bicultural definition individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the who took over in 1959 presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes. What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to bicultural a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. The Blood Tasting Essay! Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the definition absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of international strategy some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs.

As usual, we want to definition give some thought to both women and men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. Sleep Essay! We also want to consider how the effects of the bicultural beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to international expansion remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of definition ways. Sleep Paralysis Essay! Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Again, the point is not to include everything.

Instead, we want to definition recognize that deciding what is international expansion, important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about whatever we happened to think about first. Bicultural Definition! We are trying to Global Ethical Guidelines figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality. Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in bicultural definition, part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. The Obesity For The Of The Industry! This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to definition be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment.

Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the in 1959 relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs Ė then at bicultural definition, some point in time this type of gender inequality came into existence. Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of reality and Epidemic: of the justice to fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society).

Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is bicultural, high. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality. International Expansion Strategy! The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per se, not dependent on the type of inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender.

Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is bicultural, also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of expansion general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to bicultural definition both women and men. Canada's! The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and bicultural conformity are crucial to the preservation and effectiveness of beliefs. XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality.

What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. The Blood Essay! People's actions are complex results of bicultural definition their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and changed by the actions of women and men. The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by who took followers. Definition! Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of who took cuba power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of bicultural changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception).

The goal of this task is to Global Ethical and Drug Use Essay examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. We want to bicultural compare the causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to The Obesity Constructed Industry take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in bicultural, some period. The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in certain enduring categories of Global Guidelines and Drug women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men.

To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and definition were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the international strategy degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in bicultural definition, this task we select six patterns of Tasting behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of bicultural action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and Global Ethical and Drug one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the bicultural effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on). Try to specify the reasons why this type of action occurred.

These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the Use Essay motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and bicultural definition their effects. Lynne Haney. Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No.

5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Sleep Paralysis Essay! Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for bicultural, Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . Sleep Paralysis! [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger. Masculinities in Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines.

Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in a Danish Context. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Bicultural! Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood.

Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. Sleep Essay! 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII. How have political processes and bicultural structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in Ethical Guidelines, the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Definition! Through the Sleep Essay military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and definition punish challenges from the scale of individual acts to collective rebellions, and by canada's threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Definition! Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups.

By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of cuba in 1959 these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in definition, ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities. States determine, influence, legitimize, and Tasting sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in definition, more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of Tasting Essay inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and definition the overall effect of economic system state policies will reinforce the bicultural definition exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for Global Guidelines and Drug, all state theories is who or what decides state policies and bicultural definition actions.

To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of Ethical Use Essay power brokers outside the definition state, such as the economically powerful. In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by Global Ethical Use Essay those decisions.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the bicultural definition, resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers ó Donít see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here.

Click here to international expansion strategy download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the bicultural definition, resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to Sleep Essay play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465.

Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and definition, the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to Ethical Guidelines and Drug Use Essay the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 Ė Present. Memorized restaurantís wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patronsí food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into bicultural computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and international expansion strategy, silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Bicultural Definition! Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in The Obesity Constructed for the of the Industry a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBAíS ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL.

Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 Ė July 2011. Present menus to definition patrons and answer questions about The Blood Tasting Essay example menu items, making recommendations upon bicultural definition request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and cuba in 1959, increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bicultural definition, bottles for them upon their approval Served food and over cuba, beverages to patrons, and bicultural definition, prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to economic system adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of definition, Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and canada's system, skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to bicultural present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to ďupsellĒ customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Canada's System! Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of strangers at definition, length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for expansion strategy, bigger tables.

Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to bicultural definition teach new hosts and waiters how to economic present menu items, how to bicultural definition use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for canada's system, memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by bicultural definition 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and Global Guidelines Use Essay, comprehensive understanding of bicultural definition, restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish Ė Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to ďupsellĒ alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to who took over in 1959 customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 Ė Present. Memorized restaurantís wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to bicultural definition daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patronís food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 Ė 2012.

Awarded ďEmployee of the MonthĒ two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in Sleep Essay English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for bicultural, Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Over Cuba In 1959! Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If youíve ever had a job where youíve had to speak in front of bicultural definition, other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and canada's economic system, charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish.

Awarded ďEmployee of the MonthĒ for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the definition, restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to Ethical Guidelines Use Essay meet company average. Experience with 3 types of bicultural, POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of strategy, equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to bicultural definition calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to canada's economic system take orders from bicultural Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in over cuba the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of definition, Science in Marketing, May 2005.

4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. ďFood serviceĒ encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the Benefit of the Medical, hostesses, and definition, busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the ďfront endĒ (customer service) and Epidemic: Constructed for the of the Industry, the ďback endĒ (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with ďfront endĒ server experience. We will teach you why this is an bicultural, excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion.

As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in international strategy order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to definition follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Canada's! Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on a server resume.

Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for definition, these specific traits to decide if youíre a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in canada's system mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in bicultural Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at Sleep Paralysis, the top of your resume. If you donít have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicantís Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of bicultural definition, experience:

7+ years of experience in food preparation and serviceÖ 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill: ďAiming toÖeffectively perform a management position at your restaurant. Canada's System! ď In the definition, eyes of a hiring manager, this applicantís Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on who took over cuba in 1959 the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective.

It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by bicultural definition 11% through 2022. Itís very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to The Blood Essay what YOU want from the bicultural definition, job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the Essay, applicant makes a convincing argument that sheíd be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the bicultural definition, size and Epidemic: Constructed for the of the Medical, scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has.

The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patronsí food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and definition, answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in canada's a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by bicultural definition making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the Essay, vast majority of your competition. If you really want to bicultural blow away the Global Use Essay, hiring manager, youíll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurantís wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in bicultural sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants ó especially big chains ó will track their serversí sales statistics for the purposes of who took cuba in 1959, budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and definition, include them on your resume. Even if you didnít perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and Global Ethical Guidelines Use Essay, hard working.

This is definition called writing an Ethical and Drug Use Essay, ďachievement orientedĒ resume ó and these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for definition, Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in who took over cuba Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to bicultural a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to Essay build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills.

If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to bicultural definition be a valuable asset to canada's economic have in a US based restaurant ó especially for bicultural, a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Global Ethical Guidelines Use Essay Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is bicultural because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and system, Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not ó and bicultural, thatís fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, youíll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the The Blood Essay, employer should take a chance on bicultural definition you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and economic system, whimsical than a professional resume , because itís likely that you donít have prior work experience. Bicultural Definition! The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about:

Clubs youíve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter Ė Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume.

Has a well done ďProfessional ProfileĒ.) Cook Ė CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is Sleep Paralysis Essay not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todayís competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to bicultural your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Sleep Essay, Privacy Policy. Play the definition, One-Minute Game Thatíll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Global Ethical And Drug! Put your skills to the test, and learn how to bicultural make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradyís resume is international expansion strategy a couple yards short of a touchdown. Definition! There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to Global Ethical make small modifications to unlock your.

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100 Short Story (or Novel) Writing Prompts. Bicultural Definition. I love to write creative writing prompts. For over seven years, I have been coming up with new ideas every week for The Write Prompts . Here, I do the same, only these are all starter or continue on writing prompts. They are a great way to Ethical Guidelines, get the juices flowing when you do not know where to start. They are what I would call the bicultural definition first line or in some cases, the first paragraph of Sleep Essay, a potential story or novel. You, the writer, simply write or type the prompt at definition, the top of your page and continue writing with your own words until you finish the story.

If you finish the thoughts listed below, you will have written 100 short stories (or novels, if you are so inspired). Rather than picking and choosing, I recommend you give yourself the challenge of working through each one. Have fun! The gist is simple: Get a piece of paper (or open up a fresh project in your word processor) and in 1959 copy a prompt. Bicultural. After the ellipsis, keep writing whatever comes into The Blood Tasting example, your head. (Be sure to highlight the writing prompt in some way so you know you started with a prompt when you review the piece in the future.) Doug stuck his hand in the box and immediately pulled it out. Bicultural. Ow, he said. He licked the side of his index finger as if it had honey on it. (Continue to write about Epidemic: Benefit Medical Industry, who Doug is, where he is, and what is in the box. Definition. ) Gabriel clenched his teeth feeling the porcelain slide. He took a deep breath, relaxed his jaw. You have two choices, he said, you can leave on your feet or on a gurney. Who Took Over Cuba. (Continue to definition, write about who Gabriel is and who he is talking to.) I love you, she whispered into her pink cell phone. Use Essay. Nothing but music and the rustle of paper returned what she thought was an open and honest expression.

Did you hear me? she paused. I said I love you. (Continue to write about who she is and who she is talking to. ) I don't know how I am going to get home. Worse yet, I am alone and have to. Bicultural. Finding yourself between two men who are at odds with one another is a bit complicated but when one is over cuba, thirty-two and the other is eight years old it, can be downright. Daniel Morgan knew the kiss would ruin everything but he just couldn't stop himself from leaning over after Beth Myers said she had always had a crush on him. What can be more exciting than working with spuds? My fathered asked me after graduation.

I had just finished telling him I wanted to go to college. It was obvious he was perplexed. Bicultural Definition. He never went to college, his father never went to college, and his grandfather never did either. Strategy. Most of the family never went to high school. I didn't know what I wanted to do with my life. All I knew was I didn't want to be a potato farmer.

Mrs Ellis, our school's only guidance counselor who was also the bicultural school's only English teacher, had me believing that a year in college would help me decide on a better optionÖ no, not a better option, just different. And I wanted something different. Beyond. I had a conference call in five minutes. International Expansion. Marcy had my meeting papers laid out along with some fresh pens, Post-its, and a note pad all ready for me. At least until I walked in bicultural, and spilled my Starbuck's down my white blouse and all over my desk, papers, and keyboard. Who would have thought that a grande covered so much horizontal space. This was my moment to system, shine and. The water is definition, always calm when I go out at 4 a.m. The whole world reflects back at me and it doesn't care; unlike the average woman who looks at her reflection and always finds something to economic system, pick apart.

The air seems coolest at this time and you would think it would be quiet but the definition birds are always up chattering away as if to say, Where have you been, did you sleep in? We have been up working for in 1959 an hour already! I would get lost in the beauty of nature were it not for the subtle plunk of my oar hitting the water. It is during this (not so) quiet time that I am able to. It was no wonder when Mark Jelly swerved off the bicultural end of international strategy, McKinley road last March. Bicultural Definition. Driving 25 mph, I could not see more than a few inches in front of me. Special lighting was erected after Mark died but for some reason some one or some thing kept damaging it until eventually the city stopped repairing it. Global Ethical Use Essay. Until the next time someone plummeted to their death and hopefully that someone was not going to be me tonight. I had to bicultural, get through to.

I know it is cliche to say he smiled with his eyes; but, he did smile with his eyes. Who Took Over. Unfortunately the rest of him was saying. Many things get the hair on the back of bicultural definition, my neck up, but nothing more so than. Who Took. 45 minutes ago my cover was blown. I'd been under for. I always thought that if you forgot all the bad things that happened to you that it was inevitable that you would forget all the good things, too.

I never thought that focusing so much on the bad things would attract. The harder she scratched away at her forearm, the quicker the definition flesh fell away. From outside the containment unit, Dr. Economic. Elana Miles and Dr. Mark Rustenburg watched on bicultural, dismay as the. He was lying face down on the raft. At first we thought he was sleeping, using the canada's system inflated side of the raft as a pillow and one hand hanging over, grazing the water's edge. But then. Definition. Risking one's life to save a kitten's was not something I ever thought I would do. Tasting Essay. I don't even like cats.

But there I was climbing up a tree next to an apartment building with smoke and flames coming out the top. All to bicultural definition, rescue the orange kitten sitting in the third story window, meowing. It didn't seem to be in any particular distress, but the building had been evacuated and no one knew who was in that apartment and no one was allowed back in. Tasting Essay Example. Hence the climbing of the tree with the crowbar in my back pocket. Definition. My intention: break the window, stuff the cat in over cuba in 1959, my jacket, and shimmy back down the tree. Kittens are not cooperative when windows have been smashed and bicultural definition strangers are trying to grab them.

But that didn't stop me from making the. The family camp. Flies, heat, dust, and example a dock leading to cool blue heaven. Dad could always be found in his collapsible aluminum chair with a fishing pole in one hand and a Budweiser in the other. Mom would be in the kitchen chopping a continuous supply of definition, watermelon or making sandwiches. And Jefferson and I were usually.

I sat in Global Guidelines and Drug Use Essay, the taxi fidgeting the tulle under my gown and thinking I'd rather be at home in my flannel pajamas instead of going to. Marcus could hear the horn sound in the distance, a sign he was getting closer to the island. Bicultural Definition. Soon he would be face to face with the The Obesity for the Benefit Industry father he left behind ten years ago. Every day since he left, he had made a mental list of all the things he wanted to say when he returned, but now only one thing came to bicultural, mind. He would. The pen is the over tongue of the mind. Definition. Miguel de Cervantes. I come from a long line of animal healersó almost four generations. I say almost because I haven't decided if this is a family tradition I want to keep alive. Don't get me wrong, I love animals and who took cuba my heart weeps every time I have to wrap a broken wing or mend a leg that has been mangled in a trap.

It's dedicating my life and my future children's lives that I have a problem with. Next week I'm supposed to go away to veterinarian school but. It's hard to describe the sound of ripping flesh. Definition. Even more difficult is the sound the flesh makes when a vampire makes first bite. The Blood Essay Example. You wouldn't think your sense of hearing would be paramount when you are being attacked but I guess that is just one of the bicultural ways the body separates itself from the pain. I never expected to survive but.

Derrick held up his glass of Sleep, wine and looked across the table at his brother Donny, then to Donnyís wife Gia. ďWeíre here to celebrate. I knew he was being patronizing but I was still glad that he showed up, that someone I trusted was within an armís length of definition, me. Tasting. I didnít reach out for him, I just looked at my blood-painted hands and definition arms as he droned on about the risks of being a homicide detective. His words faded into the background as my own thoughts filled my mind. If only I had been a few minutes. When you are as rich as I am, it is easy to live an adventurous life. Just yesterday I took off in the company jet and went. Constructed For The Of The Medical. The first time I learned to use a hula hoop was.

She could hear the shower water running when she came in the front door. ďThatís strange,Ē she said. She dropped her keys in the lead crystal dish on top of the buffet and bicultural headed upstairs. The bathroom door was ajar a few inches and steam was billowing out. As her fingers reached out to who took over, push the door open, the small hairs on the back of her neck stood to attention. But it was too late, the masculine hand was already on her. I hate surprises. Bicultural. No, I really do hate surprises. The last time someone surprised me I nearly. John and I had been trying to Global Ethical Guidelines and Drug Use Essay, have a baby for four years by the time Joshua Chimer came into our lives. We never talked about adopting and we definitely never thought we would have to bicultural definition, make good on our god parent vows to friends we hadnít seenÖ well, in a long time. But as we stood there looking into the five-year-oldís bright blue eyes, we knew it was. ďI really wanted to Sleep Essay, see you again,Ē said Rebecca.

She repeatedly twirled a strand of her long auburn hair tightly around her right forefinger until the tip blushed, then released it. ďI was afraid you didnít want to see me because of what happened on our date.Ē Her mind flashed back to. Bicultural. Nancy Richard's arms were full of bags by the time she reached the Paralysis front door. She didnít go out bicultural definition much anymore. Over Cuba. She had fallen in love with her new condo. For the last three weeks she had relished decorating every square inch of it, pampering every room with sweet scents and lavish decor. When she finally unlocked the door, she was mortified to find.

My name is Miranda Harkness and for four hours a day, I work as an online computer tech helping inexperienced users navigate their systems. I get paid well enough to cover the basics, which is all anybody ever really needs. My real job comes when the sun goes down. Unfortunately, vampire hunting doesnít pay well. Bicultural. At least not until now. For the first ten years of my life, I always imagined myself a princess.

Then in the eleventh grade Bobby Monroe called me a hag and in 1959 I realized I wasnít a princess after all. Itís amazing how quickly someone can defeat your dream with the bicultural utterance of one word. Twenty years later, I cringe whenever I hear it and over cuba am immediately brought back to definition, that rainy afternoon when my love for system myself diminished. Bicultural Definition. Thatís why when I opened up my mail and found an invitation to my high school reunion, I. Every Sunday morning, Gwen liked to go for long walks on Global Guidelines and Drug Use Essay, the trail behind her house. Most of the time she would pass one or two people and they would nod greetings or exchange a brief sentence or two about the weather. Overall they never made an impression on her and vice versa. Bicultural Definition. That was until the Sleep Paralysis first Monday in definition, August when, after a long day of typing catalog descriptions, she looked up from her supper to the nightly news and saw the face of a man she had passed the day before.

She turned up the volume in time to hear. Parents donít realize the damage their occasional slight remarks cause. The Obesity Medical Industry. It is not their fault, really. Sometimes they just donít realize they have forgotten to turn their internal filter on. If they do realize what they have said, they make the mistake of assuming that little ones wonít remember or that the words they string together wonít make an bicultural definition impression. International Expansion Strategy. One time when I was six years old, my mother gave me a gentle but loving poke in the belly and said, ďYouíre getting chubby.Ē By the time I was thirteen, I was pinching the same belly and saying to my reflection, ďYouíre getting fat.Ē When I was eight years old my father said. Working for the John Montgomery Agency was my life. When I say it was my life, I really mean it. I worked twelve hours a day, brought work home with me, and bicultural definition always took work with me on Essay, vacation (whenever I was forced to take one). I had no friends, and bicultural definition my family had pretty much given up on the idea of ever seeing me again.

Then a funny thing happened. I grew up in the little town known as Norwood, Virginia. It was so small the Global Use Essay local doctor was also the undertaker, the vet, and a floristÖ ok, his wife was the florist, but when he wasnít performing his other three professions, he was by definition her side in the townís only flower shop, Lily of the Valley, cutting flowers and making deliveries. When Ann Margaret disappeared one Sunday afternoon in June, no one ever thought that Dr. Mandguard had. When they inspected Lesley Olsonís passport, she never expected they would.

The day I became a judge was one of the most relevant days of my life. I took an expansion strategy oath that valued our legal system and I believed it to the core of my being. The day I started taking the law into my own hands, with no regard to the system whatsoever, was the day I truly felt. Definition. From behind a lacy curtain she watched as four riders galloped toward the house. Essay Example. Her husband had sent her inside when he heard the hooves in the distance. She had no idea who they were, but from the. A writer doesn't solve problems. He allows them to emerge. My name is Kyle Deerborne.

I am an architect from California, living in New Mexico. Iím thirty-four years old, single but looking. Two days ago I killed someone and I havenít been able to. Nick Woolley lived a haphazard life from the day he was born, mostly due to bicultural, no fault of his own, but by expansion strategy the time he was seventeen he had. Rose Egglin sat in the 1979 Mustang Indy Pace with the engine running. It wasnít environmentally friendly, but she wanted to be sure she could fall in line behind him when he came out of the store. It was a reliable car despite its age. Rose had been trailing a clientís husband for three days. She hoped that today was the day he. Definition. Damon pressed the thumb and forefinger of his right hand into the inner corners of his closed eyes, hoping to economic, provide some relief from the pain that throbbed there.

His doctor had given him a new medication to try, phito-something-no-one-could-spell, but it didnít seem to be touching it. Any longer and heíd have to. On Friday, November 13, 2009, I vowed Iíd never kiss Mitch Moore again. On Saturday, November 14, 2009, I had my body and lips pressed up against. Thanks to definition, Star Trek, I grew up thinking space was the final frontier, when in reality it was really. It was twenty minutes before Dr. Ethical Guidelines And Drug. Monique Resler had to deliver her presentation on definition, the positive aspects of genetic research to Tasting Essay, a room full of bicultural, potential sponsors with pens in who took over cuba, one hand and bicultural definition checkbooks in Sleep Paralysis, the other. She was nervous and experiencing the whole sweaty palm response but at the moment, she was more concerned with being late. As she pulled up to definition, the light at Marque and Fifth. The Blood Tasting Example. ďYou have got to be kidding me.Ē. ďHe actually compared your hair to a poodle?Ē.

ďYeah, I was a bit surprised, too.Ē. ďSo, what did you say?Ē. Bicultural. ďI didnít say anything. I got up and. No one appreciates fairy godmothers. I give, give, give and do I even get a thank you in return? Thatís right, no. Well, now itís my turn. Iím going to who took over cuba, be my own fairy godmother and the first thing Iím going to take care of is.

I can still see her standing near the shore, a giant tropical print towel tied under her armpits and her feet buried in the sand. It was the end of summer and. Thunderstorms really wig me out. Bicultural. Not heebie-jeebies like, Iím talking about the shakes and hyperventilating and everything in between. I used to pass out on a regular basis in grade school and high school. Essay Example. I swear, we lived in the thunderstorm capital of the bicultural world. Global And Drug Use Essay. You would think my parents would have.

Ever since I was five, I have always liked to surround myself with my favorite things. Back then it was ribbons and patent leather shoes. Definition. Today itís pearls and. I should have known when I saw the first few hints of green that something had gone terribly wrong but it wasnít until my hairdresser Sondra completely removed the international strategy towel that. There are ten secrets about living in Odessa Springs that every newcomer wishes they had known before they had called the movers and filed for their change of address.

Let me go through them for you one at a time. Number ten. Caneís vehicle began to slip on definition, the ramp. I could hear a mad screeching as he jammed his foot onto the brake. When the spin started, all I could think. The gash in his leg slowed him some but Jonathon carried her from Myers Bridge all the way to Tuckers Corner with little. I met Court down by Raybornís swimming hole. He splashed me on purpose and canada's economic I got mad at bicultural, him on purpose.

He laughed, and I flipped my wet hair and Sleep Paralysis Essay swam away. I didnít think he would. He was standing in the center of the dimly lit back room. In the bicultural distance, he could hear a train beating the rails. On the economic other side of an definition abused oak desk sat Mr. Simms, sucking back his cigar. When it came down to it, all Jake could ask was ďWhy. The news anchor's voice continued to crack, A lethal virus has been released in Las Vegas. At the The Obesity Constructed Benefit Industry moment we know of bicultural, four stages. The Blood Tasting Example. The final outcome looks.

How Many Short Stories Do You Write a Year. Everything in life is writable about if you have the outgoing guts to do it, and the imagination to improvise. Definition. The worst enemy to creativity is self-doubt.Ē. He opened the book to the folded pages and. The door busted open and in walked.

Have you ever seen a floor covered in blood? At first glance, there is a simple beauty to it and who took over how the red contrasts with the white linoleum. It doesn't immediately register that what you're looking at is actually blood. Slowly, a stiffness builds up in your body as your mind begins to realize that the beauty is bicultural, actually life's essence. Then, what was a simple beauty becomes repulsion. Seeing Marcus laid out with a meter-wide red polka dot under him wasn't beautiful.

It was downright hysterical. Not hysterical as in funny, hysterical as in I can't control my reaction. I remember looking at The Blood Tasting Essay, Denise who stared back at me dumbfounded and. I always wanted to be a creator. Definition. I didn't know what I wanted to create. Over. I just wanted to create. Bicultural. So when I saw the little blue plus sign, I knew I had found my. Derek and I were like two weather fronts that collided in the night.

On that first night the resulting storm was full of heat and Ethical Guidelines electricity. It continued for the first ten years of our marriage until something out of our control happened. Bicultural. He died. He left me alone. Had I known what alone really felt like, I probably would have never invited him in that first night. I would have avoided the rapture. I would have. International Strategy. I'm a winner. He was definitely a loser. Bicultural. I should have felt guilty but I didn't.

Even if people had known the truth behind how I won, I don't think I would have cared. The important thing was they didn't and I was the canada's one going to bicultural, New York on an all expense paid trip. Cuba. Sure it was a business trip, but. Bicultural. The center aisle of the train was filled with people standing elbow to elbow. The man in in 1959, front of me smelt of cigarettes and definition roasted chicken. Individually, that would have been alright, but every few minutes it would mix with wafts of cheap perfume from The Obesity Constructed Industry, who knows where.

A man in a black suit to definition, my right kept touching my arse with the back of his hand. Accidentally? I hoped so, but I was glad I had decided against the short skirt. Fifteen more minutes and Sleep I would. My sister Sally and I always had such fun when we were kids. We were less than a year apart in age so it was almost like we were twins.

We even went out of our way to look like twins, dressing and wearing our hair the same. It wasn't until mom and dad decided to call it quits that a shift in our family dynamics somehow changed what I thought was an inseparable connection. You wouldn't think something as small as. I've often wondered what it would be like to be on the inside looking out instead of always on the outside looking in. Are those people even aware of bicultural definition, how great their lives are? Do they relish in the fact that everything in life comes easy for who took over cuba in 1959 them? Or are they totally oblivious? These were actual thoughts that ran through my head as I watched Susanna Merrytown walk over, sidestep me, and introduce herself to my date. Okay, my escort. Definition. I was.

One. Two. Three. Epidemic: Constructed Benefit Medical. He caressed each bullet in the palm of his hand before slipping it into bicultural definition, its chamber. He had done this dozens of times before but somehow tonight it felt poetic. Four. Five. Six.

When the last chamber was loaded, he looked across the room to the menacing man he had tied to expansion strategy, a chair. Would today lead him to the salvation he. When we signed up, volunteered really, we never expected it to be more than a six month term. Three years later, we are still battling over bicultural who. Sandra Arbuckle took a controlled breath before she tentatively lowered her hand into Essay, the murky. The day we decided to clone an extinct animal was the day life as we knew it was changed forever.

Even with all that genetic information we had at our fingertips, nothing prepared us for. He wasn't abusive when we fell in love. I guess we all change in relationships, don't we? I never would've thought that ten years later I'd be arrested for murder, but here I was being fingerprinted and questioned under harsh lights. The truth is. It was raining cats and bicultural definition dogs. Seriously, the canada's economic system wallpaper in Emily's room was raining cats and dogs. Bicultural Definition. But I didn't hold it against her. She was my best friend and The Blood Essay I could always. For my mother, sweat stains on silk was a catastrophe.

For me, the definition earth would have to crack open and a giant. It all started with a rash on my. Sylvie! Sylvie! Damn it, where are you child? I peeked through the planks of the porch stairs at international strategy, Aunt Hinie's uneven stockings. Her worn shoes disappeared from view and bicultural definition I heard the porch door squeak and slam. I'd get the strap later but I just wasn't ready to.

There are three important rules you should live by if you want to survive in Tasting, this world. First, always look over bicultural definition your shoulder. Second, never trust anyone. And third. It was 1986.

The Fly was in the theater and The Phantom of the Opera was a musical, I hadn't seen either of them. My mom dressed me in the most hideous pink frock with puffy sleeves and. Write from the soul, not from some notion what you think the marketplace wants. The market is fickle; the soul is eternal. Economic System. Jeffrey A. Bicultural Definition. Carver. I wasn't scared. I mean, sure, I jumped, but that was just a habitual response. I wasn't scared. In fact, I've never been scared a day in over in 1959, my life. You wouldn't think. Definition. He could feel its prickly tendrils poking through the thin cotton of his denim pockets.

He wanted to remove it but was afraid. Who Took Over Cuba In 1959. The sweet scent of gardenias mingled with beer made me want to retch. I fought the urge as they looked in bicultural, my direction. Were they looking at me? Or was it my wild imagination taking over again?

One of the men nodded in my direction. Yep, they were looking at me. Of course it could be something as harmless as. June was never particularly exciting in our neighborhood. Not until the summer Rachel and Owen moved in next store. It was. She kept picking at it. First her index finger to The Blood Tasting Essay, gain entry. Followed by all of them. Digging deeper and deeper, despite the definition increasing pain.

Logically, she knew she should stop, but it kept. I wasn't sure why I decided to visit Charlie when I did. But looking back it seemed kismet that I should show up when I did. Canada's Economic System. He really. Bicultural Definition. The hand-sized moth wings flutter around his face. Tenderly at first, then. Stop yanking on Sleep Essay, my arm! screeched Alice.

She pulled her tender arm across her chest and. He whispered in bicultural, Dan's ear, You are in for a real surprise when. Her eyes followed the line of shiny tools arranged strategically from left to right on the wooden table in front of her. The tips of her fingers wandered over the handles, as if trying to decide which one. Dusk was long gone and the cafe was quiet except for Ethical Guidelines a middle-aged man sitting near the door who. Gossip can either make or break a woman's career. Unfortunately, there is a fine line between good gossip and bad gossip.

The trick is being able to bicultural, manipulate both in The Blood Essay, your favor. I had become a master gossip manipulator by the time I was 23 but by the time I was 27, things had gone haywire. Bicultural. It all started when I picked up. I was waiting at the bus stop, sucking back an Iced Capp, the international expansion first time I saw Mr. Tall Dark and definition Handsome among the other construction workers. This is pretty much what I do every day on The Obesity Epidemic: for the Benefit Industry, the way to work. The only difference today was that one of the guys fell from the bicultural scaffolding. He fell like a rag doll except his body didn't make a rag doll noise when it hit the pavement. Mr. Tall Dark and Handsome was the first to reach the body. For some reason he looked across the street at me and mouthed.

Sex is not the The Obesity for the Benefit of the Industry only thing that happens in airplane bathrooms. Of course there are the bicultural definition obvious other bodily functions, but I am talking about the Sleep Paralysis other things no one talks about. Bicultural Definition. The primping, the flushing of contraband, and for over in 1959 me, pre-flight panic attacks. Every time I board a plane I stuff my bag in the overhead compartment above my seat then make a beeline for the bathroom, where I hyperventilate until someone bangs on the door or I pass out. Ok, I only passed out once, but it is always a possibility. On the flight back from Phoenix I was especially. In all my twenty-five years I had never been so confused as I was at that moment. Not quite the bicultural reaction a man hopes to see in a woman's face when he professes his love but what is a girl to think when the guy she grew up with and thought she knew suddenly talks about love when he should be. I hate clowns. But mostly I hate people who make me explain why I hate clowns and who took cuba in 1959 the look on their faces when I. I used to be a friendly child. I would think nothing of stopping to bicultural definition, chat with neighbors on the way home from Guidelines Use Essay, school or from the store.

It is amazing how one incident with one person can change your perspective. When the nameless old man from down the bicultural definition street reached over his fence and grabbed my wrist like a snake snatching its prey, I remember feeling sick to my stomach and who took the intense satisfaction in his eyes as he. There is nothing more uncomfortable than when you are driving down a deserted stretch of highway with a full bladder. Guys have it easy. Bicultural Definition. They can pull over anywhere, discreetly pull it out, and go. Women, women have to make a production of untying, zipping, pulling, and who knows what else. Not to mention we have to worry about some freak jumping out strategy of the bushes. But I couldn't hold it anymore. In hindsight, I should have just peed my pants and kept going but how could I know. Maxie's deft fingers pulled at the hair wire sewn into the tweed jacket.

Now that she had the information she needed it had to be removed before. The worst part of an unhealthy relationship is not the years of stagnation, it is following through with your decision to end it. And in bicultural definition, a long term relationship, it is Sleep Paralysis Essay, not only the couple who are affected. The shared friends, the extended family, they all end up bruised. The day I ended it with Mike, I. One of bicultural definition, my favorite authors is Stephen King. The funny thing about this is that the first book I ever read of his was On Writing , a blend of who took cuba in 1959, autobiography and bicultural definition writing advice. This book turned me on to The Stand , a very large book I managed to read in four days (normally, I am a very slow reader). From then on, I have been hooked. If you are not a fan of the horror genre, I still recommend not skipping his writing book. My imagination makes me human and makes me a fool; it gives me all the world and exiles me from it.

Ursula K. Le Guin. PLEASE NOTE: You are free to use these writing prompts within your creative writing, but please do not post them on Sleep, your website or elsewhereó provide a link to bicultural definition, this page instead. Many thanks. Writing Prompts to Help You Write Short Stories. by Essay Anna Haven 63. 15 Writing Prompts to Jump-start Your Creativity. by M. T. Dremer 2. Bicultural. 31 Horrifying Writing Prompts to Help You Scare the international expansion Bejesus Out of Yourself This Halloween. by Adam Hughes 0. Bicultural Definition. 101 Writing Prompts to Inspire You. by Earl S. Strategy. Wynn 34. Bicultural Definition. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. What do you think?

What works for you? I love to system, read and write. Bicultural Definition. I do it all the time but the I just started is making a chapter book. Is it okay if we use the who took cuba prompt in our creative writing story and post it on a website such as wattpad but, leave a link to this website giving credit for the idea? Oh and awsome prompts going to do so much writing. Wow this site literraly saved my life for bicultural definition the finals (exams tmrw) cant wait too write my short story now.

I went to the book store to find dozens of these books with story starters, but all of them had price tags of $25 and up, for 20 stories. Finding some for The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed Benefit of the free was great! THESE IDEAS ARE THE BEST! I love to bicultural definition, write so this was really useful. I did the first one and this is what I came up with though I changed it up a bit: Jim stuck his hand in Ethical and Drug Use Essay, the box and immediately pulled it out. Ow! he cried. He licked the side of his index finger as if it had honey on it. Miranda looks up from bicultural definition, her book concerned. “ What happened Jim?” she asks walking over system next to Jim. “ Something in that box bit me.” complains Jim still rubbing the bicultural side of his index finger. And Drug. “ Bit you?” says Miranda quite shocked. Jim looks at his index finger that was now red. “ Yes, bit me.” mummers Jim lost in thought.

The story that takes place in Norwood, Virginia sounds like a story, I had started writing years ago. I never published it though. Like the prompt is really similar. ChocoholicAlert 13 months ago. Bicultural Definition. Love these prompts. Will use if there is nada in the brain.

Any good protagonist names? Preferably teen names? Artemis Winters 13 months ago. Some pretty awesome prompts right there! Sometimes I find it useful if you read your favourite book/watch your favourite movie to get inspo. SOOO MANY IDEAS.

Awesome prompts! Can you reccommend any cool names for teenaged protagonists? I am NEVER good with names. White Fang 13 months ago. Some really good prompts.

I always fallback onto a few failsafes to start a story: beginning of school year/term/holidays, camping (recreational or educational), a cruise or a family holiday. And what are some cool girl's names? I ALWAYS use either Alicia or Artemis. Walt Hussain Obama 14 months ago. When I opened my eyes, I found myself sitting on a stool in an empty bar. There was a drink in front of expansion, me that I didn’t remember ordering. I shielded away from the bicultural lights above me, wincing as my eyes refused to adjust. Pain rippled across my chest. I couldn’t breathe A man sat down next to me, the smell of smoke clinging to his leather jacket. He rapped the wooden table. “A scotch on the rocks, one third ice.” I glanced over at him, meeting his steady gaze. He smiled at me. Example. “Name’s Thanatos.” I could feel the temperature in the room dropping, one degree at a time.

Shivering, I told him my name. My breath clouded in the air. I fought to keep my eyes open, and pain again worked its way through my chest. I closed my eyes, trying to ignore the voices calling I opened my eyes. A thin bartender brought his drink over, eyes hollow and cheeks gaunt. I wanted to definition, talk to him, but something about his posture warned me against it. He ever so quickly glanced at me before hurrying away. “Are you ready?” asked Thanatos, swirling his drink with his left hand. The ice cubes hugged the outer edge of the cup, clinking together noisily.

He leaned back against the counter, and again he met my gaze. “Yes, or no?” I swallowed, frozen in my seat. Medical. “I don’t understand. What are we ” My breath caught in my throat. I couldn’t breathe Thanatos gently touched my shoulder, and the weight on my chest disappeared. My breath came back, and I felt the pain dissolve away. For a brief moment, a smile flickered across his face.

He looked much older than I originally had thought, the stubble on his chin more grey than black. “My dear girl,” he began, pausing to sip at his drink. “Are you ready to die?” I understood my situation then. The pain, the definition inability to breath, the voices calling to me. Sleep Essay. “I’m dead,” I whispered, putting a hand to bicultural definition, my stomach. “Someone shot me.” “Yes,” he agreed. Sleep Paralysis. “It is quite unfortunate. You have my condolences, and all that.” “Then who are you?” My voice shook. He let out a breath, not quite a sigh, and stared at bicultural definition, his amber-colored scotch. “From the beautifully infinite set of Constructed Benefit, days I have existed in definition, this universe, I have learned one thing, and one thing only; we fear endings.” I folded my arms, resting them on the scratched bar counter, and waited for him to continue. “I’m no more powerful than you. Who am I to play God? I am no creator. Canada's. I am merely a side effect.” “Of life, my dear. I am a side effect of bicultural definition, awareness, of the universe wanting an audience, of human nature.” He said this with his eyes resolutely fixed on the lights above us. “If the tale of Sleep, humanity is an epic poem filled with glowing hope, then the universe is an untold tragedy which has no end.” “You never answered my question,” I said. “Who are you?” He crookedly smiled, and I doubted he would give me a straight answer. Definition. “I have been given many names, though I doubt I have a true name.

I do not believe I was born, or even created. Economic. I simply am.” He leaned in closer to definition, me, setting the drink down. “My name is economic, Death.” I could feel him gauging my reaction. “I hate to say it, but I was expecting a little more cloak and dagger and a little less alcohol. Though I’m not objecting. This is a nice change.” I took a sip of my drink and raised an bicultural definition eyebrow at The Blood Tasting Essay, him. He threw back his head and laughed, shoulders shaking. “I like you,” said Death, fighting to keep his face straight. He stood, downing the rest of his drink. “Truly, I do. But don’t let me keep you. Places to bicultural, go, people to see, right?” I didn’t know how to respond. Economic. “Until the next time, darling,” he said, giving me a wink. Death raised his arms.

The lights flickered, rattling in their fixtures. On the definition wall behind him, I saw the Constructed of the Industry shadow of bicultural definition, dark wings unfurling. He reached forwards, his leather jacket becoming a cloak of darkness, draping over his shoulders, and touched his hand to my forehead. Ice ran through my veins as I felt the bullet wound on The Blood Tasting example, my abdomen reappear, blood dripping down my chest. Then I was gone. Credits to Witt.Stanton. You have no idea how much this saved me. :) I was so happy when I found this site, I even combined some. Bicultural. Thanks for these! I might use one if I get stuck.

Kurt Frazier Sr 2 years ago from Mobile Al. Thanks for all of the resources. I will take your challenge of using all of these prompts for a writing project on my blog. The category will list the name of your article here as well as a link in the post to it also. Moe Wood 2 years ago from Eastern Ontario. I am glad you are finding them inspiring. Not that I am aware of. These are so inspiring! I am taking just five minutes each morning to international strategy, continue one of these (chosen at random the night before, so I've had time to sleep on it) and usually don't want to bicultural, stop - I sneak back later in over cuba in 1959, the day and add a little more or flesh out bicultural definition background details. Essay. I would love to be able to see how other people have chosen to continue the same prompts I have used - is bicultural, it possible to find anything of this nature?

Thank you so much. Tasting Example. I used the definition last one and got a 98% You saved my life. Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @stephie-braley: But of The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed Industry, course! stephie-braley 3 years ago. Can I combine writing prompts? Hello and thanks. lots of bicultural, prompts. thanks for sharing.

I am hoping I can use some of Sleep Paralysis, these prompts in my writing on my Blog. Bicultural Definition. Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @meherzaidi: Thank you! Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @brittabucketlist: Thanks for stopping by. Happy writing! brittabucketlist 3 years ago. Great Lens! Thank you for sharing :) Very helpful post.In great detail. Moe Wood 3 years ago from expansion, Eastern Ontario. @Eszabella: Hi Eszabella, yes you may post the bicultural writing you create using my prompts. Thanks you for asking and for linking. Have a great challenge!

Hi! I was wondering if I could use these prompts to challenge myself with writing. I would like to Epidemic: Constructed for the Benefit Medical, post whatever I happen to come up with every day, using one prompt per day, on bicultural definition, Wattpad.com. However, I wanted to ask your permission first. I would credit you and this website. So, may I use these prompts on wattpad? Thanks so much. This is superb! Really provocative! More than enough here to stimulate even the most blocked writer. Thanks, BigGirlBlue.

I enjoyed pausing over a number of these, considering where they might take me. Marilyn McKay 3 years ago from North East, Victoria, Australia. I like this lens, your prompts are sparking thought, this I thank you for. Treasures By Brenda 3 years ago from Canada. Wow, this is quite a list of story prompts! Great lens. Thank you. Host of The Obesity Constructed for the Industry, great ideas! Thanks!

Samuel Wright 3 years ago from Bakersfield, Ca. Thanks for this. something to whet the pump. Nice to have things like this when you have moments of writers block. TheCozyDinosaur 3 years ago. Definition. This is The Obesity Epidemic: for the Benefit of the Medical Industry, really impressive. I wish I had your creative juices! MoreThanAMama 4 years ago. Great prompts! I'm bookmarking this page for future reference. Bicultural. Great tips and I love the quote from Jeffery A Carver. Thanks!

Writing prompts are basically pump primers, it seems. System. I know of an author, Harlan Ellison, who would sit in the window of a book store and definition crank out stories using this method. steadytracker lm 4 years ago. A great short story can be born from canada's economic, just about any experience. Thanks for sharing such a wonderful lens with us. Thanks, I'm sure these will help some other folks in myself in bicultural, my creative writing class. I'll pass on the URL. thank you for this. @PromptWriter: Thanks so much. You really helped me.

I had an extreme case of writers block, but thanks to you it's gone. The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed Medical. You have created an bicultural definition awesome lens. I can see you have put in a lot of work. Thanks for it. I found it very helpful as I am new to writing amp; you have come with some excellent ideas that I guess can help me get more creative. Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: Yes you can use these in your stories. Epidemic: Benefit Medical Industry. BUT after you let the story rest a bit I suggest going back and changing the prompt text to your own -- rewrite a new start if you use it for the opening line as you don't want to submit a story somewhere and have someone else with the same beginning. These are just prompts to get you going and bicultural definition what you write after that is all you. Can we use these in our stories?

At least the ideas? Wow these are some incredible writing prompts. Thank you so much for being an inspiration for Ethical and Drug Use Essay aspiring writers and bicultural providing a template of The Blood Tasting Essay example, sorts on where to start. Definition. Your lens where writing is concerned are truly a joy to cuba, read. Bicultural Definition. Doc_Holliday 4 years ago. Thanks for a great list. I have a number of international expansion strategy, ideas from these already, after a quick read. Good exercises to use in a writing group, or if you are really stuck for ideas. Wow ! That's truly helping me now. Great suggestions - I love seeing where a prompt takes me!

Hi! Great Reads and writing prompts. Thanks. Great lens and great prompt suggestions! Hehe, most of my short stories stay in definition, my head but now you've made me think about writing those actually down. Tasting Essay. Anyway, thanks for the great inspiration. ;) @Lensmaster. Holy cow!

A place to write prompts for definition stories and novels!! Now I know what to do with those four bank boxes of Epidemic: Constructed for the of the Medical Industry, ideas I've saved over time! Thanks for this Lens! I have never had trouble with creative writing (yet), and never knew that there was such a thing as prompt or books teaching how to bicultural definition, write prompts. Incredible! Thank you for your lens, the prompts here are very interesting. Crumbs, that's a lot of economic, prompts. I'll start from the top. :-) Mary Norton 4 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Prompts do help and thank you for your suggestions. These are truly great. After reading The Write Prompt I was browsing your other lenses and found this excellent article.

Great work. Bicultural. In short story writing, conceiving good plot may not be as difficult as penning first line/para and your article is good way to master the start. Thank you. Awesome lens, thanks! Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @Dandelia23: Happy writing! :D. Expansion. Great writing prompts to use as little writing challenges or to just unlock my mind. Bookmarked. What a great lens idea. It's really helping me get past my writer's block. Moe Wood 4 years ago from definition, Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: YOU'RE WELCOME! Happy writing!

I've been discouraged about for the Benefit Industry, not having enough story idea, but now thanks to this set of prompts, my mind is swimming with ideas. THANK YOU SO MUCH. Bicultural. Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: Yes, that would be interesting. Occasionally someone will post some of their results on my blog and it is always interesting to Sleep Essay, see what they came up with. What an interesting concept. It would be fun to bicultural definition, see a page of people's different stories using your prompts, or do you have one?

I enjoyed the comments by Steven King regarding short stories. System. My writing preference is either to write journal entries that can sometimes lead to a story, or to create short stories or novellas. I've only bicultural definition, written one novel length book and that was through NaNo in 2007. Thank you for sharing the video. A fantastic set of prompts! I need to return here whenever I can't find the inspiration to write.

Thank you! So many great prompts collectively making a great resource for writing exercise. I might just finish a story soon and send you.. Double likes! Renaissance Woman 5 years ago from Colorado. These prompts are incredibly stimulating. My mind is racing.

Thanks for expansion stirring my creative juices this morning. Appreciated! Thank you for bicultural the inspiration! :) This is excellent information. Thank you for a helpful lens. Paralysis Essay. You are a master. Kim 5 years ago from Yonkers, NY. added to my Creative writing 101 lens. wow, interesting lens. haven't heard of it or haven't tried one. definitely gonna go back here for reference, might need some of definition, it during those writer's bloc days. International. liked the definition quotes too. Love, love, love this lens - well done, you. I have bookmarked it so that I can refer to it often for Sleep Paralysis Essay writing prompts. I will happily add this lens as a related lens to my Fish Flash Fiction lens (I was over the moon to be long-listed for this year's competition). This is bicultural, such an inspiring lens that I don't want to do my uni study now, I just want to write, but . Spiderlily321 5 years ago. International Strategy. Love this great lens.

You have come up with some really good writing prompts and definition ideas. Thank you for Tasting Essay example sharing! Interesting lens. Liked. Another great lens! Good Information . you must be Canadian. LOL . I am now using Squidoo to publish my short story The Diary of Moses Jenkins.

Not my best work but does have a surprise ending. Definition. I was selling it for a whopping 99 cents but after I finally had enough to buy a cup of coffee, decided to let it go free . duh . This method of writing seems very interesting and Ethical and Drug Use Essay creative. Definition. A great lens for all ages! This seems like a very interesting method of canada's system, writing that I haven't tried yet. Seems to be the perfect thing for short stories, but I wonder if anyone has ever tried to develop a novel out of one of bicultural, your prompts. corinnemwestphal 6 years ago. Some of Sleep Paralysis Essay, these have come in very handy on those days when I just can't get my creative juices flowing on their own. Thanks very, very much!

Nice lens! You gave me a great idea for my story and bicultural saved me from failing English so thanks! Here's the link if you want to Guidelines and Drug, read it: https://hubpages.com/literature/my-short-novel. This is a great selection of writing prompts. My fingers are itching to start typing. Ann 6 years ago from Yorkshire, England. great lens, angel blessed and bicultural it will feature on my summer reading lens when it is canada's, updated soon. Excellent resource!

Thanks for putting this one together. I will have to bookmark it for later. David Stone 6 years ago from New York City. Another high quality lens. Very nice and original. Definition. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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coffin business plan My Father's Shoes - Our Coffin Story, Pages 1 to 25. Tristram Coffyn was born in 1609 in Brixton Parish, town of Plymouth, Devonshire, England and baptized March 11, 1610. Definition. He was the eldest child of Peter and Johanna Coffin. Coffyn's early years in England were during a very eventful time. Intellectual freedom was being claimed as a right for each individual. This period was during the reign of James I. Among the names of the day were William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon and Sleep Paralysis Essay, Oliver Cromwell. Bicultural Definition. It was a period when the canada's economic, Puritans were making large gains in the Parliament. Tristram had one younger brother, John and four sisters, Johanna, Deborah, Eunice and Mary. When Tristram was 19 his father Peter, died. His will was dated December 21, 1627 and was proved by his widow Johanna on March 13, 1628.

In the will it was declared that Tristram was to be provided for according to his degree and calling. Tristram was a farmer and therefore most likely took control of his fathers estate near Plymouth. Two years later Tristram courted and wed Dionis Stevens, daughter of Robert Stevens of Brixton. Dionis Stevens was born in 1609 although other accounts say 1613. Shortly after their marriage, their first child Peter was born in 1631 followed by their son Tristram Jr., born in 1632.

During the definition, early 1630's England entered into a storm of conflict with the international, death of James I and the succession of Charles I. In 1638 the Scots took up arms against the King. The Presbyterians took control of the Commons and this was followed by an all out civil war in 1642. During this period of time Tristram and bicultural, Dionis had two more children Elizabeth (d.o.b. unknown) and James born August 12, 1639. Dionis was also pregnant with their fifth child. In 1640 Coffyn was selected as a Warden of Brixton Parish. Shortly after in November 1640, he leased his farm that was located at Butlass. With the Tasting Essay example, civil war closing in on definition his family and the wounding and eventual death eight days later of his brother John at Plymouth Fort, Tristram decided to take his family, including his mother and two unwed sisters to safety in Colonial America. Tristram's friend Robert Clement was leaving for international America shortly, aboard a small fleet of ships, some of which were owned by Clement. Tristram quickly put his affairs in bicultural definition, order and embarked on his journey with his family aboard Clement's ship named Hector Clement in the spring of 1642.

This proved to be the last time Coffyn was to see his home in England. The crossing of the Atlantic took between 60 and 90 days before they arrived in Newburyport Massachusetts, during the summer of 1642. It was a mere twenty years since the pilgrims, aboard the Mayflower had landed at Plymouth. The Blood Tasting. Shortly after their arrival, Tristram. secured living quarters for his family and started exploring up the Merrimack River with Robert Clement in definition, search of a good location for a more permanent home. He arrived in a soon to be called settlement named Pentucket, now known as Haverhill Ma. The book The History of Haverhill by George Chase states that Clements son, Job Clements had already settled in the area a year earlier, if so, this could be the reason that Coffyn and Clements chose this area. They found the area to have fertile soil with the necessary resources to build a farm, however, it was recorded that the large population of wolves were a problem with the flocks of sheep and Sleep Essay, a guard had to be posted at all times.

In 1641 there were only six homes built in Pentucket. Tristram's group of settlers negotiated with the Indians for the property rights and secured a large area for the sum of bicultural definition three pounds ten shillings. Who Took. A copy of this deed is still on record and bares witness to the signatures of Robert Clement and Tristram Coffyn, dated November 15, 1642. Not only is this the first record of the definition, first Coffin immigrant in America, but it also indicates how Tristram spelled his surname, Coffyn, with a y instead of an i. It was also during this period that John, their youngest child fell ill and died. Dionis was also pregnant with their sixth child who was later named Deborah. She was born the first Coffin child in America, and The Blood, the third child born in the tiny settlement but was destined for the same fate as the bicultural definition, other newborns and died three weeks later. These deaths give evidence to Global Ethical the harsh conditions that the first immigrants must have encountered upon definition their arrival in the new world. The living conditions were primitive and unforgiving and Paralysis Essay, many families suffered greatly. It was noted that Coffyn was the first white settler to plough land in the area, having made his own plough from materials at hand.

A few years after his arrival in Pentucket, his daughter Mary was born, becoming the definition, first Coffin child to Global Guidelines and Drug Use Essay be born and survive to adulthood in America. Shortly after Coffyn's arrival, the settlement was threatened when Indian war parties decided to target the settlers homes. They wanted to halt the white invasion however they feared the firepower of the settlers muskets. The Indian plan was to send a small group to each of the settlers homes at the same time and gain entrance to the houses by definition way of presenting goods for trade. The Blood. Upon a predetermined signal, the Indians would jump the white men, cut their throats and ransack the house looking for weapons. Definition. What the Indians didn't know was that one of their members was a Colonial informant who revealed the plan to British intelligence and the British soldiers, along with about forty settlers disarmed the Indians before they could set the plan in motion. After only a few years of farming in Pentucket, Tristram embarked on a new direction.

It would seem that not only was he a farmer, but he was also interested in expanding his business holdings. When the opportunity arose to operate a ferry back in canada's economic system, Newbury, Tristram decided to definition move his family once again. The History of Newbury states that in 1644 Tristram Coffin Sr. is allowed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) which consisted of selling wine and keeping a ferry and Inn on the Newbury side of the Merrimack River. George Carr kept a ferry on the Salisbury side across from Carr Island. Tristram's ferry crossed from Newbury on the south side of the river, between Carr Island and Ram Island, over to the north side to the town of Salisbury. The ferry was most likely a tow ferry with oxen providing the power to pull the craft across the river, with his sons helping to load and disembark the passengers. In the Global Ethical Guidelines Use Essay, 1650's Tristram's eldest children began to expand their horizons with Peter leaving Newbury to go to Dover, New Hampshire, where he became involved in bicultural definition, the lumber business along with holding a variety of economic public office positions. Tristram's daughter Elizabeth wed Stephen Greenleaf in 1651 and resided in Newbury where the couple eventually had ten children before Elizabeth's early death. Bicultural. Tristram Jr. married Judith Somerby in 1653 and became a weaver/tailor and Deacon of the First Parish of Essay Newbury.

Tristram Jr. is also the person who brought the Coffin name to the old Coffin house in bicultural, 1654, which still stands in Newbury, after housing over 240 years of Coffin descendants. In 1997, I visited Newbury and the Coffin house which is now a historical site owned by the SPNEA. The Coffin house is one of the earliest homes constructed of wood still standing in Global Ethical Guidelines and Drug, New England. It is believed that the father, Tristram Sr., lived here shortly before moving to bicultural definition his new home in Nantucket. The house was originally much smaller than it appears today, with the oldest section being located at the back. In 1735 the economic system, first centennial of Newbury was celebrated by the town in the front yard of the Coffin house, under two gigantic elm trees. Inside, one is struck by the large fireplace located in the middle of the house, in a room referred to as the bicultural, hall.

This is international expansion, where the cooking, dining and visiting took place. Above this area was the hall chamber, or sleeping chamber. Bicultural. When I visited the who took over cuba in 1959, sleeping chamber, a large cradle lay on one side of the definition, room. This was not for infants, but was for the elderly family members who were gently rocked to sleep. Canada's Economic System. On some of the beams near the bicultural definition, stairs were engravings carved in Sleep Essay, the beam, these were thought to bicultural definition ward off evil spirits.

Much of the family time in the house was spent reading the bible as this was an era of strong religious beliefs along with the threat of evil coming in the form of witches and devils. The last full time occupant of the Coffin house was Lucy Coffin, who never married and lived to who took over be 101 years old. Definition. After she died in 1893, a nephew used the house as a summer place until it was turned over to the SPNEA in 1921. A short distance from the Coffin house, stood the Coffyn's Tavern. The Tavern was operated mainly be Dionis, Tristram's wife, and it was called Coffyn's Ordinary. Not only did she serve the patrons but she was also responsible for making the Tasting Essay example, beverages of the day. This.

eventually led the bicultural definition, Coffyns into confrontation with the law. The laws of 1645 stated clearly that every person licensed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) shall always be provided with good wholesome beer of four bushels of malt to the hogshead, which he shall not sell above two pence the Paralysis, ale quart, on penalty of forty shillings the first offence and for the second offence shall lose his licence. Dionis' ale was made with six bushels, giving it a kick that kept them coming back for more. For her troubles she increased the price by one pence and in turn had to bicultural stand before the court to defend her actions. The Obesity Of The Medical. Eventually the charge was dismissed, but word spread quickly through Newbury as to where to go for a quality ale. According to the book Ould Newbury by John Currier, the Coffyns owned forty acres across from Carr Island. In later years the road to the Inn was known as Coffin Lane and was on the west side of present day Jefferson St. down by the Merrimack River. Toward the mid 1650's the ferry crossings were replaced by a floating bridge leaving Tristram little choice but to sell his property. He moved across the river to bicultural Salisbury where records show his name on Sleep some documents as Commissioner of Salisbury.

It was during these years in the late 1650's that the first plans to relocate his family to a more desirable location were first laid out. Depending on definition which source one would believe, there are many arguments that have been brought forward as to why Tristram decided to leave Massachusetts. And Drug Use Essay. All would have been valid arguments. Bicultural Definition. It was true that the Puritan rule was harsh and prejudice against Sleep Paralysis Essay, freedom of choice both religiously and politically. It was also true that the desire to move to bicultural definition an area where fences were not needed for the livestock (that an Island would provide) would be of some benefit, mainly monetary. In the end, Tristram's will to Epidemic: Constructed Medical keep his family together around him in a community outside of the smothering rules of the Puritans, and guarded by miles of ocean, could have been the driving factor behind his decision to locate to a new home. In talking to his friends and neighbours he found he was not alone in his thinking. Others were also anxious to leave, many for bicultural the same reasons as Coffyn. After a short time their ideas took shape and later after meetings, it was decided to form a group of associates to international pursue matters further. The idea of common pastures and buildings were appealing to bicultural many, especially the The Obesity Constructed Benefit Industry, farmers who were advancing in age. The back breaking life of maintaining a farm could now be shared among the bicultural definition, group with common mills and labour supplied by international expansion the Indians.

How the Island of Nantucket, thirty miles off the south shore of bicultural definition Cape Cod ever came forth as a choice, is once again debatable. Some point out that the connection lies with Thomas Mayhew, the owner of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, was a cousin of one of the associates in Tristram's group, a man named Thomas Macy. Others think that Nantucket simply came up in a passing conversation and Sleep Essay, caught the groups imagination. At one meeting the decision was made to send Tristram Coffyn, possibly his son James, Edward Starbuck and cabin boy Isaac Coleman on a fact finding mission to meet with Mayhew and view Nantucket to assess its suitability as a home. Early in 1659 the men set out for Edgartown in Martha's Vineyard, the home of Thomas Mayhew. Thomas Mayhew came to New England before 1632 from Wiltshire England. By 1637 Mayhew was in bicultural definition, the town of Watertown, Massachusetts, where he was operating a grist mill. His. business enterprises were flourishing by the time the family of John Folger arrived in Watertown. Mayhew had a son named Thomas Jr. who was very religious.

Folger's son Peter was close to the same age as Thomas Jr. and the two became friends. They both shared an appetite for adventure, so when the opportunity came forth for the Mayhew's to purchase an Island named Nantucket, from the Earl of Stirling in 1641 for forty pounds, the canada's system, adventure began. Bicultural. After seeing the Island it was concluded that Nantucket Island was too far off shore and that Martha's Vineyard would be a more suitable island to inhabit, so shortly after Mayhew also bought Martha's Vineyard. Thomas Mayhew Jr. moved quickly to establish his home on Martha's Vineyard bringing Peter Folger along with him. Canada's. His mission was to teach the bicultural, Indians that inhabited the Islands' Christianity.

Folger was to be a school master and surveyor. The work was quite successful and the elder Mayhew came to join them in The Blood, Edgartown. In 1657 Thomas Jr. found it necessary to go to definition England to stimulate more financial support, however, his ship was lost in a gale on the crossing and he was never heard from again. Mayhew was devastated by the loss of his son, however he decided to continue with his son's mission. Folger on the other hand was looking for a change. His chance for Sleep Paralysis change came in the form of a shallop sailing into the harbour at definition, Edgartown with Tristram Coffyn on board.

It's interesting to note that this simple twist of fate with Coffyn arriving in Edgartown while Folger was searching for a new adventure, brought about Paralysis Essay one of the circumstances to which American statesman, scientist and writer, Benjamin Franklin would later be born into. Forty years later, Folger's daughter, Abiah, of Nantucket, married Josiah Franklin, where in 1706 shortly after moving from Nantucket, gave birth to Benjamin Franklin. In turn this would make Tristram's new friend, Peter, Ben Franklin's grandfather. Tristram's preliminary discussions with Mayhew were favourable, however, Mayhew insisted that if Coffyn's group wanted to purchase Nantucket, the Indians on the Island would have to be included in the negotiations. Bicultural. It was estimated that Nantucket had about 700 Narragansett Indians living in six villages, mostly on example the east shore. Today, there is not a single Indian descendant living on the Island. Bicultural. The last Indian descendant died in the 1850's, wiped out for the most part by white man diseases. Nantucket in Algonquin is interpreted as far away Island. Coffyn realized that without an interpreter he would have problems communicating with the Indians. To address this problem he enlisted the services of Global Ethical Guidelines and Drug Use Essay Peter Folger who was also a skilled Surveyor. Shortly thereafter, the group left for the Island.

The Indians greeted them favourably and although their interpretation of bicultural purchasing land proved to be different than the white interpretation, they agreed on the idea. In later years the Indians were surprised to learn the meaning of trespassing, for in their culture no one ever owns property but instead they only had rights to live upon it, yet anyone could travel through it. The whites wouldn't allow this for fear of livestock disappearing. Shortly after achieving their goal, Coffyn and the rest headed back to Edgartown for further negotiations with Mayhew. Committed to carrying on with his lost son's mission, Mayhew had no real interest in Nantucket and Paralysis Essay, therefore agreed to very reasonable terms for bicultural the purchase of the Island. The sale price of 30 pounds along with two beaver hats, one for Paralysis him and one for his wife, was a bargain especially if one considers that after owning the Island for definition close to twenty years Mayhew was selling it for ten pounds less than he bought it for. The beaver hats incidently were supposedly made by over cuba Tristram Coffyn's son, Tristram Jr. Today one can only speculate on the mood of the negotiations, but judging by the eventual results, Coffyn and Mayhew must have respected each other a great deal in order for things to have gone so smoothly. Bicultural Definition. Mayhew did decide however to retain a one twentieth share of the venture so he could have a voice in how the Global and Drug Use Essay, Island affairs were being handled.

Coffin returned home to Salisbury to organize the bicultural, purchase of Nantucket. Once there, his eight partners ratified the agreement with Mayhew and ten new partners and ten tenant inhabitants were admitted into the company. Half Share Owners. Tristram Coffin Jr. #9;The half share partners were tradesmen who were needed to help develop the settlement. Folger was the interpreter/surveyor who later became the miller. Joseph Gardner was a shoemaker and Nathaniel Holland was a tailor etc.

Some of the other half-share holders listed didn't join the The Blood Tasting Essay, group until the later years. #9;In the fall of 1659 before any formal deed was drawn up with the Indian leaders Wanackmamack and Nickanoose, James Coffin, Thomas Macy and family, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman left Salisbury for Nantucket to bicultural definition take up residence. Macy was in trouble with the Paralysis Essay, Puritan judges for harbouring Quakers during a short rain storm. Nantucket was out of the Judge's legal realm, so rather than stay and face the charges he decided that the sooner he could leave Salisbury the definition, better it would be. International Expansion Strategy. Edward Starbuck was Macy's partner in the company and also his best friend.

He felt compelled to definition go with Macy and the rest to see them through what was going to be a tough first winter. Ethical Use Essay. James Coffin age 19 went to watch over his father's interests and Isaac Coleman age 13 was probably just looking for adventure. The first winter on Nantucket proved to be one full of hardships. The crossing was reported to have been a rough one in which the tiny craft was almost lost. During the first winter the bicultural definition, Indians were said to have been most helpful in seeing to the needs of the first white settlers on the Island.

In the spring of 1660 Edward Starbuck returned to Salisbury to update the rest on the progress of Nantucket. Global Use Essay. The reports were favourable and others made preparations to relocate quickly. The freedom enjoyed in Nantucket, by being independent from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was the lure that attracted many from Salisbury. But along with their freedom certain laws and regulations had to be drawn-up to keep the new settlement from deteriorating. For instance one guideline was that Indian land could not be purchased by definition any individual except for use by all its original purchasers. This would ensure a balanced ownership. The Colony of New York claimed jurisdiction over Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and so it was with the Governor of New York, Francis Lovelace, that the Colony had to deal within terms of being recognized.

By the Sleep Essay, summer of definition 1661, records show that the meetings were now being held on Nantucket indicating that many of the settlers had made the move to example the Island. The first concerns of many were where their house lots would be located. At a town meeting held July 15, 1661 it was agreed upon that each owner would have the freedom to choose his lot within limits not previously occupied. It was also decided that the lot size for each full share holder would be sixty rods square (a rod consisting of 16'6). It was also agreed that Tristram Coffyn would select first, in which he selected a lot on bicultural the north western coastline of the Island at a place known as Cappammet Harbour (today known as Capaum Pond). The original Nantucket record states Tristram Coffyn, Sr., had his house lot laid out at Cappammet, by the aforesaid lot layers, at Cappamet Harbour head, sixty rods square, or thereabouts, the east side line part of it bounded by the highway; the south side by economic system a rock southward of the pond; the north by the harbour head; the west side bounded by the lot of Tristram Coffin Jr.

In the aftermath, once all was said and done, Tristram had succeeded with his wish to live out his days in a free society surrounded by his friends and definition, family. To his east side, across Cappamet Harbour was his son Peter, who didn't reside on the Island but was a frequent visitor seeing as he had secured the rights to supply the settlers with lumber for their homes. To the west was the lot of his son Tristram Jr., again not a full time resident but a frequent visitor. To the south laid the lots of his daughter Mary and her husband Nathaniel Starbuck. The Blood Tasting. Mary and Nathaniel were very much a part of the bicultural definition, Island's development. Mary owned the first store on international the Island as well as being regarded in later life as a. spiritual leader, having embraced Quakerism. Mary and Nathaniel also had the honour of having the first white baby on the Island during the early 1660's. Also to the south lay the lot of James Coffin.

After Tristram, James was the head of the Coffin interests on Nantucket. The first years of settlement consisted of building houses along with shelters for their livestock, mainly sheep and oxen, as well as developing pastures and common buildings. Bicultural Definition. The Indians helped to develop the farms and taught the settlers a great deal about living on the Island. In turn they were given employment and some formal education. The first years were often regarded as the best years upon canada's economic system Nantucket, in bicultural definition, terms of creating a society that flowed in example, harmony, where one could rely on their neighbours as though they were family. The great grandson of Thomas Macy would later write, The little community was kind and courteous to each other and hospitable to strangers. The prevalence of good feeling was remarked and felt by all who came among them. From the bicultural definition, beginning Tristram Coffyn and Thomas Macy were the spokesmen for the settlement. In 1671 they were selected by the group to go to New York and meet with Governor Lovelace and who took over cuba, secure their claim to definition the Island.

Upon their return the Islanders nominated Coffyn to be Chief Magistrate of Nantucket. Sleep Essay. The town also selected all other officers except the Chief Military Officer who was to be selected by Governor Lovelace from nominees chosen by the settlement. After a few more years of harmony, or about the early 1670's the first signs of trouble on the Island began to appear. Bicultural. The problems came through the evolution of the two classes of settlers. On one hand they had the full share owners and their partners, who by Nantucket law had two votes each. On the other hand the The Blood Tasting Essay example, half share owners only had one vote resulting in less of a say on Island affairs. They viewed themselves just as important as the full share settlers. The only thing missing for a revolt by the half share members was a leader. That changed in 1673 when it was decided that the community needed to expand their fishing interests by definition enlisting the services of a skilled tradesman by the name of John Gardner of Salem, Massachusetts. Gardner was the brother of full share owner Joseph Gardner. Right from the start John Gardner challenged the original owners on most issues and from this began the feud between the international strategy, Gardners group and the Coffin group.

Another problem arising on the Island involved the Indians and liquor. Some of the white settlers were taking advantage of the definition, Indians' ignorance regarding liquor consumption. Laws had to eventually be implemented prohibiting the sale and consumption of alcohol to Indians. John Gardner often ignored these laws which escalated the tension on the Island. Gardner also attempted to buy land from the Indians, however the expansion, final blow most probably resulted from a meeting Gardner set up with Gov. Lovelace's replacement, Governor Francis Andros. Bicultural Definition. One of the requirements of the Islanders was to pay taxes to New York. This payment was met by economic giving the government barrels of fish. John Gardner convinced the bicultural definition, settlers to let him deliver the payment.

While in New York, he met with Governor Andros and in turn convinced the Governor to system name the main town in Nantucket, Sherborne, after his hometown back in England. He then managed. to get himself appointed as Chief Military Officer. This all came about shortly before the Dutch takeover of New York. With the definition, change in governments in New York, Gardners's group declared that past arrangements with the Essay, original settlers was no longer valid. The tension ran high for a short period until the Dutch were run out of New York and the old government was reinstated.

Upon this action, Tristram and Mathew Mayhew, grandson of Thomas, once again sailed for New York and had their agreements with the government reinstated. In 1676 Thomas Mayhew became Chief Magistrate on Nantucket with Peter Coffin, a new resident on the Island becoming Assistant Magistrate. Peter and James Coffin had returned to the Island as a result of the conflict on the mainland between the Indians and the white settlers known as King Philip's War. This appointment of Macy and the election of Peter Coffin infuriated the definition, Gardner group. Not only was Peter a Coffin he also held government positions back in Dover and was not considered a full time resident of who took over cuba Nantucket. A few years later the tension eased with the bicultural, elections of James Coffin, John Gardner and Nathaniel Starbuck who would all be elected as Assistant Magistrates. The feud continued toward the late 1670's in a period that would result in Tristram Coffyn being selected as Chief Magistrate by Governor Andros in the hopes of trying to pull the community back together. Coffyn was regarded by most of the settlers as the one person who could rectify Nantucket's struggle with growth. Unfortunately, for everyone, a shipwreck on the Nantucket shoals diverted any plans that Tristram had for in 1959 the Islanders. In September 1678 a French ship ran aground during a storm, forcing the bicultural, crew to in 1959 abandon ship. Definition. Shortly thereafter the cargo was salvaged by certain parties and sold for for the of the profit.

This action put Tristram, who was chief magistrate, in violation with maritime law which stated that the cargo should have been secured until claimed by the owner. In failing to bicultural definition do so, Tristram subjected himself to be responsible for the lost cargo. The courts came down hard on him with a stiff penalty which would ruin him financially. The action cast a dark cloud over Coffyn, who was now in his early 70's. His family rallied to his side but the who took over, strain of the penalty along with the feuding years had worn him down. His son James made financial arrangements to pay the fine.

In the end, surprisingly, it was John Gardner, who had become the new Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, who stood up to bicultural definition the courts with a touching appeal on Coffyn's behalf. He convinced the courts to reduce the penalty substantially. When all was said and example, done what remained was Coffyn's ill health. The year was 1681, and bicultural, autumn was closing in. Coffyn had made the arrangements that were to follow his death back in 1678. He made no will but instead disposed of his rather large estate through deeds to his family, mainly his youngest sons John and Stephen. To his numerous grandchildren, 60 in all, he granted 10 acres of land to Sleep Paralysis Essay each one upon definition the Coffyn's Island of Tuckernuck, off the of the Medical Industry, west coast of Nantucket.

In 1681 Tristram owned two houses on his property, the first dwelling house he deeded to bicultural definition Stephen and the new house upon the hill was to go to John. His son Stephen was asked to care for who took their mother, Dionis up until her death. On October 3, 1681 Tristram Coffyn died, he was 72 years old at the time of his death. His funeral brought out all the Islanders including the Gardners to mourn his passing. It has been suggested that his old friend Edward Starbuck read from the bicultural, bible and then Tristram's body was taken to who took over a favourite location on definition his property and buried.

Through the years the exact site of his grave has wandered from memory, however, the who took over in 1959, man himself lives on definition in each one of his descendants. In just forty years after his death his descendants numbered 1,138 born in Epidemic: Constructed Benefit Medical, America. Bicultural Definition. In 1728 the number had increased to 1,582. All of them descendants from one couple, Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. Stephen Coffyn cared for his mother up until her death which occurred on November 6, 1684 in Nantucket.

The Children of Tristram and Dionis Coffyn: Honorable Peter Coffin was born in England in 1631. He was the expansion strategy, first child of Tristram and Dionis. Peter married Abigail Starbuck, daughter of Edward Starbuck. He resided in Dover, New Hampshire for a good portion of his life before moving his family to definition Nantucket. For The Of The Medical. He later moved his family to Exeter, New Hampshire, where he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire and a member of the Governor's Council. The Coffin's had ten children including their son Jethro whose house is considered the bicultural definition, oldest house still standing on Nantucket having been built in 1686. Tristram Coffin Jr. Guidelines Use Essay. was born in England in 1632. Definition. He married Judith Somerby of Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1652. Tristram was a weaver and filled many notable positions on the Newbury Town Council.

He was named Deacon to the first Parish of Newbury. His house in Newbury is known as the Old Coffin House. Tristram Jr. and his wife Judith's graves are marked in The Blood Tasting Essay, the cemetery of the First Parish of Newbury which is located across the street from the bicultural definition, Coffin house. Together they had ten children along with Judith's three children from her first marriage. Elizabeth Coffin was born in England in The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the, 1634. She married Stephen Greenleaf in bicultural, Newbury, Massachusetts, on November 13, 1651.

From this family the Greenleaf's of New England have descended. Elizabeth died in 1678 at the age of 44. The Greenleafs had ten children. Hon. James Coffin was born in England in 1639. He married Mary Severance, daughter of John and Paralysis, Abigail Severance of Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 1663. James was the first settler to settle on Nantucket after the purchase. He later became a leading figure in Nantucket politics.

He served many terms as Chief magistrate on the Island. Bicultural. James and Mary had fourteen children with twelve surviving into adulthood. John Coffin was born in England but died shortly after the crossing on October 30, 1642. Deborah Coffin was born two weeks after her brother's death and died three weeks later on. December 8, 1642. Mary Coffin was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1645 and married Nathaniel Starbuck at the age of 17. Mary was a most extraordinary woman. Guidelines. Not only did she raise a family of ten children but she operated the Island's first store. Her open mindedness gained her respect from bicultural definition everyone who knew her.

Later it was her interest in over cuba, Quakerism that laid the ground work for that particular religion on bicultural definition the Island. Mary and Nathaniel held the distinction of Tasting example having the first white child born on Nantucket. Mary died on November 13, 1717. Lieut. John Coffin was born in Massachusetts, on October 30, 1647, exactly five years to the day of the death of his brother John.

John married Deborah Austin daughter of Joseph and Sarah Austin. Shortly after his father's death he moved to Martha's Vineyard, where he found employment as a blacksmith. He died in Edgartown in 1711, where today one can still locate his tombstone. Stephen Coffin was the last child born to bicultural definition Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. He was born in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1652. He married Mary Bunker in Ethical, 1668 and had ten children with Mary.

Stephen took over his father's estate on Nantucket where he lived out his life as a farm manager. He died on definition November 14, 1734. HONOURABLE JAMES COFFIN. Pioneer of Nantucket Law and Order. James Coffin was born August 12, 1639, in Brixton, Devonshire, England. He was the fourth child of Tristram and Dionis Stevens Coffin. James was only three years old when his father immigrated to America.

The family first settled in Salisbury before heading down the system, Merrimac River to Haverhill where after only a short time they relocated once more to the town of bicultural Newbury. James' family operated a ferry on the south side of the Merrimac River. They also operated a Tavern/Inn which was located near the landing. During the 1650's with the older brothers and sisters going off in their own directions, James took over their responsibilities. Of the older children, it was James who was showing the most interest in Nantucket. James' brothers had already established enterprises on the mainland and wanted to strategy remain there, however, they were willing to bicultural invest in the plan financially. James was only twenty when the plans to investigate the Island came about. Depending on whose account of history one would study, James did go with his father on the voyage that took them to Nantucket for the first time. After negotiations with the Indians and Thomas Mayhew, the Island became the canada's system, property of the Salisbury group, with ten full share members and ten partners.

Thomas Macy, James Coffin, Edward Starbuck and definition, Isaac Coleman proceeded quickly to inhabit the who took, Island before the next winter. Edward Starbuck was a former resident of Dover N.H.. His daughter Abigail married Tristram Coffyn's son Peter. Bicultural Definition. Starbuck had lived in Dover since 1643. In the 1640's he refused to join the church in canada's economic system, the ordinance of baptism so he and the church parted company. In 1648 he was charged for disturbing the peace of the church. He apparently disapproved of the submersion of babies during baptism. Others had been tied to ox carts and definition, whipped for similar crimes, however, Starbuck got off with a lighter sentence but never again respected the Puritan rule. In the book Nantucket by Sleep Paralysis W.O. Bicultural. Stevens, he states that the over cuba in 1959, first white inhabitants on the Island spent their first winter on the western side of the definition, Island near the international strategy, area now known as Madaket.

The first few months on Nantucket were harsh ones for the newcomers seeing as they arrived in the fall with barely time to prepare for bicultural definition the winter. Had the Tasting Essay, Indians not been so accommodating the new settlers would have found it hard to survive the winter. In the following spring, Starbuck headed back to Salisbury for a meeting with the owners. Soon after, Tristram came to the Island to scout out a good location for a home. After surveying the layout of the bicultural definition, land they decided to build on the back side of Capaum Harbour, on the north side of the Island. It's interesting to note why the small Capaum Harbour was more appealing to the settlers than the larger harbour to the east.

One can only speculate but it has been suggested that Capaum might have had fresh water springs running close to it. Tristram sailed back to. Salisbury to organize the move while his son James stayed on, and with the help of two Indians, he built their first house overlooking Capaum Pond. Who Took Cuba. During the following years, 1661 to 1664 the flurry of traffic between the mainland and the Island increased as provisions and building materials made their way to their new found home. James on definition numerous occasions travelled back and forth from Nantucket to Salisbury as well as Nantucket to Sleep Paralysis Essay Dover.

James' interest in Salisbury might have laid with his desires to be close to a young woman named Mary Severance, daughter of John and Abigail Severance. Bicultural. While in Dover, James held property along the Cochecho River near his brother Peter. It is who took cuba, likely that James was involved with trade back to bicultural Nantucket during these years, mainly lumber and livestock. On December 3, 1663, James married Mary and the two moved to Nantucket where their first child James Jr. was born, however, shortly after James and expansion, his family moved off the definition, Island back to Dover, New Hampshire. It was during this period that I feel James along with his brother Peter became interested in studying law. On March 10 1666, James was named as an arbitrator to settle disputes in the settlement along with five other members of the town. Brother Peter was already an established member of the community who owned large tracts of lands in what is now downtown Dover. Peter's land was on the south side of the and Drug, Cochecho River, near the falls. Names such as Coffin Woods and Coffin Orchard were common landmarks to the settlers. Peter also owned a mill on the Lamprey River as well as land by the Cochecho Falls. Peter manufactured masts for the British navy and was paid by bicultural grants of land in Dover.

Peter was also involved with erecting the meeting house which later became fortified to protect the settlers during the system, Indian uprisings. Bicultural Definition. The fort was 100' square with a log wall and Essay, gate. It was situated on the mound of earth that is still seen today in an area that was called the neck. Bicultural Definition. A brief history of Peter taken from the book Historical Memoranda of Ancient Dover states that Peter was a Selectman in 1660, the who took over cuba, town treasurer by 1661, a member of the jury of trials in definition, 1666 and canada's, a lieutenant during King Philip's war. In 1666 Peter was on a committee to definition fortify Portsmouth N.H. The Obesity Benefit Medical Industry. James was in Dover in 1668 through 1671, where he appears on church records and bicultural definition, was made a freeman. James also appears on the lists of international strategy taxpayers for the Cochecho area as early as 1662. He was splitting his tax expenses with Robert Ewen and John Church during these years. In 1675 a bloody conflict broke out between the Colonies and the Indians, this was known as King Philip's War. Indians were attacking many settlers throughout the Colonial settlements, including some attacks in the Dover area.

It was during this time, that James decided to relocate his family to Nantucket for their safety. His brother Peter was also forced to temporarily relocate his family to the Island after the Indians gave him a close call. In June of 1689, Peter's house was the target of an Indian raid. The Indians first sent a squaw to the locked gate seeking shelter for the night. During the night, while all were sleeping, she opened the gate, letting the definition, waiting war party in and taking Peter's family prisoner. Word had spread in recent days that twenty-three settlers had been massacred by this war party. Once they captured Peter and his family the Indians marched them over to his son Tristram's home and threatened to kill the example, hostages unless the gates were open there.

Once inside, folklore states, Peter distracted the Indians by throwing handfuls of coins into the dirt and over bicultural definition the gate. The Indians scattered to collect the coins giving the hostages time to escape into Sleep Paralysis, the. Back in Nantucket, the Indians were aware of the war being waged on the mainland but despite pressure from other tribes, they decided to stay neutral. This decision was of great relief to definition the white inhabitants of the Island, seeing as they were badly outnumbered and out gunned. Nantucket only had about forty able bodied white men on the Island during this time, again giving us a clue that relations were good between the two parties on the Island. John Gardner first came to economic system Nantucket around 1673 from definition Salem Massachusettes.

He was a fisherman/mariner who was invited to Nantucket by his brother Richard, to help develop the Islands' fish trade. From the very first meeting Gardner and Tristram Coffyn disagreed on Global Ethical and Drug Use Essay most matters. Definition. Both being determined and proud men, they would not easily be swayed. Surprisingly, James had some sympathy for Gardners position, whereas his brother, Peter's dislike for the man was as strong as their father's. Example. In the latter part of the 1670's it was often James and bicultural definition, his sister Mary who would attempt to smooth over the bad feelings between the two groups. The tension never really ended until after Tristram Coffyn's death in 1681 and later, the marriage of a Gardner to a Coffin. In September 1678, a French ship's cargo of furs from the The Blood Tasting, Colonial mainland, ran aground on the Nantucket shoals. James Coffin among others made matters worse by innocently asking permission from his father, who at the time was the Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, to remove the cargo of two thousand furs from the shipwreck. Unfortunately for the Coffins the bicultural, owner later came forward and wanted someone held accountable.

The burden of responsibility fell on Global Guidelines and Drug Tristram Coffyn's shoulders. He was the Chief Magistrate of the Island and bicultural definition, it was his responsibility by law to launch a salvage of any wrecks that ran aground on the Island, and securing the canada's economic, contents until they could be claimed. Having failed to do so, the courts ordered Coffyn to pay the bicultural definition, penalty of 343 pds., ten shillings. The harsh decision would have ruined Tristram Coffyn financially, and lay a deep financial burden upon the Coffin family. By the year 1681 the Coffins owned approximately one quarter of the Island, including. Tuckernuck Island off the west coast. Peter Coffin was constantly attacked for being a full share partner allowed to make important decisions, and yet he didn't live there as a full time resident. The bad blood between the Coffins and the Gardners was now really only between Peter Coffin and John Gardner, so it must have been a topic of amusement for over cuba the Islanders when it was learned that Peter's son Jethro had fallen in love with Gardner's daughter Mary. To make matters worse for the two fathers, the two later decided to wed and reside in Nantucket. It was decided in definition, 1686 that John Gardner would supply the over cuba, property for the newlywed's house while Peter Coffin was to supply the lumber from bicultural definition his mill. During the wedding ceremony Peter Coffin realized that the Constructed for the, appropriate deed for the property had not been transferred to his son Jethro and definition, so he stood up just prior to the wedding vows and exclaimed in a threatening tone that the wedding be put to a halt right then and who took over cuba, there until the appropriate paper work was signed by all parties.

John Gardner assured Coffin that it would be taken care of as soon as possible but Coffin persisted until finally Gardner grudgingly had to get the papers in question and sign them and only then did the wedding continue, much to definition the embarrassment of the bride and Essay, groom. Definition. Jethro Coffin's house was and still is one of the focal points of Nantucket's history. Not only did it mark the end of the Coffin/ Gardner feud, but it still stands today as the oldest house still standing in Nantucket. Also, of interest, is the brick work on the houses' chimney, it has the pattern of an upside down horse shoe, inlayed into the brick. Guidelines And Drug. In the 1600s the settlers believed this would ward off witches and evil spirits from bicultural entering the home. It was also about Sleep Essay this time in Nantucket's history that the first interest in whale catching was seen on the Island. Apparently one incident in the 1670's captured the imagination of definition some of the Island's more adventurous souls. One day a stray Scrag whale wandered into the harbour and stayed there for three days. During this time the The Blood Tasting Essay, Islanders took it upon themselves to devise ways to capture and kill the whale which led to constructing the Island's first harpoon.

A few of the braver Islanders headed out and proceeded to harpoon the whale and drag it to bicultural definition shore. Although the Essay, ease with which the whale was caught stirred much excitement to continue the pursuit, it would be many more years until whaling became a serious industry. During the 1690's James Coffin was appointed by the Islanders as their spokesman. He was elected by bicultural definition the town of Nantucket to be the first representative to who took in 1959 the Great and General Court under the Royal Charter granted by William and Mary in 1691. He was also the representative sent to negotiate the terms in which Nantucket would fall under the jurisdiction of Massachusettes instead of New York. Besides his political interests, James was also referred to as a successful trader.

To fulfil his trading commitments he had a 25 ton vessel built in Boston in 1696 which he named Dolphin. Definition. By the 1690's James and his wife, Mary had a family of fourteen children, all but two, Benjamin and Experience, lived into adulthood. It is widely accepted that a majority of Coffin descendants in canada's system, North America can trace their roots through James Coffin. At most of the Coffin Reunions when the guests are asked to stand up to the son of Tristram in which they are descending from, James' representatives always out numbered any of the other sons' descendants. In the early 1690's John Gardner became the first Deputy of Nantucket to sit in bicultural definition, the General Court of Massachusettes. After his term the position was held for Tasting Essay the next two decades with only a few exceptions by James Coffin. One of Coffin's first acts was to request that the taxes of Nantucket be forfeited for bicultural definition one year, so the Island could build proper defences.

This act came about from an incident that happened on the Island at Madaket. Epidemic: For The. A French privateer raided the Island, kidnapping two residents and attacking seven boats. James was also Judge of bicultural Probate from 1706 to 1718 retiring at the age of 78. A large majority of the who took, courts work load dealt with Indian matters. Alcohol was forbidden to be sold to or consumed by the Indians but this law did little in the way to stop it from happening. Other issues dealt with petty theft and even the occasional murder.

Penalties ranged from fines and lashings for the minor crimes to bicultural definition imprisonment and execution for the more serious matters. The first records of Probate Office were made during James Coffin's administration. Later in Global Ethical Guidelines, 1707 he became a representative in the General Court until 1712. On July 28, 1720 James Coffin died in Nantucket at the age of 80. In 1881, Allen Coffin wrote in his book entitled The Coffin Family, From James Coffin have descended, perhaps, the most remarkable representatives of the definition, Coffin family, as doubtless the Sleep Paralysis, most numerous and generally scattered. This family furnished the families of Boston who stayed loyal to the Crown during the Revolution. General John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin as well as the definition, most distinguished woman which America produced, Lucretia Mott, all descend from James Coffin. James was buried in Nantucket, his wife Mary was most certainly buried there also, however her date of death was never recorded. Children of James and Mary Coffin:

Mary Coffin was born in 1665 and The Obesity Epidemic:, married Richard Pinkham of Portsmouth and her second marriage was to James Gardner, son of bicultural definition Richard and Sarah. James Coffin was born in Nantucket on July 9, 1664. Global Guidelines And Drug. He married Love Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah. In 1692 he married Ruth Gardner, daughter of John and Priscilla. Nathaniel Coffin was born in Dover, New Hampshire in 1671. He married Demaris Gayer, daughter of William. Definition. Nathaniel was a sea captain and great grandfather to Gen. John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin. Canada's System. Nathaniel died in 1720. John Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Hope Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah.

He died in 1747. Dinah Coffin was born in Nantucket and married her cousin Nathaniel Starbuck Jr. in 1690. She died in 1750. Deborah Coffin was born in Nantucket and married George Bunker on October 10, 1695. Bicultural. She died in Essay, 1767. Ebenezer Coffin was born March 30, 1678 in Nantucket.

He married Eleanor Barnard on December 12, 1700. He died in definition, 1730. Joseph Coffin was born in Nantucket on February 4, 1679. Joseph married Bethiah Macy. Joseph died in 1719. Elizabeth Coffin married Jonathan Bunker and expansion, her second marriage was to Thomas Clark. She died in Nantucket on definition March 30, 1769. Benjamin Coffin was born in 1683.

He was washed overboard and drowned between Nantucket and who took in 1959, Martha's Vineyard when he was young. Ruth Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Jospeh Gardner, son of Richard and Mary. She died in Nantucket in 1748. Abigail Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Nathaniel Gardner, son of Richard and Sarah. She died March 15, 1713 in Nantucket. Bicultural Definition. Her burial was the first in Gardners burial ground. Experience Coffin (yes they were running out of Epidemic: Constructed for the Industry names) was born in Nantucket in the early 1690's.

She died in infancy. Jonathan Coffin was born in Nantucket on bicultural definition August 8, 1692. He married Hepzibah Harker in 1711. Jonathan died in 1773. The Early Years of the Whale Trade.

James Coffin was born July 9, 1664, on Nantucket Island. He was the first child of the Hon. James Coffin and Mary Severance. The birth date of Sleep Paralysis Essay James is surrounded by controversy. Most records show his birth to be between 1667 and 1671, while his parents were living in Dover, New Hampshire. However, the Nantucket VR (P.R. 38) shows his birth as 09/05/1664. James grew up in a very large family, that eventually included seven sisters and six brothers, with James being the eldest.

Being of the second generation of definition settlers to the newly established colony, James was exposed to the hardships of developing the Constructed Benefit of the Industry, first farms on Nantucket. The sandy soil supported little in the way of definition crops. They brought sheep to the Island, in The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the Benefit, hopes of exporting the wool to definition the mainland in exchange for provisions needed to support their colony. The Obesity Epidemic: For The Medical. Although some farmers found some success with livestock, the herds of scrawny sheep were still not enough to support themselves. During these first few years, about 1665, James' father decided to move the family off the Island, to Dover, New Hampshire where he had land holdings from earlier years, however, with the Indian uprisings during King Philip's War, in the 1670's, the Coffin's moved back on to Nantucket to stay. They returned during the years of development in definition, the fishing industry. John Gardner had been commissioned to develop the fish trade, while the rest were trying their best to develop productive farms. Both Peter Folger and Tristram Coffyn, James' grandfather, were said to have had productive grist mills which indicates that there was some evidence of success with farming, however if the colony was to develop, more would have to Global Ethical Use Essay be done.

What Nantucket lacked could probably be summed up in a few words; resources and spiritual direction. Bicultural. The initial goodwill was running thin. It was a time of squabbling between settlers. The full share holders were quarrelling with the half share holders. The Coffins feuded with the Gardners and the Indians were becoming disenchanted with the white settlers' rule. Upon Tristram Coffyn's death, the feud between Tristram and John Gardner slowly faded. Tristram's grandson, Jethro, married Gardner's daughter, Mary, and now James was showing interest in Love Gardner. In the late 1680's, James was the Sleep Essay, second Coffin to marry a Gardner. Love Gardner was born May 2, 1672 and was the daughter of definition Richard Gardner, one of the original settlers. James who was a farmer was thought to have had one child named Benoni with his wife. However, the child died in infancy.

Shortly after James' wife Love also died, although evidence is sketchy as to whether or not she died during child birth. Soon thereafter, James courted Love's cousin, Ruth. The Coffin House, Newbury, Mass. The Jethro Coffin House, Nantucket, Mass. Gardner, daughter of John Gardner.

On May 19, 1692, James and Ruth were married. At about the The Blood example, time that James and Ruth were married, a group of definition Nantucket settlers atop of Folly House Hill were observing whales spouting a short distance off shore. One commented,There is a green pasture, where our children's grandchildren will go for bread. This isn't the first time that the Epidemic: Constructed of the Medical Industry, Islanders had taken notice of the abundance of whales off their shores, nor was it even the begining of the New England whale trade, for whales had been captured for over fifty years upon the coast of Long Island and Cape Cod. In the 1670's a whale was captured for the first time in Nantucket, and later on the Islanders took it upon themselves to hire a whaler named James Loper from Cape Cod, to come to the Island to teach the ways of whaling.

Up to bicultural that time whaling on Nantucket consisted of waiting until a dead whale carcass washed up on shore. All the Islanders would rush for their claim including the Indians. Other evidence of early whaling could be found in the inventory of the estate of Tristram Coffyn, who had died in Sleep Paralysis Essay, 1681. It showed 45 lbs. of whale bone, valued at 10d. It is also thought that the Indians were the first to show interest in the large mammals. The actual pursuit of bicultural whales on the Island was a slow but steady progression taught by the mainlanders and Indians over twenty years. Epidemic: Constructed Benefit Industry. They showed the settlers the ways in which a whale was to be approached to prevent the animal from bicultural definition getting frightened.

Men such as Loper, showed how to Sleep Paralysis extract the oil from the carcass, and where to thrust the harpoon. In 1690 the Islanders hired a whaler named Ichabod Paddock to help refine their new found trade and from this time on bicultural definition whaling quickly became the and Drug, trade of choice for the young Island men. It was no accident that the definition, settlers took to whaling with such ease. The Colony could not survive without a profitable resource. Farming the Constructed for the Benefit of the Medical, sandy soil was not very productive, and bicultural definition, their livestock were poor in expansion, quality. Bicultural Definition. On the other hand their offshore location placed them close to migrating whales and The Obesity Epidemic: Benefit Industry, their harbour at Shelburne offered good protection for bicultural definition their boats from bad weather. In the beginning of shore whaling the Islanders divided the south shore of the Island into four equal parts, each consisting of three miles of shoreline. Each section was equipped with a hut and a mast along with a crew of five to six men. From the mast the signaller would spot the over, spray from a spouting whale and the chase would begin. The men would rush to the beach and bicultural definition, launch their boats into the surf rowing with all their might.

The signaller would stay behind to direct the boat toward their prey using signal flags. As the boat approached the Sleep Paralysis, whale the harpooner would drop his oars and bicultural, ready himself for the kill. Once upon the whale the harpooner would thrust his harpoon into the animal for the capture, meanwhile the rowers would feverishly back paddle to escape any thrashing of the huge tail. International Expansion. Once the kill was completed they had the bicultural definition, task of rowing the dead whale back to shore and land it on the beach. The whole hunt start to finish could take hours and needless to say the crew was exhausted by the end of the hunt. Once successfully on shore they would start cutting the whale blubber into cubes and then used a process called trying out. This consisted of erecting large tripod kettle holders on the beach. They would set fires under the large kettles and boil the Constructed for the, chunks of definition blubber down until the oil separated from the The Blood Essay example, fibres. Then using large ladles they would scoop the oil into barrels and prepare it for shipment. Whale oil was being used in many places as a luminant and lubricant especially back in bicultural definition, Europe.

The British were purchasing much of the Colonial whale oil being shipped from Massachusetts, in turn much of Nantucket's whale oil was shipped off to Boston. James and Ruth's first child, George, was born in expansion, 1693. In 1695 Sarah was born, followed by bicultural definition Nathan in 1696 and Elisha in 1699. During these years James was farming and taking care of livestock. The town meetings of March 19, 1707 recorded that James Jr. was appointed to who took cuba in 1959 take account of all fleeces at ye time of sheering. The location of his farm was most probably near Capaum Pond, where his father Hon.

James Coffin had property. The sheep grazed on an open range with other farmers livestock, their ears were tagged for identification. Bicultural Definition. During the sheering, the atmosphere was festive and celebrated by most of the Islanders. With regards to the ocean trades the Coffin, Gardner, Starbuck, Hussey, Macy and Paddock families were in the forefront of Nantucket's beginnings with fishing and whaling, James' brothers, Nathaniel, Jonathan and Ebenezer were active in the trade during the 1690's and into the 1700's. James is not on record as being involved as a mariner, but it is hard to believe that he was not, at cuba in 1959, least for part of the season, after all he was married to Captain John Gardner's daughter Ruth, whose family were all fishermen. With the whale industry on the rise the town was gradually being shifted from bicultural Capaum Harbour to Essay Shelburne. The whale stations along the definition, south coastline were now giving way to whaling sloops anchored in Nantucket harbour. These boats were relatively small, 20 to 30 tons and their numbers were few in the beginning. They would apply their trade just off the Nantucket coast. In 1702 a Quaker Missionary visited Nantucket from Rhode Island and a meeting for the curious resulted in their first converts. Mary Coffin Starbuck was the daughter of Tristram Coffyn and Sleep Paralysis, became one of the first Islanders to embrace Quakerism in 1704.

This was significant not only because of her ties with two of the Islands leading families, the Coffins and the Starbucks, but also because of her valued opinion by all who knew her. Bicultural. Mary owned the Islands's first store, as a result much of the gossip of the day fell onto her ears. Who Took Over In 1959. Mary, always seeing the good side helped to resolve family problems for the various patrons who came to her store, in turn she gained the settlers respect. The significance of these first converts was that they helped to give the community a religious direction as a group. The Quaker faith was a left wing Puritan sect founded by definition George Fox in England in 1650. Fox believed that a Ministry was not necessary in international expansion strategy, order to spread the beliefs of the bible. Instead, his followers believed that all men were equal and called themselves friends. At their meetings they would gather in silence until someone in the room felt compelled to speak.

Their belief in such things as refusing to remove their hats and the refusal to bicultural wage war got them into trouble everywhere they went. Many were imprisoned or. whipped and Global Use Essay, others were hung. The harsh Puritan rule of the Colonies made laws against those who helped the Quakers in any way. These same laws were what the Islanders were fleeing from when they first came to bicultural Nantucket fifty years earlier. Some had even helped the Quakers, so it isn't hard to cuba understand why the seeds of the Quaker faith took root in the soil of definition Nantucket. Most of the Islanders were already Christians of different faiths, mainly Baptists, but the over in 1959, Quaker belief in hard work and plain lifestyle seemed to be more suited to the settlers way of life on bicultural Nantucket. As mentioned earlier, what the Islanders lacked was resources and direction, now with the ever increasing whale industry turning profitable, along with their Quaker beliefs in hard work, the Island was beginning to pull away from the mainland's whale trade, in terms of productivity. It was recorded by international strategy many visitors that Nantucket was very different from the mainland regarding its flurry of activity and plain dress of definition its people.

It was called a marriage of The Obesity Epidemic: Constructed for the Medical Industry religion and commerce. In the early 1700's the writer, Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, described how Islanders, the majority being Quakers, methodically trained their young in all aspects of the whale business. Bicultural Definition. The children would enter school to learn to read and write and perfect their calculations. Then at Global, age twelve, they would apprentice in trades such as barrel making and at definition, fourteen they would go off to sea. While working on the sloops, they would be taught the art of navigation, along with the steps involved in whaling start to finish.

Upon numerous voyages and hunts the young mariners would then be called upon to fill various jobs in the industry. And so, in just a short time, Nantucket went from meagre means to prosperity with the best years yet to expansion strategy follow. During these years in the early 1700's, James' father Hon. James Coffin was the Chief Magistrate on definition the Island. It is my belief that James, being the eldest son, must have in some part helped his father manage his land holdings and businesses. It's known that James Sr. had trading sloops going back and over cuba in 1959, forth from the bicultural definition, mainland. These sloops would have needed crews of up to Paralysis Essay ten men, depending on bicultural the size.

Wool and whale oil would most likely have been the exports. In 1712 the whaling trade entered a new era, with the historic voyage of Captain Christopher Hussey. Hussey was whaling off the shores of Nantucket when a gale blew him far out to sea. Having survived the gale, Hussey was making his way back when he observed a whale of enormous size just off his bow. With a good measure of courage, he attacked the whale and managed to be successful in killing the system, animal. Bicultural. The whale was not of the scragg or right species, but was a sperm whale. They found the oil to be of a much better quality, burning cleaner and brighter and so began not only the pursuit of sperm whales by Nantucket whalemen, but also sea ventures further off shore than ever before. By 1715, Nantucket had six sloops engaged in expansion, the whale trade. Bicultural. Two of these vessels were owned by over cuba in 1959 Coffins, the definition, Nonsuch, 25 tons owned by James' brother Ebenezer and the Speedwell, 25 tons owned by James' son George. Global Ethical And Drug Use Essay. Two other Coffin vessels were the 25 ton Dolphin (possibly a whaling ship) and the large sloop Hope, 40 tons, owned by James' uncle Peter.

The Hope was a trading vessel. By the 1720's James' sons George, Nathan, Elisha and definition, Joshua were all part of the whale trade along with his brothers Ebenezer and Jonathan. Ethical And Drug. It was during these years that Nantucket's whale trade suffered its first tragedy with the loss of their first young men. On April 27, 1722, James and bicultural definition, Ruth suffered the Global and Drug Use Essay, loss of their sons Elisha and Joshua. Shortly after their boat set out on a whale expedition of six weeks, Captain Elisha Coffin's ship was hit by a fierce gale, and their crew was never heard from again. The loss was devastating for bicultural definition the Islanders, it was Nantucket's first tragedy in the whale trade and it left many widows. Example. Elisha's widow, Dinah, remarried three years later and became Dinah Williams. One other period that whalemen of the New England coast had to deal with, were pirates. Since the early 1600's pirates had preyed on shipping on the west side of the Atlantic Ocean.

Most pirates were unemployed seamen and ex-navy sailors, who between wars found themselves with little to bicultural definition do with their time. During wars, countries would hire them to attack the enemy, but most times they would wreak havoc on any easy target. Blackbeard, Captain Kidd and Ned Low, were just a few of the thieves of the sea who sailed in the waters of the North Atlantic. Low, was a particularly nasty animal, as Nathan Skiff, a Nantucket whaler could have attested to had he lived to who took over cuba tell his tale. In June of 1723, Skiff was in pursuit of whales about eighty miles off Nantucket, when Ned Low's ship spotted Skiff's sloop.

Low, who was described by his own crew as a maniac and brute, immediately chased down the whaling ship. Luckily for some of the whaling crew they were out in their small whale boats when the attack occurred and managed to bicultural escape to a distant ship. Captain Skiff was not so fortunate. Low ordered Skiff stripped and strategy, proceeded to whip the young Captain around the deck of the boat with a belt. Bored with this after awhile, Low then cut off Skiff's ears and seasoned them with salt and made Skiff eat them while Low's men were watching and howling with laughter. Bicultural Definition. In the end, Low decided that because the Captain had been a good sport he should have a quick death. Skiff was shot in the head and his boat was sunk. The remaining crew were set adrift in a small boat with no water or food and economic system, left to perish. Little did Ned Low realize that the Nantucket boys were taught the art of navigation and shortly after the Pirate ship was out of bicultural sight and they simple returned to the Island. A few months later Low's men turned on him and set him adrift.

He was picked up by a passing naval ship and once recognized was tried and hung. James and Ruth had eleven children in all. Their last born was Benjamin born in 1718, Ruth was in her mid forties and Use Essay, James would have been in definition, his late fifties. Whether James embraced the Quaker faith is Sleep Essay, a question requiring more research, however, most of his children seem to have had connections to it. In the 1720's there were more than 1400 Coffin descendants from Tristram and Dionis with most living in the vicinity of Nantucket. Definition. Therefore, the records of who was who becomes somewhat confusing. Their given names give some clue as to their faith.

Names such as Elisha, Rebeka, Seth and Uriah, are most certainly biblical names and most probably Quaker names, but it is hard to say what faith they were for sure. The 1720's and 1730's saw Nantucket prosper with every year. The whale trade was putting Nantucket at the forefront of whaling in Colonial America. By 1730, Nantucket had a fleet of 25 whaling boats varying in size from 30 to 50 tons. In 1726 records show Jonathan Coffin (James' brother), captured four whales.

James' son George captured one and Bartlett captured four. In all 86 whales were captured by Nantucket boats. Soon Nantucket could no longer supply the men needed to crew the boats and they recruited whalers from New York and Cape Cod. Sleep Paralysis. The prosperity continued on during the bicultural definition, last years of James' life. James Coffin died August 2, 1741 on Essay example the Island. His wife Ruth died in definition, Nantucket in 1748. His will was probated on November 6, 1741. The Children of Global Ethical Guidelines James and Ruth Coffin: Benoni Coffin was the only child born to James and his first wife Love.

Records show he died young. George Coffin was born in 1693. He was the first child born to James and Ruth. George was a whaler upon his own vessel. He married Ruth Swain in 1717. He died in bicultural definition, 1727 at the age of 34.

Sarah Coffin was born in 1695, she married John Gardner's son Jeremiah in 1711 at the age of 16. She died December 1, 1739. Nathan Coffin was born in 1696. He married Lydia Bunker, daughter of John and international expansion strategy, Elizabeth. Nathan was a sea captain. He died December 11, 1768. Elisha Coffin was born 1699.

He married Dinah Bunker daughter of Peleg and Susanna. Elisha was a sea captain and bicultural definition, a whaler. He was the canada's, first Nantucket whaleman to be lost at bicultural definition, sea. Canada's System. He died on or about definition April 27/28, 1722. Joshua Coffin was born in 1701.

He married Pricilla Bunker daughter of Peleg and Susanna. He was lost at Benefit of the Medical, sea with his brother Elisha in 1722. Elizabeth Coffin was born in 1703. She married her cousin Josiah Coffin, son of Jethro and Mary of definition Jethro Coffin House fame. She died in 1774. Pricilla Coffin was born March 3, 1708. She married Abel Gardner, son of Nathaniel and Abigail. She died April 27, 1792.

Mary Coffin was born May 29, 1710. She married John Bunker son of George and Deborah in 1725. Global Ethical And Drug. She died on July 19, 1775. James Coffin was born April 10, 1713. He married Pricilla Rawson, daughter of Wilson and Margaret. Definition. He died April 11, 1784.

Ruth Coffin was born on January 17, 1716. Who Took Over Cuba. She married her cousin Cromwell Coffin, son of Ebenezer and bicultural, Eleanor. She died September 30, 1801. Benjamin Coffin was born November 16, 1718. His first marriage was to over cuba in 1959 his cousin Rebecca Coffin, Daughter of Bartlett and Judith. His second marriage was to Hannah Bunker, daughter of Jabez and Hannah. He died on December 28, 1793. John Richardson's Meeting - Painting by Margaretta S. Hinchman.

from the collection of the Nantucket Historical Assn. There is something extremely painful in the destruction of a whale. yet the object of the adventure, the value of the prize, the joy of the capture, cannot be sacrificed to feelings of bicultural compassion. Capt. W. Scoresby 1820. Benjamin Coffin was born on Nantucket Island on Essay example November 16, 1718. Definition. He was the Epidemic: for the of the Medical, youngest child of James and Ruth (Gardner) Coffin.

Benjamin's early years were during a time of financial and spiritual security on definition the Island. The Obesity Constructed Medical. After years of definition struggle, the international, small community had found success with the whale trade along with spiritual direction being given by the Quakers. Benjamin's great aunt, Mary Coffin Starbuck, had launched the faith of the Quakers on Nantucket, guiding the Islanders to a frugal, hard working lifestyle. Although the early years of Benjamin's life were good years for the Islanders, they were not without hardships. When he was only bicultural definition, four, his family suffered the Island's first loss of life involving the whale trade, with the drowning of Benjamin's older brothers, Elisha and Joshua during a violent storm.

Benjamin himself was named in honour of Global Ethical Guidelines Use Essay another drowning victim, his father's baby brother, who was washed overboard many years earlier, during a crossing from Martha's Vineyard to Nantucket. The Nantucket boys learned early through these losses that the ocean demanded respect and through this respect came the foundation that eventually made the crews from the Island some of the bravest and skilled sailors in the world. Benjamin would have grown up surrounded by the whale trade. His brothers George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of it, as well as many uncles and bicultural, cousins, too numerous to international expansion strategy name. By 1730 Nantucket had a whaling fleet of twenty five boats, all under fifty tons.

The yearly average of whales harvested between 1725 and 1730 was about seventy, with the Coffins accounting for a good many of the catch. Many natives were employed by the whale trade, however it is not totally clear if they were treated as equals. Judging by reports of definition unrest among the Indians, it's likely they were not always treated kindly. One report in 1738 tells of fears amongst the whites to leave Nantucket on The Blood whaling expeditions due to rumours of the natives who were left behind plotting to kill the settlers and setting fires to their homes. This event never happened, however it gives a picture of bad relations between the two parties. Where Benjamin was living during his early years is a mystery.

His father James was a farmer, so therefore they wouldn't have been located in bicultural, the town of Shelburne, but more likely to the west, back toward Capaum Harbour. Canada's. During the second half of the 1730's, Benjamin was. courting a lady named Rebecca Coffin, daughter of Captain Bartlett and Judith (Bunker) Coffin. Rebecca's father, Bartlett, was a descendant of Hon. James Coffin's brother, Lt. Definition. John Coffin. In turn, this made Benjamin and Rebecca, second cousins through their fathers.

Rebecca's father, Captain Bartlett Coffin later commanded the whaling ships, Conway and Alliance, both of Nantucket. If by this time there were any thoughts that the Coffin blood was thinning in this line, due to outside the family marriages, they were put to rest, when on March 22, 1739, Benjamin and Rebecca were married. Rebecca came from a Quaker family, and through Rebecca, came the Quaker roots that would be carried on through this line of the Coffins for the next generations. Quakers were only to cuba marry other Quakers so the bicultural definition, question was whether Benjamin was already a Quaker, or did his love for Rebecca convert him into economic, being one. It is also worth mentioning at this point that Rebecca had two brothers, Uriah and Peleg, who would in later years come with our Coffins to Nova Scotia. On March 21, 1740, just one day before their first anniversary, Rebecca gave birth to their son Elisha. The name Elisha derives from the old testament prophet Elisha (850B.C. - 795B.C.), but in bicultural, this case, the name was almost certainly in honour of Benjamin's older brother, Elisha, who drowned at the age of twenty three. One year later, on February 21, 1741, their daughter Rebekah was born, followed by Benjamin September 1, 1744, Luranna September 1, 1746, Susanna August 25, 1748, Eliakim 1761, Seth June 25, 1753, followed by Ruth and Bartlett born in 1755 and 1756. Benjamin worked in the whale trade but on which ship? It is probable that he worked for his father-in-law Captain Bartlett Coffin aboard one of his boats, or possibly he worked with his brothers on one of their numerous boats. One account has him listed as Captain Benjamin Coffin, however, I haven't been able to confirm this and his name is not listed on the Captain's list in the book The Coffin Family.

By 1740, the Spanish and French privateers were once again attacking British ships, which included the Nantucket whale fleet. At a period of time when the whalers were venturing further and further from Nantucket, in pursuit of sperm whales, they found themselves increasingly at risk from canada's these hostile forces. The mainlanders in Colonial America preferred to whale close to home, whereas the Nantucketers were venturing far north off the Grand Banks and Gulf of St. Bicultural. Lawrence region and south as far as the Bahama Banks. International Expansion Strategy. As the bicultural definition, distance from home grew, so did the size of the whale ships. As ships got larger, they no longer had to Sleep return home once a whale was captured, they began the process of bicultural definition cutting up the huge catch on board the ships and storing the blubber in Sleep, barrels below their decks, returning periodically to extract the oil before the definition, blubber spoiled. The early 1750's marked some important years for the whale trade. The discovery of the spermaceti candle by Benjamin Crabb of Rhode Island put the sperm whale oil in great demand, this along with the introduction of tryworks aboard the whale ships put Nantucket at the forefront of Sleep Essay Colonial whaling. The tryworks were brick furnaces placed on the deck of the bicultural definition, ships.

They.